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1.
为了解黄、渤海浮游动物群落特征, 利用2014年春季在黄、渤海采集的浮游动物样品, 对浮游动物的种类组成、丰度、生物量、优势种和生物多样性进行分析, 分析浮游动物群落结构与环境因子间的相关关系, 并划分了浮游动物群落。共记录浮游动物78个种类(南黄海69种、北黄海42种、渤海47种), 浮游幼虫占比最高。研究海域的浮游动物平均丰度为3 183.8±7 829.7 ind./m3, 剔除夜光虫(Noctiluca scintillans)后, 平均丰度为537.3±554.2 ind./m3; 平均生物量为409.1±517.5 mg/m3。夜光虫、中华哲水蚤(Calanus sinicus)和强壮箭虫(Sagitta crassa)是黄、渤海的共同优势种。结合香农-威纳指数和累积优势度曲线分析, 渤海浮游动物的生物多样性最低, 北黄海次之, 南黄海的多样性最高。聚类分析表明, 研究海域浮游动物群落可划分为渤-黄海沿岸群落、黄海中部群落和南黄海-东海近岸混合水群落。相关性分析显示, 研究海域与浮游动物群落结构相关性最高的环境因子组合为温度、盐度和叶绿素a浓度。  相似文献   

2.
以2015年5月(春季)和10月(秋季)在日照岚山港北作业区邻近海域进行的浮游动物调查数据为例,分析了该海域浮游动物的群落结构特征.调查海域两季共发现浮游动物成体20种,浮游幼虫7类,其中春季成体12种,浮游幼虫4类,秋季成体19种,浮游幼虫6类;春、秋两季调查浮游动物平均丰度分别为128.1 ind./m3、103....  相似文献   

3.
为掌握黄河口邻近水域中小型浮游动物的现状并弥补此类重要浮游生物类群在以往调查研究中的欠缺, 于2010 年9 月在黄河口及其邻近海域用浅水Ⅱ型浮游生物网采集了浮游动物样品, 分析了中小型浮游动物的种类组成、丰度分布、优势种、生物多样性及群落结构。本次调查共鉴定浮游动物成体48 种, 浮游幼虫21 类, 桡足类和水螅水母为最主要的浮游动物类群, 分别占浮游动物成体种数的37.5%和20.8%。浮游动物丰度为2 300.1~266 232.0 个/m3, 平均丰度为37 074.3 个/m3。优势种(类)8种, 分别为夜光虫、强额拟哲水蚤、小拟哲水蚤、背针胸刺水蚤、异体住囊虫、桡足类无节幼虫、双壳类幼体以及腹足类幼体, 其中夜光虫为研究水域最主要优势种。对各站位物种组成和丰度进行分析,调查水域中小型浮游动物可划分为4 个组群, 各组群的分布格局受到水温、盐度和海流的共同影响。该研究为此水域生态系统的长期变化研究提供了重要基础资料和参考依据。  相似文献   

4.
本研究基于2017年秋季在渤海湾海域以浅水Ⅰ型浮游生物网采集的浮游动物样品,分析了浮游动物的种类组成、丰度分布和生物多样性;通过结合现场获取的环境参数,探讨了环境因子与浮游动物群落特征之间的关系。结果如下:秋季浮游动物调查共鉴定各类浮游动物22种、浮游幼虫6类,合计种类数为28。桡足类为最为优势的类群,其在浮游动物的物种丰富度中占46.4%。渤海湾秋季浮游动物的优势种类共5个,包括中华哲水蚤、小拟哲水蚤、真刺唇角水蚤、近缘大眼水蚤和强壮箭虫。秋季浮游动物平均丰度为86.9ind./m3,平均湿重生物量为640.7mg/m3,香农-威纳指数和物种丰富度指数分别为1.87和1.08。浮游动物丰度与环境因子间的相关性分析表明,秋季影响渤海湾海域浮游动物分布的主要环境因子组合为盐度、叶绿素和浊度。与同期历史数据相比,浮游动物的丰度和生物量均有所下降。  相似文献   

