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South China Sea Warm Pool in Boreal Spring   总被引:35,自引:1,他引:34       下载免费PDF全文
During the boreal spring of 1966, a warm-core eddy is identified in the upper South China Sea (SCS) west of the Philippines through an analysis of the U.S. Navy’s Master Oceanographic Observation Data Set. This eddy occurred before the development of the northern summer monsoon and disappeared afterward. We propose that this eddy is a result of the radiative warming during spring and the downwelling due to the anticyclonic forcing at the surface. Our hypothesis suggests an air-sea feedback scenario that may explain the development and withdrawal of the summer monsoon over the SCS. The development phase of the warm-core eddy in this hypothesis is tested by using the Princeton Ocean model  相似文献
英国CRU高分辨率格点资料揭示的20世纪中国气候变化   总被引:26,自引:1,他引:25       下载免费PDF全文
中国覆盖比较完整的台站观测始于1951年,1951年之前虽然有一些观测记录,但是残缺不全。所以要建立更长的气候序列就要吸收代用资料,但是代用资料可能与气候要素仅有一定程度的相关,不可能一一对应,因此应用代用资料重建的气候序列有一定的不确定性。英国East Anglia大学的Climatic Research Unit(简称CRU)通过整合已有的若干个知名数据库,重建了一套覆盖完整、高分辨率、且无缺测的月平均地表气候要素数据集,时间范围覆盖1901~2003年,空间为0.5°×0.5°经纬网格覆盖所有陆地。这套资料和中国已有的气候数据相比具有如下优点:第一,中国西部20世纪前半期非常缺少观测,CRU资料尽管包含插值带来的误差,经比较仍可作为有一定信度的参考;第二,中国现有的百年温度序列只是年或季分辨率,而CRU资料达到月分辨率;第三,建立这个序列仅使用观测结果,做统计内插,不包括代用资料所带来的不确定性。因此,CRU的序列与用代用资料补充得到的序列在资料方面有较大不同,比较这两个序列,不仅可以进一步确认中国气候变化的特征,也可以彼此校正。结果表明:(1)CRU资料反映的全国年平均温度年际变化和考虑代用资料重建的序列吻合得很好,相关系数达到0.84;(2)区域尺度上,两者在10个典型分区的气温变率也相当一致,相关整体保持在0.8左右,仅新疆西南部和西藏西北部两者差异较大;(3)CRU资料揭示的中国年总降水量在1951~2000年的变化与160站观测吻合,相关系数达到0.93;(4)CRU资料的中国东部四季降水量和重建资料十分一致,秋季一致性最好,相关0.93;(5)CRU资料和重建的序列比较一致地表现出中国温度和降水年代际变化的主要特征,其给出的20世纪20年代中国大旱和20世纪40年代中国高温的空间分布与作者过去的结论相一致。这表明,作者过去重建的中国气候序列有比较大的可靠性,而CRU资料也提供了新的信息,特别是在20世纪前半期和中国西部。  相似文献
Impact of Land Use Changes on Surface Warming in China   总被引:22,自引:1,他引:21       下载免费PDF全文
Land use changes such as urbanization, agriculture, pasturing, deforestation, desertification and irrigation can change the land surface heat flux directly, and also change the atmospheric circulation indirectly, and therefore affect the local temperature. But it is difficult to separate their effects from climate trends such as greenhouse-gas effects. Comparing the decadal trends of the observation station data with those of the NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis (NNR) data provides a good method to separate the effects because the NNR is insensitive to land surface changes. The effects of urbanization and other land use changes over China are estimated by using the difference between the station and the NNR surface temperature trends. Our results show that urbanization and other land use changes may contribute to the observed 0.12℃ (10 yr)- 1 increase for daily mean surface temperature, and the 0.20℃ (10 yr)- 1 and 0.03℃ (10 yr)-1 increases for the daily minimum and maximum surface temperatures, respectively. The urban heat island effect and the effects of other land-use changes mayalso play an important role in the diurnal temperature range change. The spatial pattern of the differences in trends shows a marked heterogeneity.The land surface degradation such as deforestation and desertification due to human activities over northern China, and rapidly-developed urbanization over southern China, may have mostly contributed to the increases at stations north of about 38°N and in Southeast China, respectively. Furthermore, the vegetation cover increase due to irrigation and fertilization may have contributed to the decreasing trend of surface temperature over the lower Yellow River Basin. The study illustrates the possible impacts of land use changes on surface temperature over China.  相似文献
热带气旋运动的动力学研究进展   总被引:21,自引:2,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
热带气旋运动是由各种形式的外部强迫、内部过程及其相互作用所决定的。特别是环境气流与气旋环流以及β效应之间的相互作用可以产生次级的非对称气流,使热带气旋偏离大尺度环境气流的引导。这种偏差,被称为广义的β漂移。本文讨论了控制β漂移的物理因子和物理过程,尤其是涡旋结构与环境气流切变对它的影响,以及β漂移在热带气旋路径预报上的应用。另外,还总结了双台风相互作用、热带气旋摆动和与下垫面强迫有关的物理过程的影响。  相似文献
太平洋年代际振荡研究进展(英)   总被引:17,自引:3,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
近10年来,太平洋年代际振荡(PDO)因其对全球气候系统的深远影响而得到广泛的研究。PDO指的足在太平洋的气候变率中具有类似ENSO空间结构但周期为10-30年的一种振荡,当北太平洋中部海面温度异常增暖(冷却)时,热带太平洋中部和东部以及北美沿岸常同时伴随有同等幅度的异常冷却(增暖)。总体而言,有两类观点分别认为PDO起源于确定的海气耦合过程或起源于大气的随机强迫。确定性起源论强调,一个海气耦合系统内部的物理过程可以提供一个正反馈机制以增强一初始扰动,及一个负反馈机制以促使振荡位相发生逆转;海洋环流的动力演变过程决定了振荡的时间尺度。随机性起源论则强调,因为大气活动没有一个特定的时间尺度,其时间尺度谱实际上对应于白噪音谱,所以大气对海洋的强迫是随机的;而海洋常在低频谱段有最大的响应振幅,其对应的周期约为十几年或几十年。作者试图系统性地理解PDO在观测、理论和数值方面的研究现状,从而为当前研究提供一个有用的背景性参考。  相似文献
