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1.
Izvestiya, Atmospheric and Oceanic Physics - The phase shift between changes in the global surface temperature Tg and atmospheric CO2 content $${{q}_{{{\text{C}}{{{\text{O}}}_{2}}}}}$$ has been...  相似文献   
2.
Results obtained from simulating the propagation of infrasonic waves from the Chelyabinsk meteoroid explosion observed on February 15, 2013, are given. The pseudodifferential parabolic equation (PDPE) method has been used for calculations. Data on infrasonic waves recorded at the IS31 station (Aktyubinsk, Kazakhstan), located 542.7 km from the likely location of the explosion, have been analyzed. Six infrasonic arrivals (isolated clearly defined pulse signals) were recorded. It is shown that the first “fast” arrival (F) corresponds to the propagation of infrasound in a surface acoustic waveguide. The rest of the arrivals (T1–T5) are thermospheric. The agreement between the results of calculations based on the PDPE method and experimental data is satisfactory. The energy E of the explosion has been estimated using two methods. One of these methods is based on the law of conservation of the acoustic pulse I, which is a product of the wave profile area S/2 of the signal under analysis and the distance to its source E I [kt] = 1.38 × 10–10 (I [kg/s])1.482. The other method is based on the relation between the energy of explosion and the dominant period T of recorded signal E T [kt] = 1.02 × (T [s]2/σ)3/2, where σ is the dimensionless distance determining the degree of nonlinear effects during the propagation of sound along ray trajectories. According to the data, the explosion energy E I,T ranges from 1.87 to 32 kt TNT.  相似文献   
3.
After the 1967 flight of the Venera-4 automatic interplanetary station (AIS), the study of planetary atmospheres became one of the key areas of scientific research at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAPh), USSR Academy of Sciences. The goal of the Venera-4 mission was to deliver a descent vehicle into the atmosphere of Venus and study the physical parameters and chemical composition of the atmosphere. IAPh scientists published several articles on the analysis of these measurements, with A.M. Obukhov himself directly involved in writing some of these articles. An analysis of the properties of the Martian surface and atmosphere from the data of the Mars-2, Mars-3, and Mariner-9 missions in November–December 1971 set the stage for a series of studies on the atmospheric effects of Martian dust storms. Based on the study of the atmospheres of terrestrial planets, IAPh scientists developed a simple model for the nuclear winter phenomenon, i.e., a long-term cooling due to massive fires caused by nuclear explosions. Obukhov took a keen interest in this subject and participated in the publication of review articles on the possible atmospheric and climatic effects of a nuclear war. In another publication, Obukhov and his coauthors provided a theoretical analysis of the possible causes for the tail from Halley’s comet ripping off, as was observed in January 1986. The present article gives a brief overview of the IAPh works on Solar System research and on the possible consequences of a nuclear conflict, which were published in the 1960s–1980s while Obukhov was alive.  相似文献   
4.
5.
CARBON DYNAMICS OF WETLAND IN THE SANJIANG PLAIN   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
1INTRODUCTIONWetlandsplayanimportant roleintheprocessofcar-bonstorage.Thetotalcarbonstoredindifferentkindsofwetlandsisabout15%-35%ofthetotalcarboninthegloballandsoils(POSTetal.,1982;GORHAM,1991).Inaddition,wetlandsaresignificantnaturalsources fortheatmospheric CH4 (MOORE,1994).It isestimatedthatabout110×1012gCH4 originates fromanaerobicdecompositioninthenaturalwetlands,CH4 emission fromthenaturalwetlandsis15%-30%oftheglobalCH4 emission andtheCH4 emission from thepeat land at hi…  相似文献   
6.
The D-CIXS Compact X-ray Spectrometer will provide high quality spectroscopic mapping of the Moon, the primary science target of the ESA SMART-1 mission. D-CIXS consists of a high throughput spectrometer, which will perform spatially localised X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. It will also carry a solar monitor, to provide the direct calibration needed to produce a global map of absolute lunar elemental abundances, the first time this has been done. Thus it will achieve ground breaking science within a resource envelope far smaller than previously thought possible for this type of instrument, by exploiting two new technologies, swept charge devices and micro-structure collimators. The new technology does not require cold running, with its associated overheads to the spacecraft. At the same time it will demonstrate a radically novel approach to building a type of instrument essential for the BepiColombo mission and potential future planetary science targets.  相似文献   
7.
