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1.
西山村滑坡位于地震活动性剧烈的龙门山地区,这个区域有大量的滑坡在汶川地震中被触发,此后西山村滑坡发生持续变形.为了监测该滑坡体的运移和局部破裂产生的微弱的地震信号,由微震事件获取滑坡滑动和变形模式,2015年八月底至十一月底,我们在滑坡上布置了30套地震仪.首先通过信号到时和波形特征把滑坡上的微震信号从人类活动产生的信号和滑坡体以外的区域地震信号区分开来.然后以识别到的微震波形为模板,用滑动时窗互相关的方法匹配其他的微震事件.结果表明,96个微震事件能被30个台站都记录到.通过对这些事件的定位,我们发现大部分(80个)能被所有台站记录到的事件发生在滑坡的底部,其他的少部分(16个)发生在滑坡的顶部.这意味着有相当多的能量积聚在滑坡的顶部和底部,而滑坡的底部则更活跃.除此外,在滑坡的中部有较多更微弱的事件被周围的部分仪器记录到.基于这些微震事件的位置,我们发现四个辐射地震信号的不稳定区域和钻孔监测到的不稳定区域比较吻合.这些辐射地震信号的不稳定区域应该和滑坡体的运动和内部变形相关.由此表明,地震学方法也是监测滑坡的变形的有效手段,是现有监测手段的有力补充.  相似文献   

2.
地震学是利用地震波的传播特性来研究内部结构及震动源的一门学科,在获取滑坡体物性参数、监测其变化,以及探测滑坡发育过程中的变形和微破裂等信息具有天然的优势,这些信息对于滑坡的监测、治理、以及预警至关重要.本文调研了国内外近年来地震学手段在滑坡监测中的应用,分为滑坡体结构研究、滑坡发育过程中滑坡震研究以及滑坡启动后的动态过程研究三部分,主要概括了其原理及结论.调研结果表明,结合密集台阵长时间观测,地震学方法可以有效地获取滑坡体三维结构,局部及内部的变形、破裂情况,以及滑坡发生后的动力学过程.滑坡物性参数变化和滑坡震活动性异常等可能是滑坡灾害发生前的前兆信号,能被地震学手段获取.  相似文献   

3.
2014年8月3日鲁甸MS6.5地震触发了大量的滑坡崩塌,其中,位于鲁甸县李家山村和巧家县红石岩村交界处的牛栏江干流北岸的红石岩滑坡规模巨大,与此处位于左岸的红石岩古滑坡体的前缘部分一起堵塞了牛栏江而形成高达120m、体积达1 200×104m3的大型堰塞体。通过震后开展的野外实地调查,获得了红石岩滑坡发生处的地形地貌、地质构造、岩体结构及物质组成等资料。以这些第一手资料为基础,构建了红石岩滑坡的边坡模型,并应用边坡稳定性分析软件Geo Studio中Slope/W模块分别计算了红石岩滑坡体震前坡体安全系数和地震作用下的坡体安全系数。结果表明,红石岩滑坡体发生处的坡体安全系数在地震前为1.450,处于相对稳定状态,而鲁甸地震的地震动作用则使坡体的安全系数降低至0.962,直接导致红石岩坡体的失稳。文中进一步讨论了坡体滑动面的存在与否对坡体稳定性的影响:安全系数计算的结果表明,在中强地震作用下,先存滑动面的存在是导致大型滑坡形成的重要条件;对于高陡岩质边坡,如果没有先存滑动面,只可能形成浅表性滑坡。  相似文献   

4.
远震接收函数已广泛用于反演台站下方的结构,然而由于地球的非弹性衰减作用,远震数据较难获得高频接收函数,对浅地表结构约束不足.为了克服这一问题,我们使用近震数据的高频接收函数来研究浅表速度结构,并应用于四川理县西山村滑坡体上3个宽频带地震仪记录到的近震事件.本文发展了接收函数V_P-k(V_P/V_S)叠加方法,结合接收函数H-k叠加和波形反演方法获得了台站下方滑坡体的厚度、S波速度和平均V_P/V_S比,并与钻孔得到的滑坡体厚度进行对比.结果表明,滑坡体具有小尺度的横向不均匀性,台站下方滑坡体的平均V_P/V_S比在2.4~3.1之间变化并且在底层存在78~143m·s~(-1)左右的S波低速层.本文观测到的高V_P/V_S比和底层低的S波速度结构,与电磁法获得的滑坡体底层低的电阻率和底部富水特征一致,表明滑坡体h1底界面的抗剪强度相对较弱,是潜在的滑坡危险区域.本文研究结果表明,利用近震接收函数能有效约束浅表的速度结构,进而能为滑坡灾害治理提供一定的地震学参考.  相似文献   

