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1.
该研究利用学术论文数据库筛选出中国鲤科鱼类游泳能力相关论文115篇,并用Origin软件进行了数据统计分析,旨在归纳和分析中国鲤科鱼类游泳能力并建立估算方法,可为正处于规划阶段和可行性研究阶段的过鱼设施流速设计提供依据.结果表明:(1)鱼类游泳速度与鱼体长度具有显著的非线性相关关系,据此建立了一系列幂函数经验公式,可为游泳能力和过鱼设施研究及设计提供依据.(2)依据所得到的经验公式和协方差分析可知,喜流水型鲤科鱼类的游泳能力>广适型>喜静水型.根据该研究得到的经验公式并结合行业规范和文献资料,对正处于规划阶段和可行性研究阶段过鱼设施流速设计的建议如下:西南地区以裂腹鱼成鱼为主要过鱼对象的过鱼设施进鱼口吸引流速范围为0.61~0.76 m/s,通道内最高流速阈值为1.28 m/s;长江中下游以四大家鱼成鱼为主要过鱼对象的进鱼口吸引流速范围为0.76~0.93 m/s,通道内最高流速阈值为1.49 m/s,以四大家鱼幼鱼为主要过鱼对象的进鱼口吸引流速范围为0.42~0.62 m/s,通道内最高流速阈值可为0.82 m/s.  相似文献   

2.
为探讨红河(元江)流域的典型洄游鱼类游泳能力,给过鱼设施修建设计和鱼类行为学研究提供基础参数,本研究以该流域的野生暗色唇鲮(Semilabeo obscurus)、华南鲤(Cyprinus carpio rubrofuscus)和红魾(Bagarius rutilus)3种鱼类(体长范围0.05~0.45 m)为研究对象,在野外现场布置游泳能力测试水槽分别测试了感应流速、临界游泳速度和突进游泳速度.研究结果表明:(1)对比绝对游泳能力与体长相关性,3种鱼的相对游泳能力与体长的相关性更高,均呈显著负相关;(2)3种鱼之间的游泳能力存在差异,红魾的感应流速最大,为(0.10±0.01)m/s,华南鲤的临界游泳速度最大,为(0.66±0.01)m/s,华南鲤的突进游泳速度最大,为(1.48±0.18)m/s;(3)拟合趋流率与水流速度的相关曲线,所有测试鱼的趋流率与流速的函数关系为Pre=19.80V-1.13(R2=0.96,P<0.05),得出95%目标鱼的趋流速度为0.11 m/s;利用生存分析方法,得出95%目标鱼累积疲劳的临界和突进游泳速度分别为0.58、1.01 m/s.(4)当以暗色唇鲮、华南鲤和红魾为主要过鱼对象时,建议过鱼设施的内部流速不应小于0.1 m/s,入口的设计流速范围为0.6~1.0 m/s,休息区域的流速范围为0.1~0.6 m/s,孔口或竖缝等高流速区的设计流速不宜超过0.8 m/s,若过鱼设施孔口边壁或底部加糙,可适当增至0.8~1.0 m/s.本研究中红河(元江)流域鱼类游泳能力等资料为过鱼设施修建及珍稀鱼类保护提供了数据支撑.  相似文献   

3.
梯级小水电的开发一定程度上破坏了河流连通性并阻碍了鱼类洄游通道。黑水河流域松新坝址为了满足鱼类上行产卵修建了松新鱼道,然而作为洄游物种生命周期中的关键行为,鱼类下行洄游的需求也同等重要。为了寻求一种可行、高效、低损伤的下行过鱼方式,了解河流中不同环境因素对鱼类下行效率的影响,本研究在金沙江下游支流黑水河松新水电站补水通道开展鱼类下行过坝效果评估研究。针对两种鲤科鱼类(棒花鱼Abbottina rivularis和短须裂腹鱼Schizothorax wangchiachii)幼鱼和两种鳅科鱼类(短体副鳅Paracobitis potanini和红尾副鳅Paracobitis variegatus)幼鱼各放鱼90尾,定量分析鱼种、水体透明度、放鱼位置、流量、水温、水位等因素对鱼类下行效率的影响。结果表明:棒花鱼、短须裂腹鱼、短体副鳅、红尾副鳅的下行率依次为22.22%(20尾)、28.89%(26尾)、8.89%(8尾)、15.56%(14尾);幼鱼下行成功率与上游河道水温呈正相关趋势,且放鱼位置、鱼种、上游河道水温和流量均对鱼类下行成功率有显著影响。通过构建二元Logistic回归模型识...  相似文献   

