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Spatial variations in grain-size parameters (i.e. grain-size trends) contain information on sediment transport patterns. Analytical procedures have been proposed using the grain-size trend to determine net sediment transport pathways. In the first part of this study, the fundamentals of the theory are presented through methods for analysing 1D and 2D variations. The methods used are critically discussed, while pointing out some severe problems. So far, these methods suffer from limitations leading to serious interpretational errors, making it necessary to take account of two kinds of uncertainties. Inputs uncertainties are linked to the physical sediment properties as well as procedures of sampling and analysis. Model uncertainties are then discussed for each step of the grain-size trend analysis. The validity of Sediment Trend Analysis under natural conditions is tested against published field studies to determine the most appropriate variation trend to use in a specific environment. Proposals are given for each step of the procedure for optimal use of the method using a Quality Assurance (QA) approach. Further developments are proposed, such as integration into a Geographic Information System.  相似文献   
对自20世纪80年代以来的大气热力学发展进行了综合评述, 阐述了如城市热岛效应、全球增暖等非传统大气热力学问题; 基于大气非平衡态热力学的非线性理论, 提出应发展突显热力学作用的数值模式, 并阐述其必要性和可能性。  相似文献   
Based on energy balance equation and mass transfer equation, a general model to estimate actual evaporation from non-saturated surfaces was derived. Making use of two concepts, “relative evaporation” and “relative drying power”, a relationship was established to account for the departure from saturated conditions. Using this model, the actual evaporation (evapotranspiration) can be calculated without the need of potential evaporation estimation. Furthermore, the model requires only a few meteorological parameters that are readily and routinely obtainable at standard weather stations. Based on nearly 30 years data of 432 meteorological stations and 512 hydrological stations in China, in combined with GIS, nine typical river basins were selected. Using the data of the selected river basins, the model was tested. The results show that the actual evaporation rate can be estimated with an error of less than 10% in most areas of China, except few years in the Yellow River Basin.  相似文献   
北京连续降雪过程分析   总被引:22,自引:3,他引:22       下载免费PDF全文
该文对2002年12月份北京出现的1841年以来历史上最长的连续6天的降雪天气进行了合成分析和诊断分析。北半球合成环流形势显示,连续降雪发生在东亚稳定的纬向环流形势下,其上游地区强大经向环流和阻塞高压使中纬度东亚和西太平洋纬向环流得以维持。东亚合成环流的垂直结构表明,连续降雪期间华北地区始终处于锋区中,并存在低空辐合、高空辐散的散度场垂直分布结构。卫星水汽云图显示出有水汽通道向河套倒槽云系输送水汽。华北地区的诊断分析表明,地面和边界层中山东地区分裂高压南侧向北回流的偏南气流是造成降雪的主要水汽通道。变形场的流场结构使水汽在北京附近辐合。垂直剖面展现了华北回流降雪天气近地面层的浅薄的冷空气垫,和暖湿空气回流在冷空气垫上的爬升,并在其上形成一个浅薄的饱和层。  相似文献   
应用高光谱遥感数据估算土壤表层水分的研究   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
土壤水分是土壤的重要组成部分,它在陆地表层和大气之间的物质和能量交换方面扮演着重要角色,寻求快速而准确的方法估算土壤水分具有重要意义。通常,从可见光一近红外对土壤表层水分的估计多是建立在土壤水分与反射率的关系之上的。而在土壤水分含量不高时,土壤水分的增加使土壤光谱反射率在整个波长范围内降低,尤其在760nm,970nm,1190nm,1450nm,1940nm和2950nm等水分吸收波段,而在土壤水分含量较高时,土壤水分的增加会使土壤光谱反射率在某些光谱波段升高。而土壤水分的估计往往是基于土壤水分与土壤水分吸收波段的吸收强度之间的线性关系上,虽然这些经验的方法对于估算某些土壤的表层水分含量是有效的,但这些关系应用于其它条件(如不同种类土壤、土壤湿度变化范围很大的情况)时却面临很多困难,这与土壤的光谱反射率是由土壤的组成成分(土壤水分、有机质、氧化铁和粘土矿物等)的含量和它们在土壤中的分布密切相关。微分技术处理“连续”的光谱是遥感中常用的数学方法,微分技术能部分消除低频光谱成分的影响。现在微分光谱已广泛地应用于研究植被的生物物理参数、矿物和有机质等。然而利用微分光谱对土壤水分反演的研究却鲜见报道。本文通过对实验室中多种不同类型的土壤进行光谱与土壤表层水分含量进行观测,探讨了通过土壤反射率与微分光谱对土壤表层水分的反演方法。4种类型的土壤光谱数据(反射率(R),反射率倒数的对数(log(1/R)),反射率的一阶微分光谱(dR/dλ),反射率倒数的对数的一阶微分光谱(d(log(1/R))/dλ))与土壤表层水分之间的关系在本文中得到分析,R与log(1/R)对于不同土壤类型与土壤表层水分都很敏感,说明通过R与log(1/R)反演土壤表层水分受土壤类型的影响很大,而dR/dλ,d(log(1/R))/dλ)对土壤类型却不敏感,对土壤表层水分较为敏感,说明dR/dλ和d(log(1/R))/dλ)对于反演不同类型土壤具有很大的潜力,微分光谱与土壤水分在某些波段具有显著的相关性。通过随机对9种土壤(各具有4个土壤水分)的数据建立反演土壤水分的模型,并其他9种土壤(各具有4个土壤水分)的数据进行验证模型,结果表明,dR/dλ和d(log(1/R))/dλ)能够显著提高R与log(1/R)对于不同土壤类型土壤表层水分的反演精度,由于吸收过程是非线性的,在四种类型的土壤光谱数据中,总体来说,d(log(1/R))/dλ)具有最好的能力预测不同类型土壤的表层水分含量。  相似文献   
《Applied Geochemistry》2005,20(5):849-859