5.
王泽兰 《高原地震》2023,(3):16-20+34
通过对比分析昭通巡龙测震台记录的重型地面平整机施工事件和微震记录的波形特征差异,认为:强夯土事件释放能量当量相当于ML0.6~1.4级地震,P波初动向下、能量衰减快、波形持续时间短,P/S振幅小于天然地震,两者记录的频谱特征差异较大;微震震相明显,强夯土事件震相不明显。通过分析强夯土事件与微震波形特征差异,可以为非天然地震和天然地震分类识别提供依据。  相似文献   

6.
分析矿震破裂机制及微震的时空分布能够为矿区灾害评估提供更多的有效信息.本研究基于密集台阵观测对2019年11月12日辽宁抚顺2.4级矿震开展震源参数研究,震源机制解显示地震破裂包含明显的非双力偶分量,表现为体积压缩的塌陷机制,且震源深度较浅,最佳拟合矩心深度为0.6 km.同时,对11月3日—25日记录的连续地震波形开展微震扫描,新检测出324个微震事件(-0.5~2.0级),定位结果显示在M 2.4矿震发生前M>1.0级事件显著增多,且在矿震位置存在近南北向的微震条带分布,微震序列随时间向深部迁移(约1.5 km),暗示存在断层活化迹象.结合震源破裂机制,我们认为此次事件与矿区塌陷破裂密切相关,同时伴随先存断裂的剪切滑动.本研究表明,基于密集台阵观测的地震矩张量反演和微震检测研究,对判定矿震类型及防范矿区灾害具有重要的研究意义.  相似文献   

7.
利用地震背景噪声提取西山村滑坡高频面波信号   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
滑坡体三维速度结构为滑坡治理、灾害防治、风险防范以及理解滑坡的动力学过程提供了关键信息,而高频面波成像是研究浅层速度结构的重要手段.本文详细介绍了利用2016年12月1日在四川理县西山村滑坡上布设的38个仪器记录的三分量连续地震噪声数据,提取1~5Hz的基阶Love波和Rayleigh波经验格林函数,分析了不同参数和处理方法对背景噪声互相关计算结果的影响.结果表明,1天左右的连续波形记录裁剪至1200s的时间长度,进行互相关叠加就可以得到较为稳定的经验格林函数.西山村滑坡体上Love波和Rayleigh波的群速度分别为约400m·s-1和700m·s-1,并且Love波信噪比高于Rayleigh波.此外,我们还利用聚束分析方法对噪声源的位置进行了分析,发现1~5Hz的背景噪声主要来自滑坡东南侧附近杂谷脑河水的搬运作用.这些高频面波数据和噪声源位置为获取滑坡浅层三维速度结构提供了重要输入,同时也为研究滑坡体速度结构随时间的变化提供了基础.  相似文献   

8.
我国多山,滑坡灾害频繁发生,相应的滑坡稳定性分析也是一个重要研究课题.四川罗家青杠岭的滑坡现场非常典型,而且现场资料较全,是较好开展滑坡稳定性评价研究的实例.首先采用综合的勘察方法对该滑坡发育特征进行了详细调查,根据坡面岩土体性质的不同,将滑坡体划分为4个区域,并分析了滑坡的成因机制.然后基于FLAC3D软件,利用强度折减法对滑坡的稳定性进行模拟计算.通过建立三维数值计算模型和选取合理的计算参数,模拟得到了滑坡体天然和暴雨工况下的稳定性系数、剪应变增量云图等.通过计算和综合分析表明,滑坡变形较大的区域集中在坡体后缘残坡积区的两侧和崩坡积区后缘,滑坡在天然条件下处于稳定状态,在暴雨条件下处于欠稳定状态,坡体后缘左右两侧裂缝发育的区域很容易再次发生局部滑动,有必要采取相应的防灾减灾措施.  相似文献   

