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1.
Many cities around the world are developed at alluvial fans. With economic and industrial development and increase in population, quality and quantity of groundwater are often damaged by over-exploitation in these areas. In order to realistically assess these groundwater resources and their sustainability, it is vital to understand the recharge sources and hydrogeochemical evolution of groundwater in alluvial fans. In March 2006, groundwater and surface water were sampled for major element analysis and stable isotope (oxygen-18 and deuterium) compositions in Xinxiang, which is located at a complex alluvial fan system composed of a mountainous area, Taihang Mt. alluvial fan and Yellow River alluvial fan. In the Taihang mountainous area, the groundwater was recharged by precipitation and was characterized by Ca–HCO3 type water with depleted δ18O and δD (mean value of −8.8‰ δ18O). Along the flow path from the mountainous area to Taihang Mt. alluvial fan, the groundwater became geochemically complex (Ca–Na–Mg–HCO3–Cl–SO4 type), and heavier δ18O and δD were observed (around −8‰ δ18O). Before the surface water with mean δ18O of −8.7‰ recharged to groundwater, it underwent isotopic enrichment in Taihang Mt. alluvial fan. Chemical mixture and ion exchange are expected to be responsible for the chemical evolution of groundwater in Yellow River alluvial fan. Transferred water from the Yellow River is the main source of the groundwater in the Yellow River alluvial fan in the south of the study area, and stable isotopic compositions of the groundwater (mean value of −8.8‰ δ18O) were similar to those of transferred water (−8.9‰), increasing from the southern boundary of the study area to the distal end of the fan. The groundwater underwent chemical evolution from Ca–HCO3, Na–HCO3, to Na–SO4. A conceptual model, integrating stiff diagrams, is used to describe the spatial variation of recharge sources, chemical evolution, and groundwater flow paths in the complex alluvial fan aquifer system.  相似文献   
2.
地下水中高浓度的铵态氮对生活饮用水安全及生态环境存在潜在威胁。相比较硝态氮,高浓度的铵态氮不仅有各种人为来源,天然沉积环境更是造成高铵地下水的主要成因。本文以城镇化快速发展的珠江三角洲为研究区,运用数理统计、主成分分析等方法深入探讨了研究区高铵地下水的赋存环境特征及驱动因素。结果表明,研究区地下水中NH4+质量浓度介于未检出~180 mg/L。研究区1539组地下水样品中,NH4+质量浓度大于10 mg/L的高铵地下水69组,其中含NH4+质量浓度大于30 mg/L的高铵"肥水"23组。对比2005-2008年历史水化学数据,2009-2018年新增建设用地孔隙含水层高铵地下水样品比例增加25%。高铵地下水呈斑块状分布于三角洲平原区第四系底部低洼的基底、洼地等退积层序发育的淤泥质含水层中。淤泥层等富含有机质和总有机碳的沉积层是珠江三角洲地区的"生铵层",有机氮的矿化是三角洲平原区城市化孔隙含水层中高铵地下水的主要驱动力。城镇化扩张引起生活污水及富铵工业废水的泄漏入渗是城乡结合部高铵地下水铵氮的重要来源。三角洲平原区中性至弱碱性富含有机质的还原环境是高铵地下水的主要成因。风化溶滤、阳离子交换吸附、海陆交互作用是珠江三角洲高铵地下水质演变的主要水文地球化学过程。  相似文献   
3.
运用高分辨率ETM+数据计算区域作物蒸散   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
在太行山山前平原典型农区,对区域地表能量平衡及日蒸散模型进行了实证研究,且通过中国科学院栾城农业生态试验站田间实测资料对模型估算结果进行了有效性的验证。结果显示,采用LANDSAT 7ETM+的高分辨率数据结合地面同步的观测数据作为模型的输入变量,可以很好地估算农田的日蒸散量及能量平衡各分量。在典型农区,日蒸散量、NDVI的频率分布随作物生长季节的变化表现出一定的差异性。  相似文献   
4.
海盐气溶胶和硫酸盐气溶胶在云微物理过程中的作用   总被引:14,自引:2,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
利用大气气溶胶和云分档模式研究海盐气溶胶和硫酸盐气溶胶在云微物理过程中的作用, 计算结果表明:云中液态水含量随高度的分布并不随海盐、硫酸盐的数目以及云团上升速度的变化而变化; 随着云滴数目的增加, 云滴的有效半径会减小; 硫酸盐对云滴数目影响起主导作用, 海盐在水汽相对充足情况下增加了云滴数目, 在水汽相对不足的情况下减少了云滴数目; 硫酸盐粒子浓度特别强的情况下 (人类活动污染比较严重时), 如果水汽相对不足, 云滴数目会明显小于硫酸盐粒子浓度; 而海盐粒子的存在, 加剧了水汽的供应不足, 从而可以在很大程度上进一步降低云滴数目。也就是说, 在有些情况下, 如果不考虑海盐气溶胶的作用, 硫酸盐气溶胶对云特性的影响会被过高估计。  相似文献   
5.
