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A heavy rainfall event that occurred over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River Basin(YRB) during July11–13 2000 is explored in this study. The potential/stream function is used to analyze the upstream "strong signals" of the water vapor transport in the Tibetan Plateau(TP). The studied time period covers from 2000 LST 5 July to 2000 LST 15 July(temporal resolution: 6 hours). By analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the water vapor flux, vorticity and divergence prior to and during the heavy rainfall event, the upstream "strong signals" related to this heavy rainfall event are revealed. A strong correlation exists between the heavy rainfall event in the YRB and the convective clouds over the TP. The "convergence zone" of the water vapor transport is also identified, based on correlation analysis of the water vapor flux two days and one day prior to, and on the day of, the heavy rainfall. And this "convergence zone" coincides with the migration of the maximum rainfall over the YRB. This specific coupled structure actually plays a key role in generating heavy rainfall over the YRB. The eastward movement of the coupled system with a divergence/convergence center of the potential function at the upper/lower level resembles the spatiotemporal evolution of the heavy rainfall event over the YRB. These upstream "strong signals" are clearly traced in this study through analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the potential/stream function of upstream water vapor transport.  相似文献   
3.
A mathematical relation between deformation and vertical vorticity tendency is built by introducing the frontogenesis function and the complete vertical vorticity equation, which is derived by virtue of moist potential vorticity. From the mathematical relation, it is shown that properly configured atmospheric conditions can make deformation exert a positive contribution to vortex development at rates comparable to other favorable factors. The effect of deformation on vortex development is not only related to the deformation itself, but also depends on the current thermodynamic and dynamic structures of the atmosphere, such as the convective stability, moist baroclinicity and vertical wind shear(or horizontal vorticity). A diagnostic study of a heavy-rainfall case that occurred during 20–22 July 2012 shows that deformation has the most remarkable effect on the increase in vertical vorticity during the rapid development stage of the low vortex during its whole life cycle. This feature is mainly due to the existence of an approximate neutral layer(about 700 h Pa) in the atmosphere where the convective stability tends to be zero. The neutral layer makes the effect of deformation on the vertical vorticity increase significantly during the vortex development stage, and thus drives the vertical vorticity to increase.  相似文献   
4.
基于Rayleigh-Gans散射原理构造一个S波段双线偏振雷达模拟器。模拟器考虑了云冰、雪、雨和雹4种水凝物,以水凝物的混合比和数浓度以及水凝物粒子的轴比、相对介电常数、下落倾角为输入量,计算得到水平/垂直偏振反射率因子、差分反射率、比差分相位等偏振量。通过二维理想飑线模拟的试验结果表明,模拟器合理地再现了二维理想飑线系统成熟期的主要偏振特征:雹的反射率较高,差分反射率较低(又称Zdr洞);对流云区的Zdr柱;层云区的反射率和比差分相位的0℃层亮带特征;雨滴反射率与差分反射率因子的“雨线”统计特征。利用该模拟器建立了模式变量和偏振雷达观测的联系,有助于未来将偏振雷达观测资料应用于模式预报效果评估及对流尺度资料同化等方面的研究和应用。   相似文献   
5.
台风莫拉菲(2009)登陆前后电荷结构演变的模拟研究   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
利用中尺度起电放电模式以及卫星和闪电定位等观测资料,对比分析了台风莫拉菲(2009)在登陆前后以及衰亡阶段的电荷结构及形成。结果表明:莫拉菲在登陆前存在近海加强过程,加强中逐渐形成清晰的台风眼并伴随眼壁区闪电活动的多发。眼壁区对流在近海加强阶段呈现正的三极性电荷结构,主负电荷区位于-25℃——10℃层,其上下各有一个正电荷区。而在台风达到最大强度后呈现负的偶极性电荷结构,仅存在云中部的负电荷区和下部的正电荷区。眼壁区对流的电荷结构同台风强度变化密切相关而不受登陆直接影响。在台风发展的不同阶段,外螺旋雨带对流主要表现为正的三极性或正的偶极性电荷结构,之前的研究一般认为外雨带对流只能呈现正的偶极性电结构。外雨带三极性电结构的形成可以类似于眼壁区三极性结构的形成,也存在其他形成机制,即在霰粒子与冰晶组成的正偶极性电荷结构下存在一个由雹粒子组成的正电荷区,从而形成正的三极性电荷结构。台风衰亡阶段对流主要表现负的偶极性电荷结构,对流活动较弱,类似于陆地雷暴消散阶段的特性。不同类型的电荷结构所对应对流的相对强度也在文内进行了讨论。  相似文献   
6.
Based on observational precipitation at 63 stations in South China and NCEP NCAR reanalysis data during 1951 2010,a cluster analysis is performed to classify large-scale circulation patterns responsible for persistent precipitation extremes(PPEs) that are independent of the influence of tropical cyclones(TCs).Conceptual schematics depicting configurations among planetary-scale systems at different levels are established for each type.The PPEs free from TCs account for 38.6%of total events,and they tend to occur during April August and October,with the highest frequency observed in June.Corresponding circulation patterns during June August can be mainly categorized into two types,i.e.,summer-Ⅰ type and summer-Ⅱtype.In summer-Ⅰ type,the South Asian high takes the form of a zonal-belt type.The axis of upstream westerly jets is northwest-oriented.At the middle level,the westerly jets at midlatitudes extend zonally.Along the southern edge of the westerly jet,synoptic eddies steer cold air to penetrate southward;the Bay of Bengal(BOB) trough is located to the north;a shallow trough resides over coastal areas of western South China;and an intensified western Pacific subtropical high(WPSH) extends westward.The anomalous moisture is mainly contributed by horizontal advection via southwesterlies around 20°N and southeasterlies from the southern flange of the WPSH.Moisture convergence maximizes in coastal regions of eastern South China,which is the very place recording extreme precipitation.In summer-Ⅱ type,the South Asian high behaves as a western-center type.The BOB trough is much deeper,accompanied by a cyclone to its north;and a lower-level trough appears in northwestern parts of South China.Different to summer-Ⅰ type,moisture transport via southwesterlies is mostly responsible for the anomalous moisture in this type.The moisture convergence zones cover Guangdong,Guangxi,and Hainan,matching well with the areas of flooding.It is these set combinations among different systems at different levels that trigger PPEs in South China.  相似文献   
7.
