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1.
英国CRU高分辨率格点资料揭示的20世纪中国气候变化   总被引:26,自引:1,他引:25       下载免费PDF全文
中国覆盖比较完整的台站观测始于1951年,1951年之前虽然有一些观测记录,但是残缺不全。所以要建立更长的气候序列就要吸收代用资料,但是代用资料可能与气候要素仅有一定程度的相关,不可能一一对应,因此应用代用资料重建的气候序列有一定的不确定性。英国East Anglia大学的Climatic Research Unit(简称CRU)通过整合已有的若干个知名数据库,重建了一套覆盖完整、高分辨率、且无缺测的月平均地表气候要素数据集,时间范围覆盖1901~2003年,空间为0.5°×0.5°经纬网格覆盖所有陆地。这套资料和中国已有的气候数据相比具有如下优点:第一,中国西部20世纪前半期非常缺少观测,CRU资料尽管包含插值带来的误差,经比较仍可作为有一定信度的参考;第二,中国现有的百年温度序列只是年或季分辨率,而CRU资料达到月分辨率;第三,建立这个序列仅使用观测结果,做统计内插,不包括代用资料所带来的不确定性。因此,CRU的序列与用代用资料补充得到的序列在资料方面有较大不同,比较这两个序列,不仅可以进一步确认中国气候变化的特征,也可以彼此校正。结果表明:(1)CRU资料反映的全国年平均温度年际变化和考虑代用资料重建的序列吻合得很好,相关系数达到0.84;(2)区域尺度上,两者在10个典型分区的气温变率也相当一致,相关整体保持在0.8左右,仅新疆西南部和西藏西北部两者差异较大;(3)CRU资料揭示的中国年总降水量在1951~2000年的变化与160站观测吻合,相关系数达到0.93;(4)CRU资料的中国东部四季降水量和重建资料十分一致,秋季一致性最好,相关0.93;(5)CRU资料和重建的序列比较一致地表现出中国温度和降水年代际变化的主要特征,其给出的20世纪20年代中国大旱和20世纪40年代中国高温的空间分布与作者过去的结论相一致。这表明,作者过去重建的中国气候序列有比较大的可靠性,而CRU资料也提供了新的信息,特别是在20世纪前半期和中国西部。  相似文献
2.
Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the period of 1957-2001, the climatological seasonal transition features of large-scale vertically integrated moisture transport (VIMT) in the Asian-Australian monsoon region are investigated in this paper. The basic features of the seasonal transition of VIMT from winter to summer are the establishment of the summertime "great moisture river" pattern (named the GMR pattern) and its eastward expansion, associated with a series of climatological events which occurred in some "key periods", which include the occurrence of the notable southerly VIMT over the Indochina Peninsula in mid March, the activity of the low VIMT vortex around Sri Lanka in late April, and the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon in mid May, among others. However, during the transition from summer to winter, the characteristics are mainly exhibited by the establishment of the easterly VIMT belt located in the tropical area, accompanied by some events occurring in "key periods". Further analyses disclose a great difference between the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions when viewed from the meridional migration of the westerly VIMT during the seasonal change process, according to which the Asian monsoon region can be easily divided into two parts along the western side of the Indochina Peninsula and it may also denote different formation mechanisms between the two regions.  相似文献
3.
兰伟仁  朱江  Ming XUE 《大气科学》2010,34(3):640-652
本文在假定模式无偏差的情况下, 利用一次风暴过程的模拟多普勒雷达资料进行一系列风暴天气尺度的集合卡尔曼滤波资料同化试验, 检验集合卡尔曼滤波在风暴天气尺度资料同化方面的效果, 并验证各集合卡尔曼滤波参数对同化效果的影响。试验结果表明, 集合卡尔曼滤波能有效地应用于风暴尺度的资料同化; 40个集合成员以及6 km的局地化尺度能较好地滤除采样误差造成的虚假相关, 同时可以将观测信息传递到无观测的模式格点; 利用背景场加上空间平滑的高斯型随机扰动生成初始成员的方式较未经过平滑的方式有更好的分析效果; 背景场扰动方法能够提高样本的离散度; 只同化反射率的同化试验表明, 反射率的同化效果较明显, 也证明了集合卡尔曼滤波在非常规资料同化中的作用; 增加径向风资料同化的效果优于只进行反射率同化的结果。  相似文献
4.