4.
鱼类过坝后的上溯行为对鱼类寻找适宜的产卵、索饵等功能性栖息地至关重要。现阶段我国大多数研究聚焦于鱼类上溯通过鱼道的游泳行为量化,而过坝后的上溯行为分析鲜有报道。本研究在金沙江下游支流黑水河松新坝址处利用PIT(passive integrated transponder)遥测技术对松新电站过鱼对象短须裂腹鱼(Schizothorax wangchiachii)过坝后的上溯行为开展监测,考虑监测过程中水文情势变化对过坝后上溯行为的影响,采用生存分析方法,构建了耦合多因素(流量、水温、河道涨落水率、昼夜节律、肥满度等)的Cox风险比例回归模型,利用AIC模型准则筛选出最优模型参数,识别了影响鱼类过坝后上溯成功率的关键因素。结果表明:(1)短须裂腹鱼在松新鱼道的上溯效果显著优于河道;(2)水温及河道涨落率是影响短须裂腹鱼过坝后上溯效果的关键因素;(3)水温与短须裂腹鱼过坝后河道上溯成功率呈负相关,当水温超过短须裂腹鱼最适温度后,河道上溯成功率随着温度的上升呈递减趋势;河道涨落水率与短须裂腹鱼过坝后河道上溯成功率呈正相关,其中涨水情势下短须裂腹鱼河道成功上溯的概率高于落水,河道上溯成功率随着涨...  相似文献   

5.
松新鱼道建设是恢复金沙江白鹤滩库区鱼类生境替代支流——黑水河连通性的重要工程措施之一,其过鱼效果备受关注。本研究以黑水河松新鱼道为研究对象,通过网捕法和射频识别遥测技术(RFID)开展松新鱼道过鱼效果监测与评估研究。结果表明:(1)黑水河松新坝址下游共监测到19种鱼类,其中12种鱼类可以顺利通过鱼道抵达上游河道;(2)鱼道进出口鱼类多样性受到鱼类洄游动机影响呈现季节性规律,非洄游期(12月)鱼道进出口鱼类Shannon-Wiener多样性指数显著低于洄游期(次年3、5月);(3)松新鱼道主要过鱼对象短须裂腹鱼的进口吸引率为31.50%,通过率可达44.44%。利用张网监测数据发现:当水温超过20℃时,过鱼种类和数量随着水温的升高呈递减趋势;当鱼道内流量超过0.50 m3/s时,过鱼种类和数量随着鱼道内流量的增大而呈递减趋势。为识别影响鱼道过鱼效果的关键因素,选取短须裂腹鱼为研究对象,构建了基于多因素(鱼道内流量、水温、昼夜节律、pH、湿重、体长等)的Cox风险比例回归模型,研究发现:鱼道内流量、水温和昼夜节律是影响短须裂腹鱼上溯效果的关键因素;当水温变化范围为14...  相似文献   

6.
2016-2018年长江下游安庆江段四大家鱼仔稚鱼资源调查分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为探究长江安庆江段四大家鱼仔稚鱼资源现状及其丰度变化与水文因子之间的关系,于2016-2018年4-8月对该江段进行早期资源调查.调查期间共采集到四大家鱼仔稚鱼3178尾,其中以鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)和草鱼(Ctenopharyngodon idellus)为主,分别占家鱼捕捞总数的67.97%和23.03%.估算2016-2018年通过安庆江段的四大家鱼仔稚鱼径流量分别为21.70×108、14.62×108、12.05×108尾,呈现出逐年减少的趋势.家鱼仔稚鱼丰度自4月中旬呈波动性上升趋势,在7月中上旬达到高峰期.Kruskal-Wallis检验表明采样断面空间分布存在显著性差异,平均漂流密度为北岸(16.09 ind./100 m3) > 南岸(5.40 ind./100 m3) > 江心(3.43 ind./100 m3).GAM模型结果显示,对四大家鱼仔稚鱼丰度影响显著的水文因子为水温、透明度、水位日上涨率和径流量日上涨率,各因子相对重要性依次为水位日上涨率 > 透明度 > 水温 > 径流量日上涨率.其丰度与透明度呈负相关,与水温(24.0~27.3℃)、水位日上涨率和径流量日上涨率均呈正相关关系.本研究中GAM模型累积偏差解释率达到69.8%,较高程度上揭示了水文条件对家鱼仔稚鱼资源丰度的影响,为长江下游四大家鱼的苗汛预测及资源保护策略的制定提供科学依据.  相似文献   