Two hailstorms that occurred in Beijing and Tianjin, respectively, are investigated, based mainly on the total lightning data observed by the System d’Alerte Fondre par Interferometric Radioelecctrique (SAFIR3000), the cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning data of a CG lightning location system, and the echo data of a Doppler radar. Both hailstorms exhibited two lightning frequency peaks: the first was before the hailfall and the second was after the hailfall, with the second peak greater than the first. The dominant polarity of the CG lightning was positive in the stage around the first frequency peak, but changed to negative in the stage around the second frequency peak. The evolution of radar echoes and the height distribution of lightning radiation sources are explored, revealing that both hailstorms had stronger convection and the main positive charge occurred at mid levels during the stage around the first frequency peak. However, whilst the Beijing hailstorm experienced the enhancement of convection, with the main positive charge at upper levels around the second frequency peak, the Tianjin hailstorm generated its second frequency peak during the period when the convection kept weakening and the main positive charge dropped to mid–lower levels. Through evaluation of the radar parameters, we investigate the mechanisms responsible for the second stage of active lightning discharge. Furthermore, the lightning activity exhibited a close relationship with radar echo parameters and hailfall. Lightning jump signals were found before the hailfall and were associated with the change ratio of the 40-dBZ echo volume above the ?15°C level, which demonstrates the application value of lightning data in severe weather warning.  相似文献   
8.
山东省冬小麦产量动态集成预报方法   总被引:8,自引:3,他引:5       下载免费PDF全文
在新型统计检验聚类分析 (CAST) 方法对山东省冬小麦种植区进行合理分区的基础上,利用基于作物产量历史丰歉气象影响指数、关键气象因子影响指数、气候适宜度指数、WOFOST (world food study) 作物生长模型分别建立各区域冬小麦产量动态预报方法,利用这4种方法分别对2004—2011年山东省冬小麦产量进行动态预报,在分析历史预报结果平均准确率的基础上,剔除预报准确率低于90.0%的预报方法,确定每种方法的权重系数,采用加权方法建立山东省冬小麦产量动态集成预报方法。结果表明:4种单一产量预报方法在各区域各时段的预报准确率很不稳定,波动范围较大。而集成预报方法对山东省各区域冬小麦产量动态预报准确率相对于4种单一预报方法均有所提高,预报准确率普遍在95.0%以上,且其预报结果稳定性较好,变化比较平稳, 集成预报方法更适合在业务上应用。  相似文献   
9.
多普勒天气雷达双PRF径向速度资料质量控制   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
双PRF技术可用于扩展多普勒天气雷达不模糊速度的间隔,但是它也会导致径向速度资料受到离散奇异值的污染,在使用径向速度资料之前,需要对其进行质量控制。通过计算每个库的径向速度与其局地中值速度的差值,定量分析了CINRAD-SA、SC、CD和CC型业务多普勒天气雷达在双PRF模式下的径向速度数据质量,在此基础上提出了一种三步式的双PRF径向速度资料质量控制算法,即首先基于回波尺度大小对径向速度资料中的孤立噪声进行过滤,其次基于局地连续性原则对落在扩展不模糊速度间隔之外的模糊速度进行速度退模糊,最后基于已知的双PRF径向速度数据错误特征进行奇异值修正,并利用CINRAD-SA、SC、CD和CC型多普勒天气雷达的双PRF径向速度资料对该算法进行了测试。数据分析结果表明绝大部分点的速度都遵循连续性原则,与其局地中值速度的偏差较小或几乎没有偏差,而那些奇异值点的速度与其局地中值速度的偏差和高、低PRF的最大不模糊速度对应。对算法进行测试的结果表明该算法能有效地处理模糊速度并合理地修正速度奇异值。使用本算法对双PRF径向速度资料进行质量控制后,在保持原有数据空间分辨率不变的情况,径向速度数据质量得到显著提高。  相似文献   
10.
青藏高原闪电和降水气候特征及时空对应关系   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
基于1998—2013年的TRMM (tropical rainfall measuring mission) 数据,分析青藏高原闪电活动与降水气候特征及时空对应关系,结果表明:青藏高原 (简称高原) 的闪电活动中心在高原中部和东北部,中部最大闪电密度达到6.2 fl·km-2·a-1;但高原降水最活跃的区域是东南部,年降水量超过800 mm。闪电活动和降水随月份均呈现出先西进再东退的特征,但高原东北部强闪电活动区位置几乎不变化。在固定区域闪电和降水月变化具有一致性,活跃期出现在5—9月,呈单峰结构,除西部和东南部外,闪电与降水峰值月份吻合。结合TRMM降水特征 (简称PFs) 资料研究单个闪电表征降水量 (rainyield per flash,RPF) 的空间分布特征表明,闪电活动可以作为高原深对流的指示因子,而RPF可以有效表征深对流系统在整个降水系统中的比例。高原中西部和东北部深对流系统在整个降水系统中的比例最大,而在高原东南部最小,高原东南部的降水更多由暖云降水系统贡献。  相似文献   
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