    
In a simple semi-geostropic model on the equatorialβ-plane, the theoretical analysis on the 30-60 day oscillation in the tropical atmosphere is further discussed based on the wave-CISK mechanism. The convection heat-ing can excite the CISK-Kelvin wave and CISK-Rossby wave in the tropical atmosphere and they are all the low-frequency modes which drive the activities of 30-60 day oscillation in the tropics. The most favorable conditions to excite the CISK-Kelvin wave and CISK-Rossby wave are indicated: There is convection heating but not very strong in the atmosphere and there is weaker disturbance in the lower troposphere. The influences of vertical shearing of basic flow in the troposphere on the 30-60 day oscillation in the tropics are also discussed.  相似文献   
8.
J.M. Ajello  G.E. Thomas 《Icarus》1985,61(1):163-170
Our current understanding of the spatial and temporal distribution of interplan etary neutral hydrogen is currently limited to a comparison of Lyman-σ photometric data with predictions of the solar backscattered radiation using theoretical models. In this paper, how the uncertainties in current model calculations could be reduced through the future use of polarization measurements made from interplanetary spacecraft is investigated. In particular, inquiry into how a mapping of the degree of linear polarization made from a spacecraft at various locations in the Solar System can improve knowledge of the interstellar wind parameters, number density, temperature, and velocity, is made. A polarization measurement can, in principle, be made with very high precision. In this regard, being a relative quantity, a polarization measurement can be made independent of instrumental calibration and long-term sensitivity degredation. Furthermore, the sky distribution of both intensity and polarization has been calculated using a variety of models for the neutral hydrogen. It is found that the polarization distribution over the sky is quite different from that of the intensity distribution. It is also showed that the maximum degree of polarization of the Laymam-σ line increases with heliocentric distance of the spacecraft, varying from 0 up to ~ 18% at 20 AU.  相似文献   
9.
10.
Spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements, carried out regularly from a network of observatories spread over the Indian mainland and adjoining islands in the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea, are used to examine the spatio-temporal and spectral variations during the period of ICARB (March to May 2006). The AODs and the derived Ångström parameters showed considerable variations across India during the above period. While at the southern peninsular stations the AODs decreased towards May after a peak in April, in the north Indian regions they increased continuously from March to May. The Ångström coefficients suggested enhanced coarse mode loading in the north Indian regions, compared to southern India. Nevertheless, as months progressed from March to May, the dominance of coarse mode aerosols increased in the columnar aerosol size spectrum over the entire Indian mainland, maintaining the regional distinctiveness. Compared to the above, the island stations showed considerably low AODs, so too the northeastern station Dibrugarh, indicating the prevalence of cleaner environment. Long-range transport of aerosols from tshe adjoining regions leads to remarkable changes in the magnitude of the AODs and their wavelength dependencies during March to May. HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis shows that enhanced long-range transport of aerosols, particularly from the west Asia and northwest coastal India, contributed significantly to the enhancement of AOD and in the flattening of the spectra over entire regions; if it is the peninsular regions and the island Minicoy are more impacted in April, the north Indian regions including the Indo Gangetic Plain get affected the most during May, with the AODs soaring as high as 1.0 at 500 nm. Over the islands, the Ångström exponent (α) remained significantly lower (~1) over the Arabian Sea compared to Bay of Bengal (BoB) (~1.4) as revealed by the data respectively from Minicoy and Port Blair. Occurrences of higher values of α, showing dominance of accumulation mode aerosols, over BoB are associated well with the advection, above the boundary layer, of fine particles from the east Asian region during March and April. The change in the airmass to marine in May results in a rapid decrease in α over the BoB.  相似文献   
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