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华南沿海暖区暴雨是单一暖气团降水.本文采用客观分析方法确定暖区暴雨主要影响系统为两类辐合线低值系统:偏南向辐合线与西南向辐合线;此类辐合线系统具有强烈的辐合上升层次与暖心结构,是一类强烈的暖区暴雨天气系统.偏南向辐合线多出现在粤西沿海,而西南向辐合线多出现于粤东沿岸,分别具有短时团状与持续带状两类强降水.华南沿海地区山脉河口众多,其中珠江口以西的团状云雾山正面阻挡偏南向辐合线,河口以东的带状莲花山侧面阻挡西南向辐合线.利用WRF数值模式分别研究粤东和粤西山脉对两类辐合线及其暴雨的地形影响,包括正面阻挡和侧面摩擦.结果显示,将偏南向型辐合线所遇云雾山范围地形降低80%后,因正面阻挡缺失,辐合线及其降水向北推进,雨带强度减弱,形状改变.地形的正面阻挡促使低层辐合气流迅速抬升触发强降水.降水释放的凝结潜热,又加强系统的上升运动和暖心结构强度与层厚,进而增强暴雨.填充偏南向型狭管地形的试验显示,狭管效应构成对强降水位置和强度的直接强迫影响,加之与云雾山正面阻挡配合,两项作用造成粤西暴雨频繁特征.测试粤东西南向莲花山脉对西南向辐合线的侧向阻挡与摩擦效应,通过对比莲花山两种地表粗糙度环境模拟效果,获得显著的局地垂直上升速度差,显示粤东沿海山脉的侧向摩擦不仅增强西南辐合线强度也加强垂直上升运动强度,由于西南气流的持续,山脉走向与气流的配置,维持了降雨时长及雨带范围.同时对粤西近海西南辐合气流及河口的暴雨雨带也有连带增强与维持作用.进一步地山脉地形抬升以其抬升迅速,范围集中,层次深厚,而有别于锋面气团抬升.加之近海水汽充沛,抬升后中层凝结释放的配合,增强了辐合线低值系统强度,造成暖区降水雨强远高于华南锋面降水.  相似文献
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东高红  刘一玮  孙蜜娜  戴云伟 《气象》2013,39(11):1422-1430
利用常规观测资料、天津255 m气象塔资料、多普勒雷达资料和VDRAS反演资料及中尺度TJ WRF模式输出资料,对2010年8月16日天津城区出现的一次局地强降水过程进行分析,重点分析了城市热岛与海风锋叠加作用对此次局地强降水的触发机制。结果表明:此次局地强降水发生在低层槽后弱的反环流条件下,具有明显的γ中尺度对流降水特征;城市热岛效应能造成局地的热力不均匀,这对形成地面中尺度辐合线非常有利。海风锋由岸边向市区移动中与中尺度辐合线相遇,能激发局地不稳定能量的释放,从而产生强对流天气。城市热岛对海风锋的移动有明显阻挡作用;当海风锋移到城市热岛效应明显区域附近时,其后侧气流会出现明显分支绕流和爬升现象,而且两者相遇处的辐合上升运动会迅速加强,这为该地不稳定能量的释放及雷暴的发生发展提供了有利的动力热力条件。中尺度TJ WRF模式可以很好地模拟出这一现象。  相似文献
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Climate change has substantially impacted crop growth and development in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone. Examination of the response of crop water consumption to climate change may provide a guide for adapting local agricultural production and ecological construction to new realities. The water consumption of three local crops (wheat, naked oats, and potatoes) is examined for Wuchuan County in the northern agro-pastoral transitional zone of China using meteorological data from 1960 to 2007 and soil moisture data from 1983 to 2007. The relationships between climate change and the crop water consumption are discussed. The results show that Wuchuan experienced both a warming trend and a reduction of precipitation between 1960 and 2007. The annual mean surface air temperature increased at a rate of 0.04℃ yr-1 and the annual precipitation decreased at a rate of 0.7 mm yr-1 . Both trends are particularly pronounced between 1983 and 2007, with an increase in annual mean temperature of 0.09℃ yr-1 and a decrease in annual mean precipitation of 2.1 mm yr-1 . Crop water consumption decreased between 1983 and 2007 for wheat (1.65 mm yr-1 ), naked oats (2.04 mm yr-1 ), and potatoes (3.85 mm yr-1 ). Potatoes and naked oats consume more water than wheat. Climate change has significantly impacted crop water consumption. Water consumption and rainfall during the growing season are positively correlated, while water consumption and active accumulated temperature are negatively correlated. Compared to precipitation, accumulated temperature has little impact on crop water consumption. Recent climate change has been detrimental for crop production in Wuchuan County. Adaptation to climate change should include efforts to breed drought-resistant crops and to develop drought-resistant cultivation techniques.  相似文献
4.