5.
基于2018年5月胶州湾海域共计20个站位所获取的生物及环境数据,研究胶州湾大型底栖生物多样性以及群落结构特征。调查海域共发现大型底栖生物208种,大型底栖生物总平均丰度和生物量分别为2 654.38 ind./m2和1 024.512 2 g/m2,大型底栖生物物种数、丰度和生物量均呈现北部高、南部低的分布趋势;调查海域优势种以多毛类为主,IRI值最高的物种为菲律宾蛤仔Ruditapes philippinarum;香农维纳指数与ABC曲线均表明调查海域底栖生态环境整体清洁;在40%相似性水平上,可将调查海域大型底栖生物划分为4个群落;底温和底盐影响调查海域大型底栖生物丰度分布。  相似文献   

6.
夏季莱州湾浮游动物群落特征   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
根据2009 年8 月监测资料, 研究了夏季莱州湾海域浮游动物种类组成、生态分布、群落结构及其环境影响因子。共记录包括浮游幼虫在内的浮游动物38 种(类), 优势种类为长尾类幼虫、强壮箭虫、短尾类溞状幼虫及太平洋纺锤水蚤等。浮游动物丰度101.3~3620.0 个/m3, 平均602.8 个/m3, 丰度平面分布呈现湾西部高, 向中东部逐渐降低趋势; 长尾类幼虫、强壮箭虫、短尾类溞状幼虫出现频率100%,太平洋纺锤水蚤出现频率40.9%; 长尾类幼虫丰度7.8~1747.9 个/m3, 平均96.3 个/m3, 高值区分布于莱州湾西部黄河口以南近岸水域; 强壮箭虫丰度2.5~747.8 个/m3, 平均85.4 个/m3, 偏离近岸趋深水、低温区分布; 短尾类溞状幼虫丰度3.3~271.7 个/m3, 平均20.5 个/m3, 主要分布于莱州湾南部近岸水域; 太平洋纺锤水蚤丰度0~968.3 个/m3, 平均29.0 个/m3, 密集分布区在莱州湾西南部小清河外近岸低盐水域。浮游动物丰度分布与NO2-N、DO、COD 及NO3-N 呈显著正相关关系, 与盐度呈显著负相关关系(P<0.01)。等级聚类分析(CLUSTER)将莱州湾的浮游动物分为湾西部和湾中东部两个群落。相比于湾中东部群落, 湾西部群落占据着莱州湾西部近岸较狭窄的地理范围, 其所在水域水浅, 盐度低, 无机氮、活性磷酸盐、叶绿素a、浮游动物丰度高及物种多样性高, 群落内生物相似性弱。  相似文献   

7.
于2019年12月使用4种不同型号网具采集了珠江口浮游动物, 进行形态学鉴定和DNA分子鉴定, 分析珠江口浮游动物的群落结构特征, 并比较不同调查方法对浮游动物丰度和生物量结果的影响。形态学镜检鉴定浮游动物36种(类), 其中浮游幼虫6类。浅水I型浮游生物网采集的浮游动物平均丰度为115±96ind.·m-3, 平均生物量为0.21±0.14g·m-3; 浅水Ⅱ型浮游生物网采集的浮游动物平均丰度为3536±2444ind.·m-3, 平均生物量为0.56±0.33g·m-3; 浅水Ⅲ型浮游生物网采集的浮游动物平均丰度为4314±4172ind.·m-3, 平均生物量为0.50±0.25g·m-3; 25#浮游生物网采集的浮游动物平均丰度为6741±3826ind.·m-3, 平均生物量为4.33±3.42g·m-3。研究结果表明网具孔径大小对浮游动物研究结果具有重要影响, 三个站点水体DNA样品注释出15种浮游动物; 使用浅水Ⅱ型网采集的DNA样品注释出19种浮游动物; 镜检样品鉴定浮游动物17种。水体DNA样品能检测出更多的微型浮游动物如原生动物等; 网采样品能过滤更多的水样, 有利于采集更多的大中型浮游动物, 更能充分反映优势类群如桡足类的种类和数量。研究结果表明, 水体DNA可检出浮游幼虫和原生动物等较难镜检鉴别的种类, 采用不同型号网具采集浮游动物可以更全面地反映研究海域浮游动物的群落结构特征。多种调查方法的结合有助于全面了解研究海域的生态环境状况。  相似文献   

