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1.
毫秒脉冲星的自转频率非常稳定,提供了一种独立的基于遥远自然天体并能持续数百万乃至数十亿年的时间基准,具有稳定性强、运行时间长、服务范围广等特点.为了减弱毫秒脉冲星计时观测中各种高斯噪声对脉冲星时的影响,研究了一种基于双谱滤波的综合脉冲星时构建算法,处理分析了国际脉冲星计时阵(International Pul-sar Timing Array,IPTA)最新发布的4颗毫秒脉冲星(PSR J0437-4715、J0613-0200、J1713+0747和J1909-3744)的观测数据,分析了不同时间尺度综合脉冲星时的稳定性,并与构成国际原子时(International Atomic Time,TAI)的4家授时单位原子钟稳定性进行了比较.结果表明:双谱滤波算法能够较好地抑制观测噪声,提高综合脉冲星时的稳定性.相比于经典加权算法,综合脉冲星时1 yr、10 yr稳定度从7.77×10-14、8.56×10-16分别提高到1.50×10-14、3.50×10-16,单脉冲星时稳定性的提升也类似.同时发现,综合脉冲星时稳定性在5 yr及以上时间尺度上优于原子钟稳定性,可用于改善当前原子时的长期稳定性.  相似文献   
2.
Based on the observed surface suspended matter in the East China Sea in February 2007 and June 2015, an empirical model was established using L1 b's band 4 data to retrieve surface suspended matter from the Moderate Resolution Imagine Spectroradiometer Terra imagery. The squared correlation coefficient is 0.8358, and the root mean square error is 0.4285 mg L-1. The model reflects the distribution characteristics of surface suspended matter in the inner shelf of the East China Sea. In this paper, the satellite images of the study area were retrieved in January from 2001 to 2015, and the monthly distribution of surface suspended matter were obtained. The inter-annual distribution of the study area is similar, and the concentration of surface suspended matter is higher near the shore than offshore. A large amount of surface suspended matter is transported southeast under the influence of Zhejiang and Fujian coastal current and Taiwan warm current. Only a small amount of surface suspension can reach the Kuroshio area. The surface suspended matter concentration changes obviously near the estuary because of the effect of differences in the flux of the Yangtze River. Meanwhile, winter monsoon, temperature front, El Ni?o events, and other factors affect the distribution of surface suspended matter in 100 m isobath to coastal water but minimally influence the distribution in 100 m isobath to deep sea.  相似文献   
3.
Macrophyte community diversity and composition respond to ecosystem conservation and local environmental factors. In this study, we developed a multidimensional diversity framework for macrophyte communities, including the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity. We used the framework to explore the relationships among water level regimes and these diversity parameters in a case study of China's Baiyangdian Lake. Analysis of indicators of hydrologic alteration divided the water level from 1959 to 2019 into four regimes (dry, <6.42 m; low, 6.42–7.23 m; medium, 7.23–8.19 m; high, >8.19 m). Alpha and beta diversity were significantly higher in the medium regime than in the low and high regimes. Redundancy analysis indicated that the maximum water depth significantly affected taxonomic alpha diversity, and total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration significantly affected functional alpha diversity, respectively. Mantel tests showed that TN, Secchi depth (SD), and water depth in the high water level regime significantly increased the total beta diversity and turnover components. TN was the main factor that increased total taxonomic beta diversity. Water level regime mainly influenced interspecific relationships by changing the TN and COD concentration. The water level should be maintained between the medium and high water level regimes to promote restoration of the macrophyte community and improve ecosystem stability. The biodiversity evaluation framework would provide a deeper insight into the hydrological process management for restoration of aquatic macrophyte communities in shallow lakes.  相似文献   
4.
