首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   78993篇
  免费   17850篇
  国内免费   24606篇
测绘学   11586篇
大气科学   12985篇
地球物理   16535篇
地质学   46996篇
海洋学   12564篇
天文学   1879篇
综合类   7391篇
自然地理   11513篇
  2024年   375篇
  2023年   1478篇
  2022年   4313篇
  2021年   5088篇
  2020年   4075篇
  2019年   4741篇
  2018年   4673篇
  2017年   4351篇
  2016年   4702篇
  2015年   5012篇
  2014年   5200篇
  2013年   5965篇
  2012年   6531篇
  2011年   6540篇
  2010年   6604篇
  2009年   6234篇
  2008年   5954篇
  2007年   5576篇
  2006年   5158篇
  2005年   4381篇
  2004年   3243篇
  2003年   2539篇
  2002年   2521篇
  2001年   2508篇
  2000年   2317篇
  1999年   2012篇
  1998年   1354篇
  1997年   1220篇
  1996年   1109篇
  1995年   956篇
  1994年   824篇
  1993年   755篇
  1992年   622篇
  1991年   461篇
  1990年   352篇
  1989年   317篇
  1988年   286篇
  1987年   172篇
  1986年   177篇
  1985年   110篇
  1984年   130篇
  1983年   92篇
  1982年   80篇
  1981年   62篇
  1980年   35篇
  1979年   64篇
  1978年   18篇
  1958年   30篇
  1957年   20篇
  1954年   32篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
The groundwater divide is a key feature of river basins and significantly influenced by subsurface hydrological processes. For an unconfined aquifer between two parallel rivers or ditches, it has long been defined as the top of the water table based on the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation. However, the exact groundwater divide is subject to the interface between two local flow systems transporting groundwater to rivers from the infiltration recharge. This study contributes a new analytical model for two-dimensional groundwater flow between rivers of different water levels. The flownet is delineated in the model to identify groundwater flow systems and the exact groundwater divide. Formulas with two dimensionless parameters are derived to determine the distributed hydraulic head, the top of the water table and the groundwater divide. The locations of the groundwater divide and the top of the water table are not the same. The distance between them in horizontal can reach up to 8.9% of the distance between rivers. Numerical verifications indicate that simplifications in the analytical model do not significantly cause misestimates in the location of the groundwater divide. In contrast, the Dupuit–Forchheimer approximation yields an incorrect water table shape. The new analytical model is applied to investigate groundwater divides in the Loess Plateau, China, with a Monte Carlo simulation process taking into account the uncertainties in the parameters.  相似文献   
2.
毫秒脉冲星的自转频率非常稳定,提供了一种独立的基于遥远自然天体并能持续数百万乃至数十亿年的时间基准,具有稳定性强、运行时间长、服务范围广等特点.为了减弱毫秒脉冲星计时观测中各种高斯噪声对脉冲星时的影响,研究了一种基于双谱滤波的综合脉冲星时构建算法,处理分析了国际脉冲星计时阵(International Pul-sar Timing Array,IPTA)最新发布的4颗毫秒脉冲星(PSR J0437-4715、J0613-0200、J1713+0747和J1909-3744)的观测数据,分析了不同时间尺度综合脉冲星时的稳定性,并与构成国际原子时(International Atomic Time,TAI)的4家授时单位原子钟稳定性进行了比较.结果表明:双谱滤波算法能够较好地抑制观测噪声,提高综合脉冲星时的稳定性.相比于经典加权算法,综合脉冲星时1 yr、10 yr稳定度从7.77×10-14、8.56×10-16分别提高到1.50×10-14、3.50×10-16,单脉冲星时稳定性的提升也类似.同时发现,综合脉冲星时稳定性在5 yr及以上时间尺度上优于原子钟稳定性,可用于改善当前原子时的长期稳定性.  相似文献   
3.
Based on the observed surface suspended matter in the East China Sea in February 2007 and June 2015, an empirical model was established using L1 b's band 4 data to retrieve surface suspended matter from the Moderate Resolution Imagine Spectroradiometer Terra imagery. The squared correlation coefficient is 0.8358, and the root mean square error is 0.4285 mg L-1. The model reflects the distribution characteristics of surface suspended matter in the inner shelf of the East China Sea. In this paper, the satellite images of the study area were retrieved in January from 2001 to 2015, and the monthly distribution of surface suspended matter were obtained. The inter-annual distribution of the study area is similar, and the concentration of surface suspended matter is higher near the shore than offshore. A large amount of surface suspended matter is transported southeast under the influence of Zhejiang and Fujian coastal current and Taiwan warm current. Only a small amount of surface suspension can reach the Kuroshio area. The surface suspended matter concentration changes obviously near the estuary because of the effect of differences in the flux of the Yangtze River. Meanwhile, winter monsoon, temperature front, El Ni?o events, and other factors affect the distribution of surface suspended matter in 100 m isobath to coastal water but minimally influence the distribution in 100 m isobath to deep sea.  相似文献   
4.
2017年精河MS6.6地震震前,尼勒克、巴伦台和小泉沟台钻孔应变仪记录到显著的应变变化,经现场落实确认,异常是可靠的。根据这3个台的记录资料计算相对应变的变化,结果表明,地震前最大(小)主应变大小和方向分别出现明显加速和急剧偏转变化。此外还发现,相对应变场异常期间主方向与震源机制解P轴方位较为一致。  相似文献   
5.