7.
刘瀚  林俊强  秦鑫  黄晋  俞立雄  熊定松  普源 《湖泊科学》2023,35(5):1741-1751
为了改善生态调度效果,提高生态调度实践成功率,采用医学领域适用性广、准确性高、直观性强的受试者工作特征曲线法(receiver operating characteristic, ROC),以三峡水库为例,提出了一套基于生物水文响应模型的刺激四大家鱼繁殖生态调度目标量化方法,包括涨水事件界定及生态水文指标选择、鱼类自然繁殖事件及有效繁殖响应界定、生物-水文响应模型构建与多指标判别优选等多个环节。运用三峡水库运行后2013—2019年(除2016年)6年47场次宜昌江段的涨水事件和24次四大家鱼有效繁殖响应的实际观测数据构建模型并量化三峡水库生态调度目标。结果表明:(1)依据初始流量Q0、洪峰流量Qpeak、流量总增长量Qsum和流量日增长率dQ这4个指标所建立的单指标生物-水文响应模型具有较好判别四大家鱼自然繁殖对水文条件是否响应的能力;(2)各评价指标Q0QpeakQsum、dQ的最佳阈值分别为14960 m3/s、19610 m3/s、4050 m3/s及1405 m3/(s·d);单指标模型性能排序为dQQpeakQsumQ0;(3)依据dQQpeak的指标组合方式建立的多指标生物-水文响应模型综合性能最佳。结果表明,ROC模型方法结果形式简单、预见性强,据此量化生态调度目标,可为其他流域、水库的鱼类繁殖响应判别和水库生态调度方案制定提供参考借鉴。  相似文献   

8.
Knowledge of locomotion of fish near river confluences is important for prediction of fish distribution in a river network.The flow separation zone near the confluence of a river network is a favorite habitat and feeding place for silver carp,which is one of the four major species of Chinese carp and usually provides positive rheotaxis to water flow.In the current study,a series of laboratory experiments were done to determine the behavioral responses of juvenile silver carp to the hydrodynamic ...  相似文献   

9.
长江天鹅洲故道是长江江豚首个迁地保护区,其中充足而适口的饵料鱼类资源是长江江豚种群健康发展的保障。为此,根据2017年10月—2021年4月对长江天鹅洲故道进行的7次鱼类调查数据,结合禁捕前的历史数据,对其鱼类群落结构演变进行了分析,并针对长江江豚饵料鱼的供应状况对天鹅洲故道内鱼类资源管理提出了建议。调查期间,共采集到鱼类57种,其中,蒙古鲌(Culter mongolicus)、鲢(Hypophthalmichthys molitrix)和鳙(Aristichthys nobilis)等大中型鱼类生物量明显增加,而?(Hemiculter leucisculus)和似鳊(Pseudobrama simoni)等小型鱼类生物量呈现下降趋势。鱼类群落优势种逐渐由太湖新银鱼(Neosalanx taihuensis)、短颌鲚(Coilia brachygnathus)和?等小型鱼类转变为鳙、蒙古鲌和拟尖头鲌(Culter oxycephaloides)等大中型鱼类,尤其是新近出现的拟尖头鲌种群发展迅速。同时,短颌鲚和?等小型鱼类的体重在减小,而鲢、鳙等大中型鱼类规格在持续提高。长江江豚以小...  相似文献   

10.
链、镛放养使微型生态系统的水柱氮、磷浓度和磷的分布发生了明显的变化。至实验结束时,各实验组的水柱颗粒磷、总磷和氨氮浓度都比对照组高,而正磷酸盐浓试和沉积物磷的量均低于对照组。这种变化以鳙单养系统为最大,其次是链、镛混养系统,链单养系统的变化最小。微型生态系统中正磷酸盐浓度同浮游动、植物密度和初级生产力显著相关,氨氮浓度同所述变量之间的相关关系则多半与正磷酸盐相反。实验观测期间浮游植物密度与总磷浓度  相似文献   