该文主要对适合于北京地区的土壤水分卫星遥感监测方法,利用GIS及GPS工具,提高对土壤水分卫星遥感监测结果的分析能力进行了探讨。在分析研究北京地区土壤水分卫星遥感监测模式及适宜使用的下垫面状况和时段的基础上,提出了一批具有一定物理意义和应用价值的遥感模式。利用GIS和GPS技术实现包括遥感信息在内的多种数据的复合,以影像的方式,将地表地理状况与土壤水分卫星遥感监测结果结合起来,实现了RS、GIS及GPS的融合,提高了土壤水分卫星遥感监测的精度。  相似文献   
6.
山西水2井和岳42井水位记震能力分析   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
对比分析了唐山地区同一地质单元内、同一观测含水层、水位动态相同的山西水2井和岳42井记录的水震波曲线,显示两井记震能力相差很大,从井孔结构、地震面波特性等方面分析了两井记震能力差异性的成因机理,结果表明,井孔的固有周期是影响水位记震能力大小的首要条件。  相似文献   
7.
Focal Fault of the 1999 Datong Ms5.6 Earthquake in Shanxi Province   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Several earthquakes with Ms≥5.0 occurred in the Datong seismic region in 1989,1991 and 1999,The precise focus location of the earthquake sequence was made by the records of the remote sensing seismic station network in Datong.Using that data together with macro-intensity distribution and focal mechanism solutions,we analyze the difference among three subsequences.The results show that the focal fault of the 1999 Ms 5.6 earthquake was a NWW-trending left-lateral strike-slip fault.It is 16km long and 12km wide.It developed at the depth of 5km and is nearly vertical in dip.The two previous earthquake subsequences,however,were generated by activity along NNE-trending right-lateral strike-slip fault.It can be found that the rupture directioin of the 1999 earthquake has changed.It is generally found that a rupture zone has more than two directions and has different strength along these two directions.The complicate degree of focal circumstance is related to the type of earthquake sequences.There is the NE-trending Dawangcun fault and the NW-trending Tuanbu fault in the seismic region,but no proof indicates a connection between focal faults and these two tectonic faults.The feature that focal faults of three subsequences are strike-slip is different from that of the two tectonic faults.It is suggested that the 1999 earthquake subsequence was possibly generated by a new rupture.  相似文献   
8.
由小震震源机制解得到的鄂尔多斯周边构造应力场   总被引:8,自引:4,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
利用格点尝试法首先分区对鄂尔多斯地块周边的 30 0 0多个小震震源机制解进行了处理。结果显示 ,在震源机制解覆盖的时段内 ,地块周边地区的平均构造应力场有以下特征 :地块周边主要以水平构造作用力为主 ,且其主压应力轴走向以地块西南侧为中心 ,从北至东呈扇形展布。在分区基础上 ,对各区的平均主应力轴分布进行了扫描 ,得到了其随时间的变化过程。其中渭河、六盘山和银川区的构造应力场相对稳定 ,临汾和同心区的构造应力场变化复杂 ,临河、包头、呼和、大同和太原区的构造应力场变化与该区的几次中强地震有密切关系。另外 ,地块周边除个别区外大多数区域在 1992年和 1996年前后 ,主压应力轴走向有趋近于N75°E的现象  相似文献   
9.
The geography information system of the 1303 Hongton M=8 earthquake has been established. Using the spatial analysis function of GIS, the spatial distribution characteristics of damage and isoseismal of the earthquake are studies. By comparing with the standard earthquake intensity attenuation relationship, the abnormal damage distribution of the earthquake is found, so the relationship of the abnormal distribution with tectonics, site condition and basin are analyzed. In this paper, the influence on the ground motion generated by earthquake source and the underground structures near source also are studied. The influence on seismic zonation, anti-earthquake design, earthquake prediction and earthquake emergency responding produced by the abnormal density distribution are discussed. Foundation item: National important fundamental research “The Basic Research of Important Project in Damage Environment” and The important project “The Seismic Hazard Assessment Research and Anti-earthquake Structure Research” from China Earthquake Administration during the 10th Five-year Plan. Contribution No. 04FE1008, Institute of Geophysics, China Earthquake Administration.  相似文献   
10.
Introduction The Great North China, located at longitude 106E to 124E and latitude 31N to 42N, in-cludes three secondary active tectonic blocks, Ordos, Yanshan and North China plain (Figure 1). The geological tectonics of these three secondary blocks is much different from each other. As a stable block with high rigidity, the Ordos block is mostly surrounded by down-faulted basins with an inactive interior since Cenozoic, although the fault zones along its boundary are strongly active wi…  相似文献   
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