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1.
A 22 m long sediment core from Lake Yamozero on the Timan Ridge in northern Russia has provided evidence of intriguing climatic shifts during the last glacial cycle. An overall shallowing of the lake is reflected in the lower part of the cores, where pollen indicates a transition from glacial steppe vegetation to interstadial shrub-tundra. These beds are capped by a well-defined layer of compact clay deposited in relatively deep water, where pollen shows surrounding spruce forests and warmer-than-present summer temperatures. The most conservative interpretation is that this unit represents the last interglacial period. However, a series of Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dates suggests that it corresponds with the Early Weichselian Odderade interstadial (MIS 5a). This would imply that the Odderade interstadial was just as warm as a normal interglacial in this continental part of northern Europe. If correct, then pollen analysis, as a correlation tool, is less straightforward and the definition of an interglacial is more complex than previously thought. We discuss the validity and possible systematic errors of the OSL dates on which this age model is based, but conclude they really indicate a MIS 5a age for the warm period. Above the clay is an unconformity, most likely reflecting a period of subaerial exposure implying dry conditions. Deposition of silt under fluctuating cold climates in the Middle Weichselian continued until a second gap in the record at c . 40 kyr BP. The lake basin started to fill up again around 18 kyr BP.  相似文献   
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《Marine Policy》2005,29(5):391-405
Integrated oceans management (IOM) is emerging in the international arena as a tool in meeting requirements for sustainable use of ocean space and marine resources. Australia and Canada are at the forefront of these developments and, being without set precedents, each state has adopted quite different strategies to implement IOM—Australia adopting a policy-driven approach delivered through Regional Marine Plans and Canada developing legislation that provided a framework for policy implementation delivered through an Integrated Management Framework. Despite these significant differences, examination of initiatives in both states indicates that there are also significant commonalities and shared experiences, providing important lessons for implementing IOM.  相似文献   
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Eddies and planetary waves are identified as one of the important factors that control the dynamics of the Arabian Sea. During 10–14 January 1990, Ignat, Paulyuchenkov (USSR ship) conducted an experiment in the central Arabian Sea and of late TOPEX/POSEIDON satellites collected data on sea surface height (SSH) anomalies of the Arabian Sea. These data sets give an opportunity to understand the characteristic of eddies and planetary waves in this region during winter. The geostrophic flow revealed three anticyclonic and two cyclonic eddies of diameters ranging from 75 to more than 150 km from surface to subsurface levels. Current speeds around different eddies were maximum at surface and varied from 9 cm/s to 25 cm/s (at the middle point between the center and periphery). The occurrence of eddies were further investigated with the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetry for the years 1993–97. The analysis revealed multiple eddies of diameter 100 to 550 km occur every year with maximum number of eddies during 1997 and minimum during 1995. The calculated speed varied between 8–30 cm/s around various eddies. Longitude-Time plots showed annual Rossby waves generating at the eastern Arabian Sea and propagating westwards with a phase speed of ~ 10 cm/s along 16° N. Further, it was observed that these waves arrived in the study area by January. In addition, another positive anomaly of SSH was found generating at the western Arabian Sea simultaneously and extended up to the study region by April–June. Time series of SSH at selected locations along 16°N revealed many small-scale oscillations and their spatial variability. These oscillations were delineated using the FFT analysis. Other than the Rossby wave, the major components at the study region were 40–60 and 26–32 day oscillations. The implications of these long period waves associated with eddies are discussed.  相似文献   
4.
This paper presents UV data recorded over 12 months in 2000/2001 at a southern hemisphere (Toowoomba) and similar latitude northern hemisphere (BigBend and Everglades) sites using Brewer Spectrophotometers. The peak daily erythemally weighted UV (DUV) at the Toowoomba site was 8.8% and 25% higher compared to that at the BigBend and Everglades sites, respectively. The Everglades site exposures are lower than the BigBend site exposures in summer and spring. This may be due to the higher cloud cover for the Everglades site. The summer DUV values between Toowoomba and BigBend are similar. In spring, the average DUV value is the greatest at BigBend compared to the other two sites. Results indicate that variability between the measurement sites is due to varying cloud and ozone, and possibly due to aerosol and airmass differences of each region. Of these different site-specific local atmospheric conditions, cloud was the main contributor to the differences in UV between the sites.  相似文献   
5.
Strategies to mitigate anthropogenic climate change recognize that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can reduce the build-up of carbon dioxide in the Earth’s atmosphere. However, climate mitigation policies do not generally incorporate the effects of these changes in the land surface on the surface albedo, the fluxes of sensible and latent heat to the atmosphere, and the distribution of energy within the climate system. Changes in these components of the surface energy budget can affect the local, regional, and global climate. Given the goal of mitigating climate change, it is important to consider all of the effects of changes in terrestrial vegetation and to work toward a better understanding of the full climate system. Acknowledging the importance of land surface change as a component of climate change makes it more challenging to create a system of credits and debits wherein emission or sequestration of carbon in the biosphere is equated with emission of carbon from fossil fuels. Recognition of the complexity of human-caused changes in climate does not, however, weaken the importance of actions that would seek to minimize our disturbance of the Earth’s environmental system and that would reduce societal and ecological vulnerability to environmental change and variability.  相似文献   
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Sea-level return periods are estimated at 18 sites around the English Channel using: (i) the annual maxima method; (ii) the r-largest method; (iii) the joint probability method; and (iv) the revised joint probability method. Tests are undertaken to determine how sensitive these four methods are to three factors which may significantly influence the results; (a) the treatment of the long-term trends in extreme sea level; (b) the relative magnitudes of the tidal and non-tidal components of sea level; and (c) the frequency, length and completeness of the available data. Results show that unless sea-level records with lengths of at least 50 years are used, the way in which the long-term trends is handled in the different methods can lead to significant differences in the estimated return levels. The direct methods (i.e. methods i and ii) underestimate the long (> 20 years) period return levels when the astronomical tidal variations of sea level (relative to a mean of zero) are about twice that of the non-tidal variations. The performance of each of the four methods is assessed using prediction errors (the difference between the return periods of the observed maximum level at each site and the corresponding data range). Finally, return periods, estimated using the four methods, are compared with estimates from the spatial revised joint probability method along the UK south coast and are found to be significantly larger at most sites along this coast, due to the comparatively short records originally used to calibrate the model in this area. The revised joint probability method is found to have the lowest prediction errors at most sites analysed and this method is recommended for application wherever possible. However, no method can compensate for poor data.  相似文献   
10.
A universal particle velocity based algorithm for simulating hydraulic fractures, previously proposed for Newtonian fluids, is extended to the class of shear-thinning fluids. The scheme is not limited to any particular elasticity operator or crack propagation regime. The computations are based on two dependent variables: the crack opening and the reduced particle velocity. The application of the latter facilitates utilization of the local condition of Stefan type (speed equation) to trace the fracture front. The condition is given in a general explicit form which relates the crack propagation speed (and the crack length) to the solution tip asymptotics. The utilization of a modular structure, and the adaptive character of its basic blocks, result in a flexible numerical scheme. The computational accuracy of the proposed algorithm is validated against a number of analytical benchmark solutions.  相似文献   
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