Agricultural climatic resources (such as light,temperature,and water) are environmental factors that affect crop productivity.Predicting the effects of climate change on agricultural climatic resource utilization can provide a theoretical basis for adapting agricultural practices and distributions of agricultural production.This study investigates these effects under the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) scenario A1B using daily data from the high-resolution RegCM3 (0.25° ×0.25°) during 1951-2100.Model outputs are adjusted using corrections derived from daily observational data taken at 101 meteorological stations in Northeast China between 1971 and 2000.Agricultural climatic suitability theory is used to assess demand for agricultural climatic resources in Northeast China during the cultivation of spring maize.Three indices,i.e.,an average resource suitability index (Isr),an average efficacy suitability index (Ise),and an average resource utilization index (K),are defined to quantitatively evaluate the effects of climate change on climatic resource utilization between 1951 and 2100.These indices change significantly in both temporal and spatial dimensions in Northeast China under global warming.All three indices are projected to decrease in Liaoning Province from 1951 to 2100,with particularly sharp declines in Isr,Ise,and K after 2030,2021,and 2011,respectively.In Jilin and Heilongjiang provinces,Isr is projected to increase slightly after 2011,while Ise increases slightly and K decreases slightly after 2030.The spatial maxima of all three indices are projected to shift northeastward.Overall,warming of the climate in Northeast China is expected to negatively impact spring maize production,especially in Liaoning Province.Spring maize cultivation will likely need to shift northward and expand eastward to make efficient use of future agricultural climatic resources.  相似文献
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本文基于一个水平分辨率为50 km的区域气候模式RegCM4 (Regional Climate Model,version 4.0)的模拟与预估结果,对我国汛期江淮暴雨低涡在气候变化背景下的统计特征与合成结构进行分析,进一步对两种温室排放情景下未来中国汛期的江淮暴雨低涡特征进行预估.结果表明:RegCM4模式对环境要素及低涡都具有一定的模拟能力,低涡的伸展高度、生命期及暴雨位置模拟结果与观测较为接近,但模拟的低涡个数、最大暖区高度以及温、湿要素分布均比实际略偏低,而风速和低涡的强度模拟则偏强;在未来两种温室排放情景预估方面,RCP4.5(Representative Concentration Pathways,简称RCP)典型浓度排放情景下,暴雨低涡数量比例减少,强度减弱,但低涡发展高度仍以850hPa为主,生命期多为2d以内,低涡雨区分布及最大暖区高度均与历史时段相近;RCP8.5情景下,暴雨低涡比例明显大于RCP4.5情景,低涡发展高度以700hPa为主,生命期达3d的增多,强度增强,最大暖区厚度范围显著伸展.两种情景下均有低涡中温度锋区减弱,而湿度锋区增强,但RCP8.5情景减弱与增强更显著,显示更高的温室气体排放将导致未来出现更强的暴雨低涡,造成伴随暴雨的低涡灾害性天气的增加,因此应进一步深化对低涡暴雨灾害性天气发展趋势的研究.  相似文献
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利用地面观测资料、探空资料、NCEP再分析资料、多普勒雷达资料及WRF输出资料,研究了2014年6月20—21日发生在江南地区的一次持续性暴雨过程中中尺度对流系统(mesoscale convective system,MCS)的演变过程、结构特征及模态转变机理。此次暴雨发生在500 hPa东移发展的短波槽前、850 hPa切变线与低空暖湿急流之间的不稳定区。MCS演变过程中组织模态发生转变,对流东移发展形成拖尾型(tailing stratiform,TS)MCS,后逐渐转变为平行型(parallel stratiform,PS)MCS。环境风场上,TS型MCS表现为垂直对流线的相对入流,弓状回波北侧有气旋生成;PS型MCS低层表现为垂直对流线的相对入流,中高层表现为平行向相对入流。TS型MCS中,强对流区位于正扰动气压带,形成垂直作用于对流线的气压梯度力,导致相对入流垂直对流线;而在平行对流线方向上,扰动气压变化小,平行相对气流弱,整体呈现为较强的垂直向相对气流;PS型MCS中,气压扰动整体表现为西南正气压扰动与东北负气压扰动的分布特征,在西南-东北向气压梯度力作用下,形成平行对流线向后的相对入流,导致MCS模态的转变。  相似文献
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