8.
流沙湾海草床海域浮游动物的群落 结构和季节变化   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
2008年2—11月采用浅水Ⅰ型浮游生物网对广东省流沙湾海草床海域的浮游动物进行了周年的季节调查, 研究了其群落结构、季节变化及影响因素。结果表明, 流沙湾海草床海域浮游动物共有49种和13类浮游幼虫, 群落结构主要由桡足类和浮游幼虫所组成。优势种共有20种(类), 4季均为优势种的种类有2种: 针刺拟哲水蚤、小拟哲水蚤。年均丰度和生物量分别为84.8ind/m3和132.2mg/m3, 高峰期位于夏季, 低谷位于冬季, 周年变化基本上为单峰型。浮游动物生物量与丰度、pH值呈显著的正相关, 与叶绿素a和水温呈较明显的相关性, 而生物量和丰度与盐度和PO43?呈负相关, 与其它环境因子相关性不明显。  相似文献   

9.
2011年5月(春季)在黄河口及其邻近水域分别采用浅水I型和浅水Ⅱ型浮游生物网采集浮游动物样品,分析了其种类组成、丰度变化及群落结构等特征。结果表明,黄河口及其邻近水域共鉴定浮游动物39种(包括未定种)、浮游幼虫16类。浅水Ⅰ型网采集的浮游动物优势种包括:中华哲水蚤(Calanus sinicus)、腹针胸刺水蚤(Centropages abdominalis)、双毛纺锤水蚤(Acartia bifilosa)、强壮箭虫(Sagitta crassa)、短尾类溞状幼虫(Brachyura zoea larvae),浅水Ⅱ型网优势种为拟铃虫(Tintinnopsis sp.)、双毛纺锤水蚤(Acartia bifilosa)、拟长腹剑水蚤(Oithona similis)、桡足类无节幼虫(Copepoda nauplii)。浅水Ⅱ型网采集的浮游动物丰度是浅水Ⅰ型网的56倍。两种网型采集浮游动物样品的生物多样性指数存在明显差异,浅水Ⅰ型网采集浮游动物的香农-威纳指数高于浅水Ⅱ型网,但种类数浅水Ⅱ型网高于浅水Ⅰ型网。两种网型浮游动物样品的聚类分析(CLUSTER)结果一致,均将研究海域浮游动物划分为3个组群。网型的选择,不会影响聚类分析的结果。  相似文献   

10.
以2020年11月(秋季)和2021年3月(春季)在青岛董家口港邻近海域进行的浮游动物调查数据为基础,分析了该海域浮游动物的群落结构特征。研究海域春、秋两季总共发现浮游动物33种成体,11类浮游幼虫,其中春季调查发现18种成体,5类浮游幼虫,秋季发现24种成体,9类浮游幼虫;春、秋两季调查浮游动物平均个体密度分别为129.4、69.4 ind/m3;平均生物量(湿重)为1 166.5、23.8 mg/m3;平均种类多样性指数(H′)为1.38、2.61;丰度(d)为0.95、1.77;均匀度(J)为0.90、0.67;春季调查优势种为八斑芮氏水母(Rathkea octopunctata)、中华哲水蚤(Calanus sinicus)、腹针胸刺水蚤(Centropages abdominalis)、强壮滨箭虫(Aidanosagitta crassa),秋季调查优势种为五角水母(Muggiaea atlantica)、双生水母(Diphyes chamissonis)、拟长腹剑水蚤(Oithona similis)、小拟哲水蚤(Paracal...  相似文献   