11.
12.
The lake investigated (Lake Heiliger See near the town of Angermünde, North-East Germany) is small (10.2 ha) but deep (zmax = 12 m, ? = 6.5 m). During summer the thermocline is at a depth of 4-5 m, and the hypolimnion is filled with H2S already by mid-June, making 60-75% of the bottom area inaccessible to fish. The native fish fauna is dominated by planktivorous roach (Rutilus rutilus). A test stocking of silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix) together with an unplanned and erroneous stocking of common carp (Cyprinus carpio), coupled with an incorrectly calculated strong stocking of eel (Anguilla anguilla), which assumed that the total lake area yielded fish food organisms, brought about a strong depression of the food biomass available to native fish. Both silver carp and common carp showed a pattern of behaviour which only partly agreed with results obtained in experimental ponds prior to lake stocking. At least for 10 years there was a very low zooplankton biomass (mostly below 1 mg/l fresh weight) caused by silver carp and a strongly reduced benthos biomass (frequently below 1 g/m2 fresh weight) caused by common carp and eel on H2S-free bottom areas. Despite this extreme situation, which lasted for 20 years and is rarely found in lakes elsewhere, it was not possible to demonstrate negative effects on the native fish fauna comprising 16 species. Also the dominance pattern seems uninfluenced in the long run. A strong decline of the catchable roach stock was observed for some years, but the stock reappeared soon in comparable quantity. During the time of roach stock depression the individual growth of roach (and common carp) was particularly low. Nevertheless, roach succeeded in reproduction during this time in spite of the reduced zooplankton and detritus concentrations. Fry numbers per year ranged from 500-15 000 individuals/ha. The pike perch (Stizostedion lucioperca) was perhaps the most endangered species of all those living at small population numbers in the lake, since its fry is confined to the limnion where competition from silver carp and adult roach and perhaps predation by roach is highest. However the pike perch stock remained unchanged at the low level of 1950, the time prior of carp and eel stocking. All other rare species of Lake Heiliger See spawn in the littoral zone where fry survival conditions were less impacted. In summary, we present more evidence that the fish fauna of cyprinid lakes is more robust than in salmonid lakes. The regulation capacity of fish communities of eutrophic lakes seems to be able to offset even severe direct and indirect influences of fisheries management.  相似文献   

13.
鲫(Carassius auratus)是我国各类淡水水体的优势鱼类之一.作为底栖杂食性鱼类,一方面,鲫可以通过排泄和扰动沉积物影响湖泊营养和光照水平,通过"上行效应"促进浮游植物生长;另一方面,鲫也可以捕食浮游动物,通过"下行控制"影响藻类生长以及营养盐循环.对于浅水湖泊,两种途径对于生态系统影响的相对重要性仍有待研究.本研究设计了一个两因素户外中宇宙实验,通过在沉积物表面添加隔网的方式,比较两种情况下(能、否接触沉积物),鲫对水体浊度、营养盐和浮游生物生物量的影响.实验在16个大型钢化玻璃桶(400 L)中进行,持续36 d(2019年8月6日—9月11日).研究结果表明:1)在能接触沉积物的条件下,鲫显著促进了沉积物再悬浮,表现为水体的总悬浮物(TSS)和无机悬浮物(ISS)浓度大幅升高;水体的光衰减系数(Kd)增加,总氮(TN)和总磷(TP)浓度明显升高; 2)在不能接触沉积物的条件下,鲫对水体悬浮物(TSS和ISS)浓度和Kd的影响不明显,但是显著降低了水体TN和TP浓度; 3)在两种情况下,鲫对浮游植物叶绿素a浓度以及浮游动物生物量的影响均不显著.本研究表明鲫只有在能够接触沉积物的条件下,才会显著提高水体浊度和营养水平.因此,在缺乏沉水植被的浅水湖泊中,鲫扰动沉积物产生的"上行效应"可能是其对生态系统产生负面影响的主要途径.  相似文献   

14.
Reproductive migration is an essential phase in the life of many fish. During this process, swimming behaviour and gonad development are key factors related to the migration quality, and both factors are strongly influenced by water temperature and flow velocity. Many studies have explored the separate effects of these variables on fish swimming ability or gonad development, but researchers have seldom investigated the simultaneous effects of low flow velocity and water temperature on the fish swimming behaviour and gonad development. To provide that knowledge, we conducted laboratory experiments that explored the coupled effects of low water temperature and flow on warm water fish swimming behaviour and gonad development. At five temperatures (16, 18, 20, 22, and 24°C), we observed the movement of migratory warmwater grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) at seven flow velocities (0.15, 0.2, 0.25, 0.3, 0.35, 0.40, and 0.45 m/s), then explored their gonad development by comparing the level of plasma 17β-estradiol and testosterone in fish travelling through a simulated fish way (flow stimulation) and in a fish tank (no flow stimulation). We used Bayesian networks to explore the acceptable hydrological condition for fish migration. We found that the minimum flow velocity for acceptable migration quality is a function of the water temperature, and that increasing water temperature improves fish movement success and increases the movement distance, especially at a low flow velocity. In addition, increasing water temperature (between 16 and 24°C in this experiment design) can enhance the effect of flow stimulation on gonad development. Overall, our results can broaden the understanding of reducing water temperature and flow velocity in fish swimming behaviour and gonad development, provide basic data to support hydrological process controls and the development of measures to protect fish migration.  相似文献   

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