9.
震群活动时,短时间发生大量地震,不同地震事件的记录波形相互交叠影响,易造成地震目录的遗漏,对震群发震构造分析等研究带来不利的影响.本文针对2013年3月3日至5日在河北涿鹿发生的微震震群,利用匹配滤波技术,以地震台网观测目录所记录地震事件的波形为模板,在连续波形记录中搜索与模板相似的信号,从而检测台网目录遗漏的地震.利用波形互相关标定新检测到地震事件的P波和S波到时,进而对其震中位置和震级做出估计.计算结果显示,通过互相关扫描检测到52个地震台网常规分析遗漏的地震,约为地震目录给出的45个事件的1.16倍.检测到的遗漏地震震级估算为ML0.1~0.9,通过震级-频次统计分析,加入遗漏地震后地震目录的完整性在ML0.3~0.8范围内有较明显的改善.根据地震事件精定位结果,推测此次震群的发震构造为北西走向倾角较大的断层,施庄断裂为发震构造的可能性较大.  相似文献   

10.
在地震学研究中,高效的微震检测方法是既重要又具有挑战性的问题。本文对波形模板匹配检测方法、匹配定位技术、波形自相关检测技术进行详细介绍和对比,对国内外应用实例进行总结,并展望微震检测方法应用前景和发展趋势。利用基于图形处理器加速的匹配定位技术和双差地震定位法,对北京地区19个台站记录的2015年连续地震资料进行分析。基于中国地震台网中心提供的地震目录,筛选出245个地震事件作为模板事件,检测得到1229个地震事件,约为地震台网原始地震目录数量的5倍。精定位结果可显示小震沿黄庄-高丽营断裂周边小断裂分布形态特征,本文微震检测和定位结果可为研究北京地区地震活动性与发震断层深部构造提供基础数据支撑。  相似文献   

11.
基于前人研究成果以及现场的实测结果,采用卓资山露天钼矿微震监测项目产出资料,提取了5类微震事件的波形特征和时频特征。波形特征显示:微地震的振幅、辐射均匀性和频率变化特征表明微地震是由于岩层受到单力偶和剪切力作用破裂而产生;爆破具有P波初动方向向上、S波不易识别的特点,包含“初震段、主震段、尾波段”三段变化形态;小型边坡滑坡波事件属楔体滑坡,是由多个“加速—缓冲—终止”构成,波形是由包络线呈“V”字形的多组脉冲波列组成;机械开采震动事件具有自振能量不变、脉冲幅度相差很大、持续时间间隔不确定的特点;运输车辆波形振幅具有形态“弱—强—弱”、等频率、包络线呈多段纺锤形的特征。时频空间分布可以分为相对独立、界限分明的两类:一类包含微地震、爆破、机械开采、小型边坡滑坡事件,另一类只包含车辆运输事件。  相似文献   

12.
The extrapolation of results from field trials to larger areas of land for purposes of regional impact assessment is an important issue in geomorphology, particularly for landform properties that show high stochastic variability in space and time, such as shallow landslide erosion. It is shown in this study, that by identifying the main driver for spatial variability in shallow landslide erosion at field scales, namely slope angle, it is possible to develop a set of generic functions for assessing the impact of landslides on selected soil properties at larger spatial scales and over longer time periods. Research was conducted within an area of pastoral soft‐rock Tertiary hill country in the North Island of New Zealand that is subject to infrequent high intensity rainfall events, producing numerous landslides, most of which are smaller than several hundred square metres in size and remove soil to shallow depths. All landslides were mapped within a 0·6 km2 area and registered to a high resolution (2 m) slope map to show that few landslides occur on slopes < 20° and 95% were on slopes > 24°. The areal density of landslides from all historical events showed an approximately linear increase with slope above 24°. Integrating landslide densities with soil recovery data demonstrates that the average value of a soil property fluctuates in a ‘saw‐tooth’ fashion through time with the overall shape of the curve controlled by the frequency of landslide inducing storm events and recovery rate of the soil property between events. Despite such fluctuations, there are gradual declines of 7·5% in average total carbon content of topsoil and 9·5% in average soil depth to bedrock, since the time of forest clearance. Results have application to large‐scale sediment budget and water quality models and to the New Zealand Soil Carbon Monitoring System (CMS). Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   