The relationship between particle distributions and chemical compositions of road sediments were investigated in Kobe, Japan. Road sediments are significant pollutants in urban areas, and their toxicity differs according to particle size. In the present study, the authors analyzed the distributions of particle size, chemical composition and particle type among size-fractionated road sediments. Road sediment samples were collected from road medians and street gutters. Chemical compositions of about 13,000 individual road sediment particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. They were classified into 7 types by cluster analysis, and their possible sources were estimated. The particle type distributions showed some relationships with the chemical composition distributions. This study showed that the chemical composition distributions among the road sediments were typical for each element in relation to the particle type distributions.  相似文献   
A microscale air pollutant dispersion model system is developed for emergency response purposes. The model includes a diagnostic wind field model to simulate the wind field and a random-walk air pollutant dispersion model to simulate the pollutant concentration through consideration of the influence of urban buildings. Numerical experiments are designed to evaluate the model's performance, using CEDVAL(Compilation of Experimental Data for Validation of Microscale Dispersion Models) wind tunnel experiment data, including wind fields and air pollutant dispersion around a single building. The results show that the wind model can reproduce the vortexes triggered by urban buildings and the dispersion model simulates the pollutant concentration around buildings well. Typically, the simulation errors come from the determination of the key zones around a building or building cluster. This model has the potential for multiple applications; for example, the prediction of air pollutant dispersion and the evaluation of environmental impacts in emergency situations; urban planning scenarios;and the assessment of microscale air quality in urban areas.  相似文献   
基于雷达资料快速刷新四维变分同化(RR4DVar)初始化的三维数值云模式,利用京津冀6部新一代多普勒天气雷达和区域自动气象站观测资料,针对2013年7月4日出现在京津冀平原地区的中尺度对流系统(MCS),开展了数值临近预报试验。研究结果表明,充分考虑雷达观测信息的对流尺度数值临近预报具有很大的优势,但也存在不足:(1)模式能够较好地把握中尺度对流系统的组织发展和移动演变特征,对风暴回波带的走向和尺度特征有较好的预报,但对强回波的强度和位置预报存在一定偏差;(2)模式预报可以反映风暴系统的中小尺度扰动特征,对风暴冷池和出流边界(阵风锋)的发展变化均有较为合理的预报;(3)模式对强降水中心和雨带位置的预报有很大优势,能较好地预报弱降水雨带的分布形势和雨量,但对强降水落区的预报偏大;(4)模式对风暴造成的对流性强降水的预报准确率较高,对0.5—10 mm阈值的降水范围预报偏差比较合理,对10 mm以上降水范围的预报偏大,但是对弱降水风暴的弱回波较强回波的预报性能要好;(5)由于三维数值云模式对京津冀复杂地形的处理不够完善,对山前风场预报偏差较大,造成对山前风暴的发展演变和山前降水的预报偏差较大。  相似文献   
A timescale decomposed threshold regression(TSDTR) downscaling approach to forecasting South China early summer rainfall(SCESR) is described by using long-term observed station rainfall data and NOAA ERSST data. It makes use of two distinct regression downscaling models corresponding to the interannual and interdecadal rainfall variability of SCESR.The two models are developed based on the partial least squares(PLS) regression technique, linking SCESR to SST modes in preceding months on both interannual and interdecadal timescales. Specifically, using the datasets in the calibration period 1915–84, the variability of SCESR and SST are decomposed into interannual and interdecadal components. On the interannual timescale, a threshold PLS regression model is fitted to interannual components of SCESR and March SST patterns by taking account of the modulation of negative and positive phases of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation(PDO). On the interdecadal timescale, a standard PLS regression model is fitted to the relationship between SCESR and preceding November SST patterns. The total rainfall prediction is obtained by the sum of the outputs from both the interannual and interdecadal models. Results show that the TSDTR downscaling approach achieves reasonable skill in predicting the observed rainfall in the validation period 1985–2006, compared to other simpler approaches. This study suggests that the TSDTR approach,considering different interannual SCESR-SST relationships under the modulation of PDO phases, as well as the interdecadal variability of SCESR associated with SST patterns, may provide a new perspective to improve climate predictions.  相似文献   
基于敏感源分析的动态大气污染排放方案模拟   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
选取2014年11月6—11日一次典型污染过程,以北京城区为重点关注的目标区域,基于印痕分析技术判别对该区域影响较大的敏感源区,设计重点区域减排试验和敏感源区逐日动态减排试验,利用区域化学传输模式WRF-Chem进行模拟对比。结果显示:上述两种方案对源强较高的减排当地PM2.5浓度降低均有明显的改善作用,且在传输作用下会辐射影响到下游地区;但仅就目标区域而言,敏感源区减排方案的减排效率要远远高于重点区域减排方案。为了验证基于敏感源分析的动态减排方法的适用性,进一步开展了不同季节以及不同背景浓度的个例模拟。结果表明:基于敏感源区分析结果制定动态逐日减排措施,可降低削减成本、提高减排效率,以达到最具经济环境效益的减排效果。  相似文献   
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