Based on summarizing previous achievements and using data as long and new as possible, the onset characteristics of Asian summer monsoon and the role of Asian-Australian “land bridge” in the onset of summer monsoon are further discussed. In particular, the earliest onset area of Asian summer monsoon is comparatively analyzed, and the sudden and progressive characteristics of the onset of summer monsoon in different regions are discussed. Furthermore, the relationships among such critical events during the onset of Asian summer monsoon as the splitting of subtropical high belt over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), the initiation of convection over Indo-China Peninsula, the westward advance, reestablishment of South Asian High, and the rapid northward progression of convection originated from Sumatra in early summer are studied. The important impact of the proper collocation of the latent heating over Indo-China Peninsula and the sensible heating over Indian Peninsula on the splitting of the subtropical high belt, the deepening of BOB trough, the activating of Sri Lanka vortex (twin vortexes in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres), and the subsequent onset of South China Sea summer monsoon are emphasized.  相似文献
5.
Comparison of TRMM and Water District Rain Rates over New Mexico   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
This paper compares monthly and seasonal rain rates derived from the Version 5 (V5) and Version 6 (V6) TRMM Precipitation Radar (TPR, TSDIS reference 2A25), TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI, 2A12), TRMM Combined Instrument (TCI, 2B31), TRMM calibrated IR rain estimates (3B42) and TRMM merged gauge and satellite analysis (3B43) algorithms over New Mexico (NM) with rain gauge analyses provided by the New Mexico water districts (WD). The average rain rates over the NM region for 1998–2002 are 0.91mmd?1 for WD and 0.75, 1.38, 1.49, 1.27, and 1.07mmd?1 for V5 3B43, 3B42, TMI, PR and TCA; and 0.74, 1.38, 0.87 and 0.97 mm d?1 for V6 3B43, TMI, TPR and TCA, respectively. Comparison of V5 3B43 with WD rain rates and the daily TRMM mission index (TPR and TMI) suggests that the low bias of V5 3B43 for the wet months (summer to early fall) may be due to the non-inclusion of some rain events in the operational gauge analyses that are used in the production of V5 3B43. Correlation analyses show that the WD rain rates vary in phase, with higher correlation between neighboring WDs. High temporal correlations (>0.8) exist between WD and the combined algorithms (3B42, 3B43 and TCA for both V5 and V6) while satellite instrument algorithms (PR, TMI and TCI) are correlated best among themselves at the monthly scale. Paired t-tests of the monthly time series show that V5 3B42 and TMI are statistically different from the WD rain rates while no significant difference exists between WD and the other products. The agreements between the TRMM satellite and WD gauge estimates are best for the spring and fall and worst for winter and summer. The reduction in V6 TMI (?7.4%) and TPR (?31%) rain rates (compared to V5) results in better agreement between WD estimates and TMI in winter and TPR during summer.  相似文献
6.
In this paper, the online weather research and forecasting and chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used to explore the impacts of urban expansion on regional weather conditions and its implication on surface ozone concentrations over the Pearl River Delta(PRD) and Yangtze River Delta(YRD) regions. Two scenarios of urban maps are used in the WRF-Chem to represent the early 1990s (pre-urbanization) and the current urban distribution in the PRD and the YRD. Month-long simulation results using the above land-use scenarios for March 2001 show that urbanization increases both the day- and night-time 2-m temperatures by about 0.6oC and 1.4oC, respectively. Daytime reduction in the wind speed by about 3.0 m s-1 is larger than that for the nighttime (0.5 to 2 m s-1). The daytime increase in the PBL height (> 200 m) is also larger than the nighttime (50--100 m). The meteorological conditions modified by urbanization lead to detectable ozone-concentration changes in the PRD and the YRD. Urbanization increases the nighttime surface-ozone concentrations by about 4.7%--8.5% and by about 2.9%--4.2% for the daytime. In addition to modifying individual meteorological variables, urbanization also enhances the convergence zones, especially in the PRD. More importantly, urbanization has different effects on the surface ozone for the PRD and the YRD, presumably due to their urbanization characteristics and geographical locations. Even though the PRD has a smaller increase in the surface temperature than the YRD, it has (a) weaker surface wind speed, (b) smaller increase in PBL heights, and (c) stronger convergence zones. The latter three factors outweighed the temperature increase and resulted in a larger ozone enhancement in the PRD than the YRD.  相似文献
7.
