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1.
Yu  Zhi  Shi  Xiuzhi  Zhou  Jian  Chen  Xin  Miao  Xiaohu  Teng  Bing  Ipangelwa  Timo 《Natural Resources Research》2020,29(2):843-865
Natural Resources Research - A large ore loss and dilution can be expected when using a pre-blast ore boundary for shovel guidance because of the movement and re-distribution of ore in the muck...  相似文献   
2.
CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
1INTRODUCTIONWetlandsplayanimportant roleintheprocessofcar-bonstorage.Thetotalcarbonstoredindifferentkindsofwetlandsisabout15%-35%ofthetotalcarboninthegloballandsoils(POSTetal.,1982;GORHAM,1991).Inaddition,wetlandsaresignificantnaturalsources fortheatmospheric CH4 (MOORE,1994).It isestimatedthatabout110×1012gCH4 originates fromanaerobicdecompositioninthenaturalwetlands,CH4 emission fromthenaturalwetlandsis15%-30%oftheglobalCH4 emission andtheCH4 emission from thepeat land at hi…  相似文献   
3.
A number of different lahars have been recognized from a systematic survey of a mapping project. The high setting temporamre feature of the deposits indicates a relationship between the lahar and the Millennium eruption event of Tianchi Volcano. The lahars caused a dramatic disaster. Recognize of the huge avalanche scars and deposits around Tianchi Volcano imply another highly destructive hazard. Three types of different texture of the avalanche deposits have been recognized. There was often magma mixing processes during the Millennium eruption of Tianchi Volcano, indicating a mixing and co-eruption regime of the eruption.  相似文献   
4.
We present a detailed, new time scale for an orogenic cycle (oceanic accretion–subduction–collision) that provides significant insights into Paleozoic continental growth processes in the southeastern segment of the long-lived Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The most prominent tectonic feature in Inner Mongolia is the association of paired orogens. A southern orogen forms a typical arc-trench complex, in which a supra-subduction zone ophiolite records successive phases during its life cycle: birth (ca. 497–477 Ma), when the ocean floor of the ophiolite was formed; (2) youth (ca. 473–470 Ma), characterized by mantle wedge magmatism; (3) shortly after maturity (ca. 461–450 Ma), high-Mg adakite and adakite were produced by slab melting and subsequent interaction of the melt with the mantle wedge; (4) death, caused by subduction of a ridge crest (ca. 451–434 Ma) and by ridge collision with the ophiolite (ca. 428–423 Ma). The evolution of the magmatic arc exhibits three major coherent phases: arc volcanism (ca. 488–444 Ma); adakite plutonism (ca. 448–438 Ma) and collision (ca. 419–415 Ma) of the arc with a passive continental margin. The northern orogen, a product of ridge-trench interaction, evolved progressively from coeval generation of near-trench plutons (ca. 498–461 Ma) and juvenile arc crust (ca. 484–469 Ma), to ridge subduction (ca. 440–434 Ma), microcontinent accretion (ca. 430–420 Ma), and finally to forearc formation. The paired orogens followed a consistent progression from ocean floor subduction/arc formation (ca. 500–438 Ma), ridge subduction (ca. 451–434 Ma) to microcontinent accretion/collision (ca. 430–415 Ma); ridge subduction records the turning point that transformed oceanic lithosphere into continental crust. The recognition of this orogenic cycle followed by Permian–early Triassic terminal collision of the CAOB provides compelling evidence for episodic continental growth.  相似文献   
5.
Timing of the Nihewan formation and faunas   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Magnetostratigraphic dating of the fluvio-lacustrine sequence in the Nihewan Basin, North China, has permitted the precise timing of the basin infilling and associated Nihewan mammalian faunas. The combined evidence of new paleomagnetic findings from the Hongya and Huabaogou sections of the eastern Nihewan Basin and previously published magnetochronological data suggests that the Nihewan Formation records the tectono-sedimentary processes of the Plio-Pleistocene Nihewan Basin and that the Nihewan faunas can be placed between the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal and the onset of the Olduvai subchron (0.78-1.95 Ma). The onset and termination of the basin deposition occurred just prior to the Gauss-Matuyama geomagnetic reversal and during the period from the last interglaciation to the late last glaciation, respectively, suggesting that the Nihewan Formation is of Late Pliocene to late Pleistocene age. The Nihewan faunas, comprising a series of mammalian faunas (such as Maliang, Donggutuo, Xiaochangliang, Banshan, Majuangou, Huabaogou, Xiashagou, Danangou and Dongyaozitou), are suggested to span a time range of about 0.8-2.0 Ma. The combination of our new and previously published magnetostratigraphy has significantly refined the chronology of the terrestrial Nihewan Formation and faunas.  相似文献   
6.
