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1.
我国东部邻海恶劣天气的时空分布及其成因初探   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
本文利用1930~1979年NCDC海洋船舶观测的气象资料,分析了中国东部邻海恶劣天气的时空分布。结果表明,海区恶劣天气的分布在冬季和夏季是不同的;在东北和西南季风期间,台湾东北和西南海区也有差异。影响恶劣天气条件的分布因子非常复杂,主要是季风和极锋、天气系统、冷暖洋流及地形等因子。  相似文献   
2.
Summary Most finite-difference numerical weather prediction models employ vertical discretizations that are staggered, and are low-order (usually second-order) approximations for the important terms such as the derivation of the geopotential from the hydrostatic equation, and the calculation of the vertically integrated divergence. In a sigma-coordinate model the latter is used for computing both the surface pressure change and the vertical velocity. All of the above-mentioned variables can diminish the accuracy of the forecast if they are not calculated accurately, and can have an impact on related quantities such as precipitation.In this study various discretization schemes in the vertical are compared both in theory and in practice. Four different vertical grids are tested: one unstaggered and three staggered (including the widely-used Lorenz grid). The comparison is carried out by assessing the accuracy of the grids using vertical numerics that range from second-order up to sixth-order.The theoretical part of the study examines how faithfully each vertical grid reproduces the vertical modes of the governing equations linearized with a basic state atmosphere. The performance of the grids is evaluated for 2nd, 4th and 6th-order numerical schemes based on Lagrange polynomials, and for a 6th-ordercompact scheme.Our interpretation of the results of the theoretical study is as follows. The most important result is that the order of accuracy employed in the numerics seems to be more significant than the choice of vertical grid. There are differences between the grids at second-order, but these differences effectively vanish as the order of accuracy increases. The sixth-order schemes all produce very accurate results with the grids performing equally well, and with the compact scheme significantly outperforming the Lagrange scheme. A second major result is that for the number of levels typically used in current operational forecast models, second-order schemes (which are used almost universally) all appear to be relatively poor, for other than the lowest modes.The theoretical claims were confirmed in practice using a large number (100) of forecasts with the Australian Bureau of Meteorology Research Centre's operational model. By comparing test model forecasts using the four grids and the different orders of numerics with very high resolution control model forecasts, the results of the theoretical study seem to be corroborated.With 8 Figures  相似文献   
3.
Four models of surface boundary-layer flow in complex terrain are compared with observations made at Blashaval Hill, North Uist, Scotland. The field experiment is described by Mason and King (1985). Three of the models are derived from the two-dimensional theory of Jackson and Hunt (1975) and are described in Mason and King (1985), Walmsley et al. (1986) and Troen and Petersen (1989). The fourth is a mass-consistent code based on Traci et al. (1979). The model results are in good agreement with each other and are generally within the observed range of variation ( ~ ± 16%) in normalized wind speed. For most wind direcions (7 of 11), model results of normalized wind speed at the summit were within 7% of the observed mean values. For some wind directions, calculations using the Guidelines of Walmsley et al. (1989) suggested that variations in surface roughness were important. This led us to apply one of our models incorporating nonuniform surface roughness. The lack of significant improvement for cases when water lay upstream of Blashaval Hill is attributed to compensating changes at summit and reference sites and to very local effects on the wind data. Sensitivity to topography lying to the west and northwest of Blashaval was also investigated. Results suggested an influence from those distant topographic features for some wind directions. When those features were incorporated, maximum errors in normalized wind speed at the summit were reduced from 18 to 13%.  相似文献   
4.
The degree to which dust emissions are controlled by geomorphic conditions, wind environments and land use was investigated using the dust storm frequency (DSF) and data from more than 300 meteorological stations throughout northern China. Our analysis showed that most dust emissions originated in gobi deserts that developed in piedmont alluvial fans of the Kunlun, Qilian and Helan mountains. Dust emissions are low from other gobi desert regions, such as the northern Gurbantunggut and eastern Taklimakan, where high vegetation coverage restrained dust emissions or where dust-size particles are not abundant after a long period of strong wind erosion. Sandy deserts with relatively high vegetation coverage or an extensive cover by mobile sands are not a major dust source. Although the highest dust emissions did not appear in regions with the highest wind energy, DSF trends in each region from 1960 to 2003 were closely related to local wind activity. DSF was low in regions with high levels of human activity, where the mean DSF from 1960 to 2003 did not exceed 4 days/year; even from the 1960s to the early 1970s, the period with the greatest DSF, frequency did not exceed 8 days/year, which indicates that extensive land use did not contribute to DSF. The low DSF in these areas might result from the fact that although land use could produce abundant fine soil fractions, vegetation coverage and soil moisture remained higher than in the gobi deserts of arid China, thereby decreasing dust-storm occurrence.  相似文献   
5.