11.
In order to assess the impact of deep-sea mining on the in situ benthic life, we measured the microbial standing stock and concentration of organic nutrients in the deep-sea sediments of the Central Indian Ocean Basin in the Indian pioneer area. Sediments were collected using box core and grab samples during September 1996. The total bacterial numbers ranged from 10 10 -10 11 cells per g -1 dry weight sediment. There was a marginal decrease in the number of bacteria from surface to 30 cm depth, though the subsurface section registered a higher number than did the surface. The highest numbers were encountered at depths of 4-8 cm. The retrievable number of bacteria were two orders less in comparison with the direct total counts of bacteria. An almost homogeneous distribution of bacteria, total organic carbon, living biomass, and lipids throughout the depth of cores indicates active microbial and benthic processes in the deep sea sediments. On the other hand, a uniform distribution of total counts of bacteria, carbohydrates, and total organic carbon in all the cores indicates their stable nature and suggests that they can serve as useful parameters for long-term monitoring of the area after the benthic disturbance. Further studies on temporal variability in this region would not only verify the observed norms of distribution of these variables but would also help to understand restabilization processes after the simulated benthic disturbance.  相似文献   

12.
This article reviews information recently available from existing marine and coastal mining for responses to environmental issues affecting marine mining at different depths. It is particularly but not exclusively concerned with those issues affecting seabed biodiversity impact and recovery. Much information has been gathered in the past 10 years from shallow mining operations for construction aggregate, diamonds, and gold, from coastal mines discharging tailings to shallow and deep water, and from experimental deep mining tests. The responses to issues identified are summarized in a series of eight tables intended to facilitate site-specific consideration. Since impacts can spread widely in the surface mixing layer SML, and can affect the biologically productive euphotic zone, the main issues considered arise from the depth of mining relative to the SML of the sea. Where mining is below the SML, the issue is whether it is environmentally better to bring the extraction products to the surface vessel for processing (and waste discharge), or to process the extraction products as much as possible on the seabed. Responses to the issues need to be sitespecific, and dependent on adequate preoperational environmental impact and recovery prediction. For deep tailings disposal from a surface vessel, there are four important environmental unknowns: (1) the possible growth of "marine snow" (bacterial flocs) utilizing the enormous quantities of fine tailings particles (hundreds or thousands of metric tons per day) as nuclei for growth, (2) the possibility that local keystone plankton and nekton species may migrate diurnally down to and beyond the depth of deep discharge and hence be subjected to tailings impact at depth, (3) the burrow-up capability of deep benthos and their ability to survive high rates of tailings deposition, and (4) the pattern and rate of dispersion of a tailings density current through the deep water column from discharge point to seabed. Actions to obtain relevant information in general and site-specifically are suggested.  相似文献   

13.
Particle fluxes were measured 7 m above the sea bottom during the predisturbance, disturbance, and postdisturbance periods by using time series sediment traps attached to seven deep-sea moorings deployed in the INDEX experiment site in the Central Indian Basin. The predisturbance particle fluxes varied between 22.3 to 55.1 mg m -2 day -1 . Increased and variable particle fluxes were recorded by the sediment traps during the disturbance period. The increase observed was 0.5 to 4 times more than the background predisturbance fluxes. The increases in particle fluxes (~4 times) recorded by the sediment trap located in the southwestern direction (DMS-1) were the greatest, which could be the result of preferential movement of resuspended particles generated during the deep-sea benthic disturbance along the general current direction prevailing in this area during the experimental period. Also, the traps located closer to the disturbance area recorded greater fluxes than did the traps far away, across the Deep Sea Sediment Resuspension System path. This variability in recorded particle fluxes by the traps around the disturbance area clearly indicates that physical characteristics such as grain size and density of the resuspended particles produced during the disturbance had an important effect on particle movement. The postdisturbance measurements during ~5 days showed a reduction in particle fluxes of ~50%, indicating rapid particle settlement.  相似文献   

