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1.
各种非绝热物理过程在中尺度模式中的作用   总被引:39,自引:5,他引:34       下载免费PDF全文
张大林 《大气科学》1998,22(4):548-561
随着中尺度模式水平分辨率的不断提高,考虑加入尽可能合理的各种非绝热物理过程极为重要。如积云参数化需包括湿下沉气流、中上层的云卷出和非降水性浅对流。显式云物理方案需同时加入含有水相和冰相的预报方程,以计入水负荷、凝结蒸发、冻结融化和凝华升华的影响。本文首先从实测角度介绍上述物理过程在产生中β尺度环流结构的作用,然后通过一些敏感性数值试验来阐述它们如何帮助成功模拟不同的中尺度对流系统。这些物理过程的相对作用取决于网格距大小或可分辨尺度垂直运动的强度。当网格距在20~50 km之间,本文特别强调积云参数化和显式云物理方案的同时使用。最后对各种非绝热物理过程的耦合以及中尺度模式的局限性作了适当讨论。  相似文献
2.
Bivariate Wavelet Analysis of Asia Monsoon and ENSO   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16       下载免费PDF全文
This paper employs some recently developed bivariate wavelet analysis techniques to study the correlation between Asia monsoon and E1 Nino southern oscillation (ENSO).Various energy spectral densities are defined for waveiel transforms,analogous to those used in conventional Fourier analysis.Some comparisons are made by applying both wavelet and Fourier spectral methods (o the data.The wavelet analysis shows evidence of some relationship between Asia monsoon and ENSO,which the Fourier analysis resolves poorly.Correlation on several time scales,ranging from 2-4 years,11 years,and 22 years,become apparent with the wavelet cross-spectrum.Finally,the warelet cross-transform provides time localization of the distinctive features within the data record.  相似文献
3.
卫星观测到的青藏高原雷电活动特征   总被引:16,自引:6,他引:10  
郄秀书  Ralf Toumi 《高原气象》2003,22(3):288-294
利用TRMM卫星上携带的闪电探测系统获取的闪电定位资料首次对青藏高原上的闪电活动进行了研究。研究发现,青藏高原上的闪电活动呈现出大陆性气候特征,但是受其特殊地形的热力和动力特征所调制,高于93%的闪电活动发生于5—9月之间,并在夏季出现单一闪电活动峰值。随着地表加热和湿度的增加,闪电活动在5月份开始明显增加。较高的闪电密度发生在高原的中部,揭示了闪电活动与地形特征的相关性。63%的闪电活动发生于14:00—18:00(地方时,下同)之间,而只有<3%的闪电发生于00:00—l0:00之间。闪电光辐射能的时平均值也呈现出明显的日变化,随着太阳的升起,闪电光辐射能在08:00开始增加,并在l0:00达到稳定的极大值,直到02:00开始明显减小。闪电的光辐射能在高原北部呈现最大值,高原西部呈现最小值。青藏高原上的闪电放电强度比其它地区弱得多,其差别归因于高原上较低的对流不稳定能量。  相似文献
4.
5.
南海海平面高度年循环的特征   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
根据 TOPEX/ POSEIDON-ERS高度计提供的海平面高度异常资料和并行海洋气候模式(POCM)模拟海平面高度资料,分析了南海海平面高度年循环特征。结果表明:l月,3月和5月海平面高度的异常值分别与7月,9月,11月的异常值相反。l月(7月),深水海区与吕宋海峡的海平面高度为负(正)异常,在大部分陆架区和南海的西和南部,海平面高度为正(负)异常。在3月(9月),除海平面高度异常的量级已减少,且较小的SSH正异常(负异常)出现在南海的中部以外,海平面高度异常的分布型与 1月(7月)类似; SSH的年循环的最大振幅出现在吕宋岛的西北海域;风的季节变化是南海SSH季节变化的主要原因。  相似文献
6.
介绍的数学模型考虑了混合云中液、固态共存时以及冰面过饱和环境下稳定同位素的动力分馏效应。利用该数学模型,模拟了不同冷却条件下稳定同位素的温度效应。在相同的湿度条件下,湿绝热冷却过程中δ18O随温度的变化率小于等压冷却过程。冰面过饱和比Si的增大意味着动力分馏效应的增大。与平衡态相比,它的作用使得稳定同位素的综合分馏系数减小,从而使得降水中δ18O随温度的变化趋缓。模拟显示,湿绝热冷却过程中大气水线(MWL:=bδ18o+d)的斜率b和常数d均大于等压冷却过程。全球大气水线位于湿绝热冷却过程和等压冷却过程条件下分别模拟的两条大气水线之间。b和d的大小与Si呈正比。Si愈大,动力分馏效应愈强,b和d也愈大。反之亦然。然而,b和d的大小对云中含水量的变化具有低的敏感性。利用动力分馏模式模拟了乌鲁木齐降水中稳定同位素的变化。模拟的稳定同位素比率-温度以及δD-δ18O曲线分别与乌鲁木齐实测的稳定同位素比率-温度同归线以及大气水线有非常好的一致性。  相似文献
7.
