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1.
南京市郊雾水中重金属和大气污染物的观测分析   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
利用2006年12月南京市北郊雾水样品化学分析资料和同期气象资料研究郊区雾水中重金属和雾天大气污染特征。结果表明,郊区出现雾天时,不利于大气污染物的扩散,造成较严重的大气污染,污染物浓度变化与雾的生消基本同步;大雾期间PM10浓度比起雾前高2.5倍。雾水中重金属浓度在0.0205—1.8248mg/L范围,平均1.32mg/L;对重金属与大气污染物作相关分析,除类金属As外,Cd、Cr、Cu、Mn和Fe浓度两两之间相关系数均大于0.91,说明重金属排放具有同源性。  相似文献
2.
华北暴雪的云微物理参数化方案的比较模拟   总被引:6,自引:3,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
用MM5模式模拟2004年12月20-23日发生在华北地区的一次暴雪天气的发生发展及其演变过程.在四个嵌套网格区域内分别采用Goddard方案(试验G)和Reisner 2方案(试验R)的两个纯显式冰相云微物理参数化方案进行试验.模拟结果表明:试验G和试验R均可以较好的模拟暴雪过程中的环流形势演变、降雪分布和强度,并且两个试验的结果差别不大,但是云中的微物理过程有很大的不同.试验G的主要云微物理过程包括云水的凝结增长、云冰的凝华增长、云冰初始化、云冰被雪碰并、云水被雪碰并、雪的凝华增长、云冰的Bergeron过程等;而试验R的主要云微物理过程包括云冰的凝华增长、云冰转化成雪、雪的凝华增长和霰的凝华增长等.  相似文献
3.
Measurements of various sulphur gases in a coastal marine environment   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Measurements of several sulphur gases have been made in coastal seawaters (including microlayers) and marine air off Great Yarmouth, U.K., and in a freshwater lake. The results show dimethyl sulphide to be the dominant sulphur gas in all the waters examined, with lesser amounts of carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide. For the marine air and water samples carbonyl sulphide showed no significant seasonal variation in concentration. The seawater was always supersaturated with respect to the carbonyl sulphide concentration in the air; the mean saturation value being 4.6. Likewise the seawater was always supersaturated with dimethyl sulphide, but for this gas the concentrations in the water showed substantial seasonal variation (× 40), with a maximum value of about 500 ng(S) l-1 in late June, approximately contemporaneous with the second plankton bloom in the region.Sea surface microlayers harvested cryogenically showed a mean enrichment of 2.4 relative to subsurface water for carbonyl sulphide. Some part of the observed microlayer enrichment for this gas may be due to freezing-on of atmospheric carbonyl sulphide onto the frozen microlayer sample. In general, microlayer samples did not exhibit a significant enrichment for dimethyl sulphide. However, under conditions of high biological production, enrichments of several-fold were found, but may be attributable, at least in part, to biological production of dimethyl sulphide in the microlayer water in the period between collection and analysis.  相似文献
4.
Measurements of various sulphur gases in a coastal marine environment   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
Measurements of several sulphur gases have been made in coastal seawaters (including microlayers) and marine air off Great Yarmouth, U.K., and in a freshwater lake. The results show dimethyl sulphide to be the dominant sulphur gas in all the waters examined, with lesser amounts of carbonyl sulphide and carbon disulphide. For the marine air and water samples carbonyl sulphide showed no significant seasonal variation in concentration. The seawater was always supersaturated with respect to the carbonyl sulphide concentration in the air; the mean saturation value being 4.6. Likewise the seawater was always supersaturated with dimethyl sulphide, but for this gas the concentrations in the water showed substantial seasonal variation (× 40), with a maximum value of about 500 ng(S) l-1 in late June, approximately contemporaneous with the second plankton bloom in the region.Sea surface microlayers harvested cryogenically showed a mean enrichment of 2.4 relative to subsurface water for carbonyl sulphide. Some part of the observed microlayer enrichment for this gas may be due to freezing-on of atmospheric carbonyl sulphide onto the frozen microlayer sample. In general, microlayer samples did not exhibit a significant enrichment for dimethyl sulphide. However, under conditions of high biological production, enrichments of several-fold were found, but may be attributable, at least in part, to biological production of dimethyl sulphide in the microlayer water in the period between collection and analysis.  相似文献
5.
Observations of the Nitrate Radical in the Marine Boundary Layer   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
A study of the nitrate radical (NO3) has been conducted through a series of campaigns held at the Weybourne Atmospheric Observatory, located on the coast of north Norfolk, England. The NO3 concentration was measured in the lower boundary layer by the technique of differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS). Although the set of observations is limited, seasonal patterns are apparent. In winter, the NO3 concentration in semi-polluted continental air masses was found to be of the order of 10 ppt, with an average turnover lifetime of 2.4 minutes. During summer in clean northerly air flows, the concentration was about 6 ppt with a lifetime of 7.2 minutes. The major loss mechanisms for the radical were investigated in some detail by employing a chemical box model, constrained by a suite of ancillary measurements. The model indicates that during the semi-polluted conditions experienced in winter, the major loss of NO3 occurred indirectly through reactions of N2O5, either in the gas-phase with H2O, or through uptake on aerosols. The most important direct loss was via reactions of NO3 with a number of unsaturated nonmethane hydrocarbons. The cleaner air masses observed during the summer were of marine origin and contained elevated concentrations of dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which provided the major loss route for NO3. The box model was then used to investigate the conditions in the remote marine boundary layer under which DMS will be oxidised more rapidly at night (by NO3) than during the day (by OH). This should occur if the concentration of NO2 is more than about 60% that of DMS.  相似文献
6.