13.
The intensity of rainfall events with potential to cause landslides has varying temporal characteristics. In this study, the time at which the 72-h accumulated rainfall reached its maximum was used to standardize the period of rainfall measurement. The proposed standardization of the rainfall period was used in conjunction with the return level of rainfall intensity, obtained from intensity–duration–frequency curves, to investigate rainfall intensity anomalies associated with 10 hazardous rainfall events that triggered numerous landslides at the regional scale in Japan. These landslides included shallow landslides in volcanic and non-volcanic areas, as well as deep-seated landslides. The rainfall events that triggered the shallow landslides were divided into two types: downpours that repeatedly reached close to the 100-year return level within approximately 3–4 h, and accumulated rainfall that reached close to 200–400 mm over longer time intervals but within 72 h. Lithological differences seemed unrelated to the differences between the two types of shallow-landslide-triggering rainfall; however, precipitation >1000 mm was necessary to trigger deep-seated landslides. Although the characteristics of the hyetographs differed markedly among the landslide-triggering rainfall events, all the landslides could have been triggered when the mean rainfall intensity reached the 100-year rainfall level during the standardized period. Thus, the landslide trigger can be evaluated indirectly based on the increase in the return level of the mean rainfall intensity, which could provide a means for estimating the time of landslide occurrence.  相似文献   

14.
汶川地震滑坡危险性评价——以武都区和文县为例   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
利用GIS技术详细研究汶川地震在甘肃省陇南市武都区和文县触发的滑坡地质灾害的分布规律及其与地震烈度、地形坡度、断层、高程、地层岩性的相关关系,采用基于GIS的加权信息量模型的崩塌滑坡危险性评价方法,对研究区的地震滑坡危险性进行学科分析。结果表明:极高危险区在高程上主要分布在集水高程区,高度危险区主要沿白水江、白龙江等主干河流两侧极高易发区的边界向两侧扩展,轻度和极轻度危险区面积占比较小,主要分布在低烈度、活动断裂不发育、人类活动微弱的高海拔地区,另外国道G215沿极高危险性区域分布明显;利用危险性等级分区结果统计人口公里格网数据,得到武都区和文县潜在影响人口,发现研究区约78万人将受到地震滑坡灾害的潜在影响。  相似文献   

15.
SBAS-InSAR technology is characterized by the advantages of reducing the influence of terrain-simulation error, time-space decorrelation, atmospheric error, thereby improving the reliability of surface-deformation monitoring. This paper studies the early landslide identification method based on SBAS-InSAR technology. Selecting the Jiangdingya landslide area in Zhouqu County, Gansu Province as the research area, 84 ascending-orbit Sentinel-1A SAR images from 2015 to 2019 are collected. In addition, using SBAS-InSAR technology, the rate and time-series results of surface deformation of the landslide area in Jiangdingya during this period are extracted, and potential landslides are identified. The results show that the early landslide identification method based on SBAS-InSAR technology is highly feasible and is a better tool for identifying potential landslides in large areas.  相似文献   