基于遥感信息的华北冬小麦区域生长模型及模拟研究   总被引:21,自引:1,他引:21  
卫星遥感估产和作物生长模拟在作物监测和产量预测方面有各自不可替代的优势。但是,遥感估产难以揭示作物生长发育和产量形成的内在机理,作物模拟在区域应用时初始值的获取和参数的区域化遇到很多困难。如何利用二者的互补性使其相互结合受到人们关注。该文在Wofost模型本地化和区域化的基础上,首次利用同化法的思路探讨了MODIS遥感信息与华北冬小麦生长模拟模型结合的可行性和方法,初步建立了潜在生产水平(水分适宜条件)下区域遥感-作物模拟框架模型(WSPFRS模型)。模拟结果显示:WSPFRS模型对区域尺度的出苗期重新初始化后,模拟的开花期、成熟期空间分布的准确性比Wofost模拟结果有所改进;利用遥感信息对区域尺度上返青期生物量重新初始化后,模拟贮存器官干重的空间分布更接近实际单产的分布,贮存器官干重的高值区与实际高产区基本相符。该研究将为下一步实际水分供应条件下基于遥感信息的冬小麦区域生长模拟研究奠定了基础。  相似文献   
6.
国家气象中心气象要素的客观预报——MOS系统   总被引:24,自引:16,他引:24       下载免费PDF全文
面向全国2000多个台站,应用数值预报产品释用MOS技术制作温度、降水、相对湿度、风、云量及能见度等要素预报,并实现了预报业务运行。通过建立MOS预报系统,表明预报因子和预报对象的处理,建方程前的参数选择以及预报因子的选取都会影响要素预报的质量,需要做大量的细致工作。预报检验结果显示,降水预报尚未达到可用程度,温度和相对湿度的短期预报在大多数情况下是可用的或是可参考的,但还有待进一步改进。降水预报尚需在预报因子和充分运用多种探测信息方面着手加以改进。  相似文献   
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Logistic判别模型在强降水预报中的应用   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
张芳华  曹勇  徐珺  陶亦为  金荣花  代刊 《气象》2016,42(4):398-405
利用Logistiv判别模型进行强降水预报,并设计3种方案进行对比分析。方案1直接使用14个影响因子进行判别预报,受因子共线性作用及噪音信号影响,虽然拟合效果较好,但预报效果明显下降。方案2对14个影响因子进行主成分分析,利用前6个主成分建模,虽然拟合效果较方案1降低,但由于消除了因子共线性作用以及噪音信号影响,预报效果较方案1提高。方案3运用Bootstrap抽样技术得到符干样本并建模计算模型参数,打乱了原有时间序列中的波动,仪保留平稳信息,拟合自由度进一步降低,导致拟合效果较方案案2下降,但预报效果却是3种方案中最好且最稳定的。在上述研究基础上,利用欧洲中心数值预报模式的预报场资料,建立基于Logistic判别模型的强降水客观预报系统,并在中央气象台业务运行。2013和2014年连续两年汛期预报检验结果表明,概模型对强降水预报的TS评分高于数值模式本身,具有一定的业务参考价值。  相似文献   
10.
国家级格点化定量降水预报系统   总被引:10,自引:7,他引:3  
曹勇  刘凑华  宗志平  谌芸  代刊  陈涛  杨寅 《气象》2016,42(12):1476-1482
利用主客观融合降水反演、降水统计降尺度、降水时间拆分等技术构建了国家级格点化定量降水预报系统。该系统结构合理,模块功能明确,于2014年6月在国家气象中心投入业务使用,生成0~168 h时效,10 km分辨率,逐3 h的格点化定量降水预报产品。通过对2015年第13号热带气旋苏迪罗的格点化降水预报个例检验,结果显示,相比欧洲中期数值预报中心的确定性模式预报和预报员主观预报,该产品能更好地体现台风降水的时空精细化分布特点,对福建东北部和浙江东南部的特大暴雨中心位置表现更准确细致。通过对2015年4—9月的格点化产品整体效果检验,结果显示,相比欧洲中期数值预报中心的确定性模式预报和由反距离客观分析后的预报员主观预报,该产品既能保持和预报员主观预报相同的准确率,同时也能较明显地提高降水预报的时空精细化程度。  相似文献   
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