A review of climate geoengineering proposals   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Climate geoengineering proposals seek to rectify the current radiative imbalance via either (1) reducing incoming solar radiation (solar radiation management) or (2) removing CO2 from the atmosphere and transferring it to long-lived reservoirs (carbon dioxide removal). For each option, we discuss its effectiveness and potential side effects, also considering lifetime of effect, development and deployment timescale, reversibility, and failure risks. We present a detailed review that builds on earlier work by including the most recent literature, and is more extensive than previous comparative frameworks. Solar radiation management propsals are most effective but short-lived, whilst carbon dioxide removal measures gain effectiveness the longer they are pursued. Solar radiation management could restore the global radiative balance, but must be maintained to avoid abrupt warming, meanwhile ocean acidification and residual regional climate changes would still occur. Carbon dioxide removal involves less risk, and offers a way to return to a pre-industrial CO2 level and climate on a millennial timescale, but is potentially limited by the CO2 storage capacity of geological reservoirs. Geoengineering could complement mitigation, but it is not an alternative to it. We expand on the possible combinations of mitigation, carbon dioxide removal and solar radiation management that might be used to avoid dangerous climate change.  相似文献
7.
WRF模式中微物理和积云参数化方案的对比试验   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
为了研究微物理参数化方案对珠江三角洲(简称珠三角)降水模拟的影响,利用WRF中尺度数值预报模式,在3 km模式分辨率下,在微物理方案为WSM6方案条件下,选用KF、BMJ、GD以及G3等四种积云参数化方案对2010年5月14日广东珠三角地区的一次暴雨过程进行了模拟试验。结果显示,KF方案对于降水带和降水量的模拟与实况较为一致。在积云参数化方案为KF条件下,分别选用Kessler、Lin et al、WSM 3、WSM5、Ferrier(New eta)和WSM6等6种微物理方案再次对这次暴雨过程进行模拟试验,模拟结果的对比分析表明:选用Lin et al微物理方案时,模式较好地模拟出了强降水雨带的位置和降水强度;而其他5种参数方案的模拟效果均不好,降水量明显偏小,雨带位置偏差较大;同时对低空急流、K指数和上升速度等物理量分析可知,Lin et al方案能较好地模拟出降水实况。  相似文献
8.
珠三角一次暖区强降水过程湿位涡的演变特征   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
首先利用常规资料分析了2008年6月13日发生在珠江三角洲地区的一次暖区强降水的天气背景,再借助于高时空分辨率的WRF中尺度数值模拟结果,对等压面湿位涡在强降水过程中的演变进行了诊断分析,结果表明:暴雨出现在高层高值MPV1和低层低值MPV1、低层高值MPV2的配置区,本次暴雨高层高值MPV1扰动来自西北和西南方向,低层低值MPV1扰动来自西南方向,而低层高值MPV2来自正南方向。低层低值MPV1扰动是造成对流不稳定的直接原因。经向风垂直切变加大导致低层MPV2高值发展,斜压性增强,暖湿气流活跃。MPV的配置有利于激发不稳定能量的释放,产生暖区强降水。湿位涡综合了动力场、热力场的演变特征,可有效地揭示这次暖区强降水发生发展的过程。  相似文献
9.
Mexican megadrought   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
Around 1550 AD a megadrought occurred in Mexico, possibly resulting in the death of over 80% of the Indian population at that time from disease. By any measure this was a major disaster that warrants serious examination. A 10,000-year simulation with the CSIRO Mark2 coupled global climatic model has been used to investigate the existence and genesis of major droughts in the Mexican region. One megadrought event was identified and a number of droughts lasting a decade or longer were also found. Average reductions in rainfall of 20 to 40% over the duration of these droughts were found to occur. While there is a mechanistic link between El Niño events and drought over Mexico, this link is tenuous, as shown by observations and this simulation. Stochastic processes appear to have a considerable influence on Mexican rainfall, and contribute to the weakness of the El Niño influence on such rainfall. It is shown that for both El Niño events and stochastic processes drought is created over Mexico by the reduction of the intensity of the climatological high pressure system in this region. This reduces the influx of moisture associated with the monsoonal system and thus rainfall. While only one 'megadrought' was found in the 10,000-year simulation thirteen droughts lasting over a decade occurred, suggesting that a devastating drought in the Mexican region has a return period of less than 1000 years and represents a non-trivial potential problem for this region.  相似文献
10.
Wintertime climatic trends in the western Himalayas   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
A. P. Dimri  S. K. Dash 《Climatic change》2012,111(3-4):775-800
Northern Indian rivers are primarily fed by wintertime (December, January, February—DJF) precipitation, in the form of snow—yielded by eastward moving synoptic weather systems called Western Disturbances (WDs), over the western Himalayas (WH). This accumulated snow melts during ablation period. In the context of today’s warming atmosphere, it is imperative to study the changes in the temperature and precipitation patterns over the WH to assess the impact of global warming on climatic conditions of the region. Keeping that in mind, observational analysis of temperature and precipitation fields is planned. In the present study various climatic indices are analyzed based on wintertime (DJF) data of 30?years (1975–2006) obtained from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE), India. Results indicate enhancement in the surface air temperature across the WH. Percent number of warm (cold) days have increased (decreased) during 1975–2006 over the WH. Further analysis of precipitation reveals slightly decreasing but inconsistent trends.  相似文献
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