Structural, petrographic and geochronologic studies of the Kampa Dome provide insights into the tectonothermal evolution of orogenic crust exposed in the North Himalayan gneiss domes of southern Tibet. U–Pb ion microprobe dating of zircons from granite gneiss exposed at the deepest levels within the dome yields concordia 206Pb/238U age populations of 506 ± 3 Ma and 527 ± 6 Ma, with no evidence of new zircon growth during Himalayan orogenesis. However, the granite contains penetrative deformation fabrics that are also preserved in the overlying Paleozoic strata, implying that the Kampa granite is a Cambrian pluton that was strongly deformed and metamorphosed during Himalayan orogenesis. Zircons from deformed leucogranite sills that cross-cut Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks yield concordant Cambrian ages from oscillatory zoned cores and discordant ages ranging from ca. 491–32 Ma in metamict grains. Since these leucogranites clearly post-date the metasedimentary rocks they intrude, the zircons are interpreted as xenocrysts that are probably derived from the Kampa granite. The Kampa Dome formed via a series of progressive orogenic events including regional ~ N–S contraction and related crustal thickening (D1), predominately top-to-N ductile shearing and crustal extension (D2), top-to-N brittle–ductile faulting and related folding on the north limb of the dome, localized top-to-S faulting on the southern limb of the dome, and crustal doming (D3), and continued N–S contraction, E–W extension and doming (D4). Structural and geochronologic variability amongst adjacent North Himalayan gneiss domes may reflect changes in the magnitude of crustal exhumation along the North Himalayan antiform, possibly relating to differences in the mid-crustal geometry of the exhuming fault systems.  相似文献   
7.
《Ore Geology Reviews》2008,33(3-4):629-650
In the Raposos orogenic gold deposit, hosted by banded iron-formation (BIF) of the Archean Rio das Velhas greenstone belt, the hanging wall rocks to BIF are hydrothermally-altered ultramafic schists, whereas metamafic rocks and their hydrothermal schistose products represent the footwall. Planar and linear structures at the Raposos deposit define three ductile to brittle deformational events (D1, D2 and D3). A fourth group of structures involve spaced cleavages that are considered to be a brittle phase of D3. The orebodies constitute sulfide-bearing D1-related shear zones of BIF in association with quartz veins, and result from the sulfidation of magnetite and/or siderite. Pyrrhotite is the main sulfide mineral, followed by lesser arsenopyrite and pyrite. At level 28, the hydrothermal alteration of the mafic and ultramafic wall rocks enveloping BIF define a gross zonal pattern surrounding the ore zones. Metabasalt comprises albite, epidote, actinolite and lesser Mg/Fe–chlorite, calcite and quartz. The incipient stage includes the chlorite and chlorite-muscovite alteration zone. The least-altered ultramafic schist contains Cr-bearing Mg-chlorite, actinolite and talc, with subordinate calcite. The incipient alteration stage is subdivided into the talc–chlorite and chlorite–carbonate zone. For both mafic and ultramafic wall rocks, the carbonate–albite and carbonate–muscovite zones represent the advanced alteration stage.Rare earth and trace element analyses of metabasalt and its alteration products suggest a tholeiitic protolith for this wall rock. In the case of the ultramafic schists, the precursor may have been peridotitic komatiite. The Eu anomaly of the Raposos BIF suggests that it was formed proximal to an exhalative hydrothermal source on the ocean floor. The ore fluid composition is inferred by hydrothermal alteration reactions, indicating it to having been H2O-rich containing CO2 + Na+ and S. Since the distal alteration halos are dominated by hydrated silicate phases (mainly chlorite), with minor carbonates, fixation of H2O is indicated. The CO2 is consumed to form carbonates in the intermediate alteration stage, in halos around the chlorite-dominated zones. These characteristics suggest variations in the H2O to CO2-ratio of the sulfur-bearing, aqueous-carbonic ore fluid, which interacted at varying fluid to rock ratios with progression of the hydrothermal alteration.  相似文献   
8.