The source and hydrochemical makeup of a stream reflects the connectivity between rainfall, groundwater, the stream, and is reflected to water quantity and quality of the catchment. However, in a semi-arid, thick, loess covered catchment, temporal variation of stream source and event associated behaviours are lesser known. Thus, the isotopic and chemical hydrographs in a widely distributed, deep loess, semi-arid catchment of the northern Chinese Loess Plateau were characterized to determine the source and hydrochemical behaviours of the stream during intra-rainfall events. Rainfall and streamflow were sampled during six hydrologic events coupled with measurements of stream baseflow and groundwater. The deuterium isotope (2H), major ions (Cl, SO42−, NO3, Ca2+, K+, Mg2+, and Na+) were evaluated in water samples obtained during rainfall events. Temporal variation of 2H and Cl measured in the groundwater and stream baseflow prior to rainfall was similar; however, the isotope compositions of the streamflow fluctuated significantly and responded quickly to rainfall events, likely due to an infiltration excess, overland dominated surface runoff during torrential rainfall events. Time source separation using 2H demonstrated greater than 72% on average, the stream composition was event water during torrential rainfall events, with the proportion increasing with rainfall intensity. Solutes concentrations in the stream had loglinear relationships with stream discharge, with an outling anomaly with an example of an intra-rainfall event on Oct. 24, 2015. Stream Cl behaved nonconservative during rainfall events, temporal variation of Cl indicated a flush and washout at the onset of small rainfall events, a dilution but still high concentration pattern in high discharge and old water dominated in regression flow period. This study indicates rainfall intensity affects runoff responses in a semi-arid catchment, and the stored water in the thick, loess covered areas was less connected with stream runoff. Solute transport may threaten water quality in the area, requiring further analysis of the performance of the eco-restoration project.  相似文献   
5.
城市绿化覆盖是城市生态系统的重要组成部分,合理的绿化率和绿化布局可以改善城市环境,提高城市人居适宜性。研究中将2005、2010、2015年北京市土地利用(LUC)数据中的城市居民用地作为城区范围,应用Landsat 5、GF-1影像数据和MODIS产品,利用支持向量机的监督分类方法,提取了2005、2010、2015年的北京市城市绿化覆盖数据,并获取了同期的植被指数(NDVI)数据;继而以城市绿化覆盖率、绿化覆盖均匀度和植被指数为评价指标,在公里栅格和行政区2个尺度上探讨了北京市城市绿化覆盖的空间分布格局和时间变化动态特征。研究表明:① 3个指标在空间和时间2个维度、区县和栅格2个尺度上都表现一致。这反映北京市过去10年中,在绿化面积增加的同时,绿化的空间布局得到优化改善,绿化的质量得到提高。② 2005-2015年,北京市城市绿化覆盖面积由518.93 km2 增加到1405.54 km2,绿化覆盖率由39.9%增加到49.13%,绿化覆盖均匀度由0.598增加到0.653,植被指数由0.42增加至0.5。③ 北京市城市绿化建设存在明显的时空差异。中心城区绿化建设缓慢,成效不明显;重大绿化建设成果主要集中在城市边缘地区和远郊区县。城市绿化改善过程主要发生在2005-2010年。  相似文献   
6.
为了研究不同光照强度、温度对黑鲷(Acantho pagrusschlegelii)(♀)×真鲷(Pagrosomus major)(♂)杂交F1代受精卵孵化效果及仔鱼存活的影响,作者采用试验生态学的方法比较不同温度(16、18、20、22、24、26℃)下杂交鲷受精卵的孵化率、畸形率、孵化时间、7日龄仔鱼的存活率;比较不同光照强度下(10、100、300、800、1500、4 000、10 000 lx)受精卵孵化率、畸形率、孵化时间;比较不同光照强度下(200、1 000、2 000、5 000、10 000、15 000、20 000 lx)7日龄仔鱼的存活率。结果表明:在盐度为22条件下,受精卵最高孵化率(34.00%)和最低畸形率(16.65%)的孵化温度为20℃;在16~26℃范围内,温度与孵化时间呈负相关,与7日龄仔鱼存活率也呈负相关。不同的光照强度对受精卵孵化率和孵化时间的影响不显著,孵化率为65.88%~71.88%;但大于800lx的光照会令畸形率上升(大于15.21%);另外,5000~10000lx的光照强度更适宜仔鱼生存,7日龄仔鱼存活率达到38%~40.75%。黑鲷(♀)×真鲷(♂)杂交子代最佳孵化温度为20℃,最适光照强度为5 000~10 000 lx。  相似文献   
7.