论文采用引文分析法,对陆大道院士所著《关于“点-轴”空间结构系统的形成机理分析》一文的349篇引文进行分析,从引文数量、引文作者、发文期刊、研究案例地、学科领域、研究主题、引用动机7个方面,探究“点-轴系统”理论的研究现状。结果表明:自2002年以来,“点-轴系统”理论的引文数量整体呈上升趋势,研究主题聚焦于区域经济和旅游发展;研究案例地以省级和市级中观尺度为主,多为单一型研究区,主要集中在西北丝绸之路经济带、东北辽宁经济圈、西南藏滇川渝、东部长三角四大热点区域;引文质量普遍较高,并且具有多学科交叉应用的特点,但批判性思考和创造性提升相对较少。基于此,论文从拓展研究和实践应用2个角度对“点-轴系统”理论未来发展进行了展望,以期为相关研究提供参考。  相似文献   
6.
Macrophyte community diversity and composition respond to ecosystem conservation and local environmental factors. In this study, we developed a multidimensional diversity framework for macrophyte communities, including the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity. We used the framework to explore the relationships among water level regimes and these diversity parameters in a case study of China's Baiyangdian Lake. Analysis of indicators of hydrologic alteration divided the water level from 1959 to 2019 into four regimes (dry, <6.42 m; low, 6.42–7.23 m; medium, 7.23–8.19 m; high, >8.19 m). Alpha and beta diversity were significantly higher in the medium regime than in the low and high regimes. Redundancy analysis indicated that the maximum water depth significantly affected taxonomic alpha diversity, and total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration significantly affected functional alpha diversity, respectively. Mantel tests showed that TN, Secchi depth (SD), and water depth in the high water level regime significantly increased the total beta diversity and turnover components. TN was the main factor that increased total taxonomic beta diversity. Water level regime mainly influenced interspecific relationships by changing the TN and COD concentration. The water level should be maintained between the medium and high water level regimes to promote restoration of the macrophyte community and improve ecosystem stability. The biodiversity evaluation framework would provide a deeper insight into the hydrological process management for restoration of aquatic macrophyte communities in shallow lakes.  相似文献   
7.
The source and hydrochemical makeup of a stream reflects the connectivity between rainfall, groundwater, the stream, and is reflected to water quantity and quality of the catchment. However, in a semi-arid, thick, loess covered catchment, temporal variation of stream source and event associated behaviours are lesser known. Thus, the isotopic and chemical hydrographs in a widely distributed, deep loess, semi-arid catchment of the northern Chinese Loess Plateau were characterized to determine the source and hydrochemical behaviours of the stream during intra-rainfall events. Rainfall and streamflow were sampled during six hydrologic events coupled with measurements of stream baseflow and groundwater. The deuterium isotope (2H), major ions (Cl, SO42−, NO3, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+) were evaluated in water samples obtained during rainfall events. Temporal variation of 2H and Cl measured in the groundwater and stream baseflow prior to rainfall was similar; however, the isotope compositions of the streamflow fluctuated significantly and responded quickly to rainfall events, likely due to an infiltration excess, overland dominated surface runoff during torrential rainfall events. Time source separation using 2H demonstrated greater than 72% on average, the stream composition was event water during torrential rainfall events, with the proportion increasing with rainfall intensity. Solutes concentrations in the stream had loglinear relationships with stream discharge, with an outling anomaly with an example of an intra-rainfall event on Oct. 24, 2015. Stream Cl behaved nonconservative during rainfall events, temporal variation of Cl indicated a flush and washout at the onset of small rainfall events, a dilution but still high concentration pattern in high discharge and old water dominated in regression flow period. This study indicates rainfall intensity affects runoff responses in a semi-arid catchment, and the stored water in the thick, loess covered areas was less connected with stream runoff. Solute transport may threaten water quality in the area, requiring further analysis of the performance of the eco-restoration project.  相似文献   
8.
以Visual Studio 2012为平台,利用ArcGIS Engine强大的空间分析功能,以C#为开发语言结合第三方插件设计开发海域定级决策子系统,实现了不同用海方式海域的自动化定级,对海域定级基础数据、过程数据和结果数据进行综合管理,构建了一个具有一定实用价值的海域定级信息管理系统原型;此外,利用WebGIS将海域定级决策子系统分析生成的结果数据发布成服务,实现海域定级信息共享子系统。本研究为海域定级提供智能化平台,提高对海域定级及评估效率,有利于海洋可持续发展。  相似文献   
9.
This issue presents proceedings of the "Stars and Interstellar Medium" section of the AllRussian Astronomical Conference VAK-2017. Sixteen papers(selected from about 70 talks) cover different problems related to stars, pulsars, interstellar gas and dust, and star formation. The preface briefly reviews these papers.  相似文献   
10.
为研究不同盐度对文蛤呼吸代谢的影响,本实验设置5个盐度(‰)梯度(11、18、25、32、39),检测不同盐度对文蛤(Meretrixmeretrix)耗氧和排氨的影响,以及文蛤的外套膜、鳃、肝胰腺三种组织中乳酸脱氢酶和Na+/K+-ATP酶活性的变化。结果表明:随着盐度的不断升高,文蛤耗氧率先升后降再升,在盐度18时达到最大值;排氨率先升后降,在盐度32时达到最大值。随着盐度不断升高和胁迫时间延长,文蛤的肝胰腺中乳酸脱氢酶活力总体呈先升高后下降再升高的趋势(P0.05),酶活力在盐度39时为最高;随着盐度不断升高和胁迫时间延长,文蛤的外套膜中Na+/K+-ATP酶活力总体呈先下降再升高后下降的趋势(P0.05),在盐度32时为最高;文蛤的外套膜和鳃中乳酸脱氢酶活力以及鳃和肝胰腺中Na+/K+-ATP酶活力受盐度影响不显著(P0.05),酶活力变化也多呈现"W"形的变化趋势。研究结果为文蛤的人工养殖提供参考。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号