四川汶川MS 8.0大地震地表破裂带的遥感影像解析   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:20  
付碧宏  时丕龙  张之武 《地质学报》2008,82(12):1679-1687
2008年5月12日发生于四川盆地西部龙门山断裂带的汶川MS 8.0级大地震造成巨大的人员伤亡和财产损失,并形成了空间上基本连续分布的地表破裂带(地震断层)。根据地表破裂带的解译标志及影像特征,我们充分利用震后中国科学院航空遥感飞机所获取的高分辨率航空遥感图像以及我国台湾福卫-2卫星遥感图像进行详细解译分析,并结合震后的多次野外科学考察与验证,初步查明了四川汶川MS 8.0级大地震所产生地表破裂带的空间分布特征。遥感解译分析表明汶川大地震产生的地表破裂带总计长约300 km,其几何学特征十分复杂,主要沿先存的NE走向活动断裂带呈不连续展布;变形特征以逆冲挤压为主兼具右旋走滑分量。按同震地表破裂带所在断裂带位置,可将其分为两条: 中央地表破裂带:沿映秀-北川断裂带分布,从西南开始呈北东向延伸至平武县水观乡石坎子北东一带,长约230 km,最大垂直位移量达6.0 m左右,最大右旋水平位移达5.8 m;山前地表破裂带:沿灌县-安县断裂带分布,由都江堰市向峨乡一带开始呈北东向延伸至安县雎水镇一带,长约70 km,以逆冲挤压为主,最大垂直位移量可达2.5 m。此外,遥感图像分析还表明上述地表破裂带与地质灾害分布在空间上具有十分密切的相关性,因此,挤压逆冲-走滑型地震断层的致灾效应研究是未来应该加以重视的研究课题。  相似文献   
9.
A combined study of petrography, whole-rock major and trace elements as well as Rb?Sr and Sm?Nd isotopes, and mineral oxygen isotopes was carried out for two groups of low-T/UHP granitic gneiss in the Dabie orogen. The results demonstrate that metamorphic dehydration and partial melting occurred during exhumation of deeply subducted continent. Zircon δ18O values of ? 2.8 to + 4.7‰ for the gneiss are all lower than normal mantle values of 5.3 ± 0.3‰, consistent with 18O depletion of protolith due to high-T meteoric-hydrothermal alteration at mid-Neoproterozoic. Most samples have extremely low 87Sr/86Sr ratios at t1 = 780 Ma, but very high 87Sr/86Sr ratios at t2 = 230 Ma. This suggests intensive fluid disturbance due to the hydrothermal alteration of protoliths during Neoproterozoic magma emplacement and the metamorphic dehydration during Triassic continental collision. Rb–Sr isotopes, Th/Ta vs. La/Ta and Th/Hf vs. La/Nb relationships suggest that Group I gneiss experienced lower degrees of hydrothermal alteration, but higher degrees of dehydration, than Group II gneiss. The two groups of gneiss have similar patterns of REE and trace element partition. Group I gneiss displays good correlations between Nb and LREEs but no correlations between Nb and LILEs (Rb, Ba, Pb, Th and U), indicating differential mobilities of LILEs during the dehydration. Thus the correlation between Nb and LREEs is inherited from protolith rather than caused by metamorphic modification. Relative to Group I gneiss, Group II gneiss has stronger negative Eu anomaly, lower contents of Sr and Ba but higher contents of Rb, Th and U. In particular, Nb correlates with LILEs (e.g., Rb, Sr, Ba, Th and U), but not with LREEs (La and Ce). This may indicate decoupling between the dehydration and LILEs transport during continental collision. Furthermore, dehydration melting may have occurred due to breakdown of muscovite during “hot” exhumation. Group II gneiss has extremely low contents of FeO + MgO + TiO2 (1.04 to 2.08 wt.%), high SiO2 contents of 75.33 to 78.23 wt%, and high total alkali (Na2O + K2O) contents (7.52 to 8.92 wt.%), comparable with compositions predicted from partial melting of felsic rocks by experimental studies. Almost no UHP metamorphic minerals survived; felsic veins of fine-grain minerals occurs locally between coarse-grain minerals, resulting in a kind of metatexite migmatites due to dehydration melting without considerable escape of felsic melts from the host gneiss. In contrast, Group I gneiss only shows metamorphic dehydration. Therefore, the two groups of gneiss show contrasting behaviors of fluid–rock interaction during the continental collision.  相似文献   
10.
Concentrations of trace elements and heavy metals (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sr, V and Zn) in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, the water source area of the Middle Route of China’s interbasin South to North Water Transfer Project, were analyzed using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES) and compared with the national and international standards for drinking water. The results indicated that concentrations of As, Pb, Sb and Se in the Reservoir exceeded the standards and they would pose health risk for residents in the region and the water receiving areas of the interbasin water transfer project. Spatial and temporal variability of the trace elements and heavy metals in the Reservoir implies their mixed sources of natural processing and anthropogenic activities in the upper drainage of the Reservoir. The research results would help develop water resource management and conservation strategy for the interbasin water transfer project.  相似文献   
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