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The chemistry of heavy haze over Urumqi, Central Asia   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A sampling campaign of aerosols over Urumqi from 2001–2007 and soil samples in the surrounding areas were carried out to investigate the severe air pollution in Urumqi, a typical inland city, located in the center of Asia. Urumqi is one of the heavy polluted cities in the world, as the days of haze spanned over one third of the year and accounted for 60–80% of the heating period for the past 6 years. High concentration of fine aerosols, frequent occurrence, and rapid formation of heavy haze were the three main characteristics. With comparison of the pollution elements, As, Cd, and S, and the ratio of Ca/Al in aerosols and soils in those sites located on the south of Jungger Basin as tracers, it was found that As, Cd, and S highly enriched in the aerosols over urban Urumqi were not only from the re-suspended road dust but also from the soil transported from south of the Jungger Basin. Different from the most cities in China, the high concentration of sulfate in Urumqi was partially from the primary soil dust transported from the surrounding areas. The mixing of the local anthropogenic aerosols with the soil transported from outside the city was the main source of the high sulfate concentration. Ammonium salts were higher than the summed equivalents of SO42−, NO3, and Cl in Urumqi and much higher than that in other Chinese cities. The total water soluble ions and the total ammonium salts were as high as 57.8% and 51.0% in PM2.5. The high concentration of soluble salts with high hygroscopicity, especially ammonium and sulfate salts, were the main factors contributing to the heavy haze over Urumqi.  相似文献
2.
呼和浩特春季连续两次降水的对比分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
2006年5月8日和5月11—12日呼和浩特地区连续出现了两次关键性的中雨、局部大雨的天气过程。两次降水过后,连旱两个月的呼和浩特地区彻底解除了旱情。为了弄清楚间隔2d出现的两场较大降水的物理原因,利用MICAPS资料、自动站资料等对这两次过程进行了初步分析。分析表明,源源不断的大、中尺度水汽输送是这两次降水的主要原因。而大、中尺度急流间的风向辐合加强了垂直上升运动,这是形成两次降水的关键所在。另外,通过分析发现5月8日的降水为混合性降水,而5月11—12日的降水则为稳定性降水。  相似文献
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Super-parameterization(SP) aims to explicitly represent deep convection within a coarse resolution global model by embedding a cloud resolving model(CRM) in each column of the mother model. For the first time, we implemented the SP in a mesoscale regional weather model, the Global/Regional Assimilation and Pr Ediction System(GRAPES). The constructed SP-GRAPES uses a two-dimensional(2D) CRM in each grid column. A control and two SP simulations are conducted for the Beijing "7.21" heavy rainfall event to evaluate improvements in GRAPES using SP. The SP-run-I is a basic SP run delivering microphysics feedback only, whereas the SP-run-II delivers both microphysical and cloud fraction feedbacks. A comparison of the runs indicates that the SP-run-I has a slightly positive impact on the precipitation forecast than the control run. However, the inclusion of cloud fraction feedback leads to an evident overall improvement, particularly in terms of cloud fraction and 24-h cumulative precipitation. Although this is only a preliminary study using SP-GRAPES, we believe that it will provide considerable guidance for follow-up studies using SP in China.  相似文献
4.
王宇虹  徐国强  贾丽红  赵阳 《气象》2015,41(4):389-400
运用GRAPES_Meso模式对2012年7月21—22日发生在北京地区附近的特大暴雨过程进行数值模拟和地形、水汽的敏感性试验。地形敏感性试验发现,在这次特大暴雨过程中,由于太行山北端的阻挡作用,使得气流和水汽辐合、抬升,加强了对流过程;对流层低层山前东南风和西南风、北风的辐合带增大了气旋性涡度,使东移到北京的低涡稳定维持5 h左右,对降水有明显的增幅作用;而且地形起伏和地形海拔高度对降水都有明显增幅作用,地形起伏的增幅作用较地形高度的大。水汽敏感性试验发现在这次特大暴雨过程中,水汽条件较小的变化,会导致水汽输送的明显差异,从而导致降水量显著地改变。  相似文献
5.
利用合肥多普勒天气雷达回波和各种常规资料,对2010年梅雨期皖江一次大暴雨天气过程的雷达回波进行分析,探讨短时大暴雨的回波特征。结果表明:有利的大尺度环流,充足的水汽条件和较强的上升运动是产生强降水有利的天气背景。雷达资料分析发现形成此次皖江暴雨的源地位于大别山区,强降水是由局地发展的对流回波加强合并产生的,回波的发生和发展加强常常与风场的局地强辐合区(逆风区)相联系,雨带在中低空切变线上合并加强,强降水区域尺度较大,单体回波移向和雨带走向一致,回波移动缓慢或呈准静止状态,累积雨量大,易于形成暴雨。  相似文献
6.
基于全国1960—2011年气象台站的逐日资料,运用度日分析法、Mann Kendall检验法研究了气候变暖前后我国热度日(HDD)、冷度日(CDD)的变化情况。结果表明,我国北方及高原地区冬季气温在1987年前后发生突变,气候变暖后HDD有所下降;我国南方夏季气温在1997年前后发生突变,气候变暖后CDD有所上升。利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料和环流指数资料进一步分析气候变暖前后的环流场特征,发现冬季AO指数与我国东北、华北、新疆西藏部分地区HDD具有显著的负相关关系,AO指数偏强(弱)时,强冷空气活动减少(增加),HDD减小(增大);夏季西太平洋副高面积指数与我国南方地区CDD具有显著的正相关关系,副高面积指数偏强(弱)时,晴热高温天气增加(减少),CDD增大(减小)。  相似文献
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