非静力模式中几种垂直网格计算特性的对比研究   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
从非静力滞弹性方程组出发,将惯性重力波的水平波长分几百公里、几十公里和几公里三种情况,从频率、群速和各速的垂直尺度范围等方面对现有的几种垂直网格进行比较讨论。结果表明:在非静力模式中,CP网格和LZ网格适合于各种不同水平尺度惯性重力波的模拟;L网格和LY网格适合于水平尺度为几十公里以上的惯性重力波的模拟;LTS网格和CPTS网格比较适合于水平尺度的几十公里以下的惯性重力波的模拟。  相似文献
8.
Four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVar) is one of the most promising methods to provide optimal analysis for numerical weather prediction (NWP). Five national NWP centers in the world have successfully applied 4DVar methods in their global NWPs, thanks to the increment method and adjoint technique. However, the application of 4DVar is still limited by the computer resources available at many NWP centers and research institutes. It is essential, therefore, to further reduce the computational cost of 4DVar. Here, an economical approach to implement 4DVar is proposed, using the technique of dimension-reduced projection (DRP), which is called ``DRP-4DVar." The proposed approach is based on dimension reduction using an ensemble of historical samples to define a subspace. It directly obtains an optimal solution in the reduced space by fitting observations with historical time series generated by the model to form consistent forecast states, and therefore does not require implementation of the adjoint of tangent linear approximation. To evaluate the performance of the DRP-4DVar on assimilating different types of mesoscale observations, some observing system simulation experiments are conducted using MM5 and a comparison is made between adjoint-based 4DVar and DRP-4DVar using a 6-hour assimilation window.  相似文献
9.
On the basis of the mean air temperature, precipitation, sunshine duration, and pan evaporation from 23 meteorological stations in the upper Yellow River Basin from 1960 to 2001, the feasibility of using hypothesis test techniques to detect the long-term trend for major climate variables has been investigated. Parametric tests are limited by the assumptions such as the normality and constant variance of the error terms. Nonparametric tests have not these additional assumptions and are better adapted to the trend test for hydro-meteorological time series. The possible trends of annual and monthly climatic time series are detected by using a non-parametric method and the abrupt changes have been examined in terms of 5-yr moving averaged seasonal and annual series by using moving T-test (MTT) method, Yamamoto method, and Mann-Kendall method. The results show that the annual mean temperature has increased by 0.8℃in the upper Yellow River Basin during the past 42 years. The warmest center was located in the northern part of the basin. The nonlinear tendency for annual precipitation was negative during the same period. The declining center for annual precipitation was located in the eastern part and the center of the basin. The variation of annual precipitation in the upper Yellow River Basin during the past 42 years exhibited an increasing tendency from 1972 to 1989 and a decreasing tendency from 1990 to 2001. The nonlinear tendencies for annual sunshine duration and pan evaporation were also negative. They have decreased by 125.6 h and 161.3 mm during the past 42 years, respectively. The test for abrupt changes by using MTT method shows that an abrupt wanning occurred in the late 1980s. An abrupt change of the annual mean precipitation occurred in the middle 1980s and an abrupt change of the mean sunshine duration took place in the early 1980s. For the annual mean pan evaporation, two abrupt changes took place in the 1980s and the early 1990s. The test results of the Yamamoto method show that the abrupt changes mostly occurred in the 1980s, and two acute abrupt changes were tested for the spring pan evaporation in 1981 and for the annual mean temperature in 1985. According to the Mann-Kendall method, the abrupt changes of the temperature mainly occurred in the 1990s, the pan evaporation abrupt changes mostly occurred in the 1960s, and the abrupt changes of the sunshine duration primarily took place in the 1980s. Although the results obtained by using three methods are different, it is undoubted that jumps have indeed occurred in the last four decades.  相似文献
10.
Field measurements were made from June 2001 to May 2002 to evaluate the effect of crop residue application and temperature on CO2, CH4, and N2O emissions within an entire rice-wheat rotation season.Rapeseed cake and wheat straw were incorporated into the soil at a rate of 2.25 t hm-2 when the rice crop was transplanted in June 2001. Compared with the control, the incorporation of rapeseed cake enhanced the emissions of CO2, CH4, and N2O in the rice-growing season by 12.3%, 252.3%, and 17.5%,respectively, while no further effect was held on the emissions of CO2 and N2O in the following wheatgrowing season. The incorporation of wheat straw enhanced the emissions of CO2 and CH4 by 7.1%and 249.6%, respectively, but reduced the N2O emission by 18.8% in the rice-growing season. Significant reductions of 17.8% for the CO2 and of 12.9% for the N2O emission were observed in the following wheatgrowing season. A positive correlation existed between the emissions of N2O and CO2 (R2 = 0.445, n =73, p < 0.001) from the rice-growing season when N2O was emitted. A trade-off relationship between the emissions of CH4 and N2O was found in the rice-growing season. The CH4 emission was significantly correlated with the CO2 emission for the period from rice transplantation to field drainage, but not for the entire rice-growing season. In addition, air temperature was found to regulate the CO2 emissions from the non-waterlogged period over the entire rice-wheat rotation season and the N2O emissions from the nonwaterlogged period of the rice-growing season, which can be quantitatively described by an exponential function. The temperature coefficient (Q10) was then evaluated to be 2.3±0.2 for the CO2 emission and 3.9±0.4 for the N2O emission, respectively.  相似文献
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