16.
The growing availability of digital topographic data and the increased reliability of precipitation forecasts invite modelling efforts to predict the timing and location of shallow landslides in hilly and mountainous areas in order to reduce risk to an ever‐expanding human population. Here, we exploit a rare data set to develop and test such a model. In a 1·7 km2 catchment a near‐annual aerial photographic coverage records just three single storm events over a 45 year period that produced multiple landslides. Such data enable us to test model performance by running the entire rainfall time series and determine whether just those three storms are correctly detected. To do this, we link a dynamic and spatially distributed shallow subsurface runoff model (similar to TOPMODEL) to an in?nite slope model to predict the spatial distribution of shallow landsliding. The spatial distribution of soil depth, a strong control on local landsliding, is predicted from a process‐based model. Because of its common availability, daily rainfall data were used to drive the model. Topographic data were derived from digitized 1 : 24 000 US Geological Survey contour maps. Analysis of the landslides shows that 97 occurred in 1955, 37 in 1982 and ?ve in 1998, although the heaviest rainfall was in 1982. Furthermore, intensity–duration analysis of available daily and hourly rainfall from the closest raingauges does not discriminate those three storms from others that did not generate failures. We explore the question of whether a mechanistic modelling approach is better able to identify landslide‐producing storms. Landslide and soil production parameters were ?xed from studies elsewhere. Four hydrologic parameters characterizing the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil and underlying bedrock and its decline with depth were ?rst calibrated on the 1955 landslide record. Success was characterized as the most number of actual landslides predicted with the least amount of total area predicted to be unstable. Because landslide area was consistently overpredicted, a threshold catchment area of predicted slope instability was used to de?ne whether a rainstorm was a signi?cant landslide producer. Many combinations of the four hydrological parameters performed equally well for the 1955 event, but only one combination successfully identi?ed the 1982 storm as the only landslide‐producing storm during the period 1980–86. Application of this parameter combination to the entire 45 year record successfully identi?ed the three events, but also predicted that two other landslide‐producing events should have occurred. This performance is signi?cantly better than the empirical intensity–duration threshold approach, but requires considerable calibration effort. Overprediction of instability, both for storms that produced landslides and for non‐producing storms, appears to arise from at least four causes: (1) coarse rainfall data time scale and inability to document short rainfall bursts and predict pressure wave response; (2) absence of local rainfall data; (3) legacy effect of previous landslides; and (4) inaccurate topographic and soil property data. Greater resolution of spatial and rainfall data, as well as topographic data, coupled with systematic documentation of landslides to create time series to test models, should lead to signi?cant improvements in shallow landslides forecasting. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   

17.
The 2013-04-20 Lushan earthquake(seismic magnitude Ms 7.0 according to the State Seismological Bureau)induced a large number of landslides.In this study,spatial characteristics of landslides are developed by interpreting digital aerial photography data.Seven towns near the epicenter,with an area of about 11.11 km2,were severely affected by the earthquake,and 703 landslides were identified from April 24,2013 aerial photography data over an area of 1.185 km2.About 55.56% of the landslide area was less than 1000 m2,whereas about 3.23 % was more than 10,000 m2.Rock falls and shallow landslides were the most commonly observed types in the study area,and were primarily located in the center of Lushan County.Most landslide areas were widely distributed near river channels and along roads.Five main factors were chosen to study the distribution characteristics of landslides:elevation,slope gradients,fault,geologic unit and river system.The spatial distribution of coseismal landslides is studied statistically using both landslide point density(LPD),defined as the number of landslides(LS Number)per square kilometer,and landslide area density(LAD),interpreted as the percentage of landslides area affected by earthquake.The results show that both LPD and LAD have strong positive correlations with five main factors.Most landslides occurred in the gradient range of 40°-50° and an elevation range of 1.0-1.5 km above sea level.Statistical results also indicate that landslides were mainly formed in soft rocks such as mudstone and sandstone,and concentrated in IX intensity areas.  相似文献   

18.
A model‐based method is proposed for improving upon existing threshold relationships which define the rainfall conditions for triggering shallow landslides but do not allow the magnitude of landsliding (i.e. the number of landslides) to be determined. The SHETRAN catchment‐scale shallow landslide model is used to quantify the magnitude of landsliding as a function of rainfall return period, for focus sites of 180 and 45 km2 in the Italian Southern Alps and the central Spanish Pyrenees. Rainfall events with intensities of different return period are generated for a range of durations (1‐day to 5‐day) and applied to the model to give the number of landslides triggered and the resulting sediment yield for each event. For a given event duration, simulated numbers of landslides become progressively less sensitive to return period as return period increases. Similarly, for an event of given return period, landslide magnitude becomes less sensitive to event duration as duration increases. The temporal distribution of rainfall within an event is shown to have a significant impact on the number of landslides and the timing of their occurrence. The contribution of shallow landsliding to catchment sediment yield is similarly quantified as a function of the rainfall characteristics. Rainfall intensity–duration curves are presented which define different levels of landsliding magnitude and which advance our predictive capability beyond, but are generally consistent with, published threshold curves. The magnitude curves are relevant to the development of guidelines for landslide hazard assessment and forecasting. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   

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