兰伟仁  朱江  Ming XUE 《大气科学》2010,34(4):737-753
文章的第I部分(兰伟仁等, 2010), 利用模拟雷达资料在假定模式无误差的情况下进行了一系列的集合卡尔曼滤波(EnKF)敏感性试验, 验证了EnKF方法在风暴尺度天气资料同化中的作用。本文继续探讨EnKF在有显著模式误差的情况下同化模拟多普勒雷达资料的效果问题。试验中假定模式误差主要来源于微物理过程参数化的不确定性。结果表明: 模式误差在不同程度上影响了EnKF分析的效果, 对微物理量的影响尤其明显; 在EnKF分析中, 利用微物理过程参数化集合的方法来考虑模式误差, 对速度场、 位温场以及比湿场有较明显的正作用, 但对于微物理量场分析效果较差; 若包含控制试验的微物理过程参数化方案, 则EnKF对所有变量都有正效果, 随着同化循环次数的增加, 分析结果更加合理; 只考虑冰相过程的微物理过程参数化方案的集合, 分析效果进一步提高。  相似文献
8.
Slant-path water vapor amounts (SWV) from a station to all the GPS (Global Positioning System) satellites in view can be estimated by using a ground-based GPS receiver. In this paper, a tomographic method was utilized to retrieve the local horizontal and vertical structure of water vapor over a local GPS receiver network using SWV amounts as observables in the tomography. The method of obtaining SWV using ground-based GPS is described first, and then the theory of tomography using GPS is presented. A water vapor tomography experiment was made using a small GPS network in the Beijing region. The tomographic results were analyzed in two ways: (1) a pure GPS method, i.e., only using GPS observables as input to the tomography; (2) combining GPS observables with vertical constraints or a priori information, which come from average radiosonde measurements over three days. It is shown that the vertical structure of water vapor is well resolved with a priori information. Comparisons of profiles between radiosondes and GPS show that the RMS error of the tomography is about 1–2mm. It is demonstrated that the tomography can monitor the evolution of tropospheric water vapor in space and time. The vertical resolution of the tomography is tested with layer thicknesses of 600 m, 800 m and 1000 m. Comparisons with radiosondes show that the result from a resolution of 800m is slightly better than results from the other two resolutions in the experiment. Water vapor amounts recreated from the tomography field agree well with precipitable water vapor (PWV) calculated using GPS delays. Hourly tomographic results are also shown using the resolution of 800 m. Water vapor characteristics under the background of heavy rainfall development are analyzed using these tomographic results. The water vapor spatio-temporal structures derived from the GPS network show a great potential in the investigation of weather disasters.  相似文献
9.
By analyzing the linkage of the Northern Annular Mode (NAM) anomaly to the East Asian jet and the East Asian trough during Stratospheric Sudden Warming (SSW), the influence of SSW on East Asian weather is studied. The results show that the East Asian jet is strengthened and the East Asian trough is deepened during SSW. With the downward propagation of SSW, the strengthened East Asian jet and the East Asian trough would move southward, expand westward and gradually influence the area of north and northeastern China. This implies that the winter monsoon tends to be enhanced over East Asia during SSW.  相似文献
10.
In recent years the pollution of aerosol is getting worse and worse in Guangzhou area. The haze weather mainly occurs from October to April of the following year, resulting in visibility deterioration. From the beginning of the 1980's the visibility dramatically deteriorated, obviously increasing haze weather, in which there are three big fluctuations, respectively showing the periods of pollution of dust, sulphate and dust, fine particle from photochemical process and sulphate and dust accompanying the development of economy. The long-term tendency of visibility caused by fog and light fog does not have the tendency due to human activity or economical development and the variation mainly show the inner interannual and interdecadal variation of climate. The deterioration of visibility has close relation to the fine particles in Guangzhou area, with half of PM10 surpassing the limits set by national second graded standard, meanwhile, all values of PM2.5 rise above the day-mean limits of American national standard, indicating very high fine particle concentration. The ratio of PM2.5 to PM10 is also very high, reaching 62% - 69%, especially higher in dry seasons than in rainy seasons.  相似文献
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