Decreasing fish resources in estuaries is a subject of anthropogenic activities.Studies of the spatiotemporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae can help identify the status and processes underlying recruitment in a fishery.As the fifth largest river estuary in the world,the Huanghe(Yellow)River estuary(HRE)is a typical estuary that has been seriously affected by human activities.Annual surveys on ichthyoplankton and environmental factors were conducted in the months of May of 2005 and 2009-2016 in the HRE to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of fish eggs and larvae and the associated influencing factors.A total of 23 and 20 species of eggs and larvae,respectively,were collected.The dominant orders were Perciformes(51.2%)and Clupeiformes(25.6%).The average number of fish species eggs and larvae were 6.0 and 4.1 in average abundance of 0.91 and 0.13 ind./m~3,respectively.The dominant species were mainly low-commercial-value small-sized fishes,such as Clupanodon punctatus,Hare,ngula zutnasi,and Acanthogobius,whereas certain traditional commercial fishes,such as Trichiurus lepturus,and Clupea pallasii,were not seen.Analysis of the fish egg and larval community revealed four temporal assemblages and two spatial assemblages.Salinity was the main factor on the spatial distribution of ichthyoplankton communities,the species number and Shannon-Weiner diversity index(H')of the fish egg and larval community near the river mouth with lower salinity were significantly lower than the community far away from the river mouth with higher salinity.In addition,increases of water temperature promoted the number and abundance of fish species eggs,and the areas of abundant prey tended to have a more diversified and abundant of ichthyoplankton species.In overall,overfishing,dam construction,and other human activities were the main drivers that led to the substantial decline in fishery resources in the HRE.  相似文献   
8.
The spatial distribution of chemical oxygen demand(COD) and total nitrogen(TN) yield from Qingdao are studied by comparing pollutant yield amount, densities and spatial aggregation(Getis-Ord indexes) among the land-based pollutant source regions(PSRs) entering the three sub-seas(i.e. the Jiaozhou Bay(JZB), other coastal area in the Yellow Sea(OCAYS) and Laizhou Bay(LZB), respectively). Industrial composition of the loads are also studied by comparing pollutant yield among the sources of agriculture, rural domesticity, industry, urban domesticity and service, and calculation of Gini coefficient. Results show that spatial distribution of COD and TN yield from Qingdao are extremely unbalanced. The JZB, with less than 3% of the total coastal sea area of Qingdao, received 62% COD load and 65% TN yield from Qingdao, while the OCAYS, with more than 97% area, only received 23% COD and 20% TN, which consist with the much worsen water quality of JZB than that of OCAYS. On the other hand, the source apportionment of COD and TN loads in the PSRs entering JZB and the OCAYS was similar. The agricultural and domestic sources with high pollution intensity account for more than 80%, while the industrial and service sources with low pollution intensity account for less than 20%. While Gini coefficients, COD 0.81 and TN 0.84 which are much higher than the ‘imbalance' threshold of 0.4, show the uneven industrial structure of Qingdao. These results may be useful in the determination of land-based pollution total amount control at the PSR level.  相似文献   
9.
张镱锂  吴雪  郑度 《地理学报》2020,75(5):931-948
喜马拉雅山脉中段的珠穆朗玛峰等地,海拔高差巨大、生境复杂多变、土地覆被类型多样且植被垂直带谱完整,是全球范围内研究土地覆被垂直变化的理想场所。本文基于30 m空间分辨率的土地覆被数据(2010年)和DEM数据,在ArcGIS和Matlab平台的支持下,提出并运用脊线法、样带法和扇区法3种山地南北坡划分方法,研究了喜马拉雅山土地覆被垂直分布与结构差异。结果表明:① 山地土地覆被分布具有明确的垂直地带性结构特征,喜马拉雅中部土地覆被垂直带谱为南六北四式,土地覆被垂直带谱中具有人类活动的特点。② 南北坡之间的土地覆被垂直带谱差异明显,南坡土地覆被类型完整多样,北坡相对简单;对同类型土地覆被而言,南坡较北坡分布高程低、幅度宽。③ 依据各类型分布面积比随海拔变化情况,土地覆被类型在南北坡上的垂直分布可分为4种模式:冰川雪被、稀疏植被和草地为单峰分布型,裸地为南单峰北双峰分布型。④ 3种划分方法中,南坡的土地覆被垂直带结构具有相似性,而北坡的土地覆被垂直带结构存在差异,扇区法较好地反映了土地覆被自然分布格局。  相似文献   
10.
介绍了青海省新一代北斗卫星导航系统(BDS)高精度基准服务平台.该平台具备用户管理、数据处理、空间环境监控、高精度定位等功能,可以满足系统管理员、行政领导、单位用户和实时动态(RTK)测量用户在内的各种用户的多样化需求,并且遵循了管理标准化、可扩展性强、现势性好、实用性好、安全性强、具有前瞻性等建设原则.  相似文献   
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