14.
The interdependence between the seismo-acoustic properties of a marine sediment and its geotechnical/physical parameters has been known for many years, and it has been postulated that this should allow the extraction of geotechnical information from seismic data. Though in the literature many correlations have been published for the surficial layer, there is a lack of information for greater sediment depths. In this article, a desktop study on a synthetic seafloor model illustrates how the application of published near-surface prediction equations to subsurface sediments (up to several tens of meters burial depth) can lead to spurious predictions. To test this further, acoustic and geotechnical properties were measured on a number of sediment core samples, some of which were subjected to loading in acoustically-equipped consolidation cells (oedometers) to simulate greater burial depth conditions. For low effective pressures (representing small burial depths extending to around 10 meters subsurface), the general applicability of established relationships was confirmed: the prediction of porosity, bulk density, and mean grain size from acoustic velocity and impedance appears generally possible for the investigated sedimentary environments. As effective pressure increases through, the observed relationships deviate more and more from the established ones for the near-surface area. For the samples tested in this study, in some instances increasing pressure even resulted in decreasing velocities. There are several possible explanations for this abnormal behavior, including the presence of gas, overconsolidation, or bimodal grain size distribution. The results indicate that an appropriate depth correction must be introduced into the published prediction equations in order to obtain reliable estimates of physical sediment properties for greater subsurface depths.  相似文献   

15.
An acoustic inversion method using a wide-band signal and two near field receivers is proposed and applied to multiple layered seabed models including a manganese sediment. The inversion problem can be formulated into a probabilistic model comprised of signals, a forward model, and additive noise. The forward model simulates wide-band signals, such as chirp signals, and is chosen to be the source-waveletconvolution plane wave modeling method. The wavelet matching technique, using weighted least-squares fitting, estimates the sediment sound-speed and thickness on which determination of the possible numerical ranges for a priori uniform distribution is based. The genetic algorithm is applied to a global optimization problem to find a maximum a posteriori solution for determined a priori search space. Here the object function is defined by an L 2 norm of the difference between measured and modeled signals. Not only the marginal pdf but also its statistics are calculated by numerical evaluation of integrals using the samples selected during importance sampling process of the genetic algorithm.  相似文献   

16.
海上大直径钢管桩打桩过程中,桩周土体受到强烈扰动而发生强度弱化,掌握桩周土体强度弱化规律对于准确预测打桩过程、保证工程安全具有重要意义。为研究土体强度弱化规律,开展了环剪试验模拟打桩对桩周土体的扰动,测试土体强度随剪切速率的变化规律,建立了描述土体强度弱化规律的拟合公式,引入到打桩分析软件中。研究结果表明:土体的强度折减程度不仅与土体本身的性质有关还受到土体的埋深和剪切速率的影响,埋深越深土体强度折减程度越低,剪切速率越高土体强度折减越高,在打桩分析中可采用这里推荐的线性折减方法来模拟不同深度处土体强度的折减规律。  相似文献   

17.
The advanced piston corer (APC) has been used by the Ocean Drilling Program since 1985 for recovering soft sediments from the ocean floor. The pullout force measured on extracting the core barrel from the sediment is shown to correlate with the average shear strength of the sediment core measured in the ship's laboratory. A simple rule of thumb is derived relating the shear strength of the sediment to the pullout force. Multiple APC holes at individual sites allow the consistency of the pullout measurements to be assessed. The effects of different operational procedures during APC coring are also explored. Although generally applicable, the correlation between pullout force and laboratory measurements of shear strength breaks down for some APC holes, possibly because of the disturbance of some sediment types during the APC coring process. A better understanding of the physical process of APC coring, and its effect on the properties of the sediment both inside and immediately outside the core barrel, would indicate what confidence can be put on the measurement of pullout force as a way of evaluating the in situ shear strength of deep sea sediments.  相似文献   

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《海洋学报(英文版)》2014,(11):161-F0003
<正>Acta Oceanologica Sinica(AOS)is a comprehensive academic journal edited by the Editorial Committee of Acta Oceanologica Sinica and is designed to provide a forum for important research papers of the marine scientific community which reflect the information on a worldwide basis.The journal publishes scholarly papers on marine science and technology,including physics,chemistry,biology,  相似文献   

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