Using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data for the period of 1957-2001, the climatological seasonal transition features of large-scale vertically integrated moisture transport (VIMT) in the Asian-Australian monsoon region are investigated in this paper. The basic features of the seasonal transition of VIMT from winter to summer are the establishment of the summertime "great moisture river" pattern (named the GMR pattern) and its eastward expansion, associated with a series of climatological events which occurred in some "key periods", which include the occurrence of the notable southerly VIMT over the Indochina Peninsula in mid March, the activity of the low VIMT vortex around Sri Lanka in late April, and the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon in mid May, among others. However, during the transition from summer to winter, the characteristics are mainly exhibited by the establishment of the easterly VIMT belt located in the tropical area, accompanied by some events occurring in "key periods". Further analyses disclose a great difference between the Indian and East Asian monsoon regions when viewed from the meridional migration of the westerly VIMT during the seasonal change process, according to which the Asian monsoon region can be easily divided into two parts along the western side of the Indochina Peninsula and it may also denote different formation mechanisms between the two regions.  相似文献
TRMM测雨雷达对1998年东亚降水季节性特征的研究   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
利用热带测雨计划卫星上的测雨雷达得到的降水资料,对1998年东亚降水,特别是中国大陆东部、东海和南海的降水,进行了分析研究,并对比了热带降水研究结果。年统计结果表明,东亚地区层状云降水出现概率极高(比面积达83.7%),对流云降水的比面积仅占13.6%,然而两者对总降水量的贡献相当。结果还表明,暖对流云降水出现的比例和对总降水量的贡献很小。在季节尺度,对流云和层状云降水的比与两者的面积比成比例关系。除夏季外,测雨雷达降水量与GPCP降水量可比性好。研究结果还指出:在中纬度陆地和海洋上对流云和层状云的比降水量和比面积呈相反方向作季节性南北移动,这一活动与东亚季风变化一致;该地区降水的季节性变化还表现为降水垂直廓线的变化。除冬季外,南海地区降水垂直结构呈热带特征。CRAD分析表明,对流云降水的地面雨强变化大,尤其在陆地上,而层状云多表现为地面弱降水。  相似文献
A great deal of palaeoenvironmental and palaeoclimatic evidence suggests that a predominant temperature drop and an aridiflcation occurred at ca. 4.0 ka BP. Palaeoclimate studies in China support this dedution. The collapse of ancient civilizations at ca. 4.0 ka BP in the Nile Valley and Mesopotamia has been attributed to climate-induced aridification. A widespread alternation of the ancient cultures was also found in China at ca. 4.0 ka BP in concert with the collapse of the civilizations in the Old World. Palaeoclimatic studies indicate that the abrupt climate change at 4.0 ka BP is one of the realizations of the cold phase in millennial scale climate oscillations, which may be related to the modulation of the Thermohaline Circulation (THC) over the Atlantic Ocean. Therefore, this study conducts a numerical experiment of a GCM with SST forcing to simulate the impact of the weakening of the THC. Results show a drop in temperature from North Europe, the northern middle East Asia, and northern East Asia  相似文献
The paper investigates the ability to retrieve the true soil moisture profile by assimilating near-surface soil moisture into a soil moisture model with an ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) assimilation scheme, including the effect of ensemble size, update interval and nonlinearities in the profile retrieval, the required time for full retrieval of the soil moisture profiles, and the possible influence of the depth of the soil moisture observation. These questions are addressed by a desktop study using synthetic data. The "true" soil moisture profiles are generated from the soil moisture model under the boundary condition of 0.5 cm d^-1 evaporation. To test the assimilation schemes, the model is initialized with a poor initial guess of the soil moisture profile, and different ensemble sizes are tested showing that an ensemble of 40 members is enough to represent the covariance of the model forecasts. Also compared are the results with those from the direct insertion assimilation scheme, showing that the EnKF is superior to the direct insertion assimilation scheme, for hourly observations, with retrieval of the soil moisture profile being achieved in 16 h as compared to 12 days or more. For daily observations, the true soil moisture profile is achieved in about 15 days with the EnKF, but it is impossible to approximate the true moisture within 18 days by using direct insertion. It is also found that observation depth does not have a significant effect on profile retrieval time for the EnKF. The nonlinearities have some negative influence on the optimal estimates of soil moisture profile but not very seriously.  相似文献
南海海平面高度年循环的特征   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9       下载免费PDF全文
根据 TOPEX/ POSEIDON-ERS高度计提供的海平面高度异常资料和并行海洋气候模式(POCM)模拟海平面高度资料,分析了南海海平面高度年循环特征。结果表明:l月,3月和5月海平面高度的异常值分别与7月,9月,11月的异常值相反。l月(7月),深水海区与吕宋海峡的海平面高度为负(正)异常,在大部分陆架区和南海的西和南部,海平面高度为正(负)异常。在3月(9月),除海平面高度异常的量级已减少,且较小的SSH正异常(负异常)出现在南海的中部以外,海平面高度异常的分布型与 1月(7月)类似; SSH的年循环的最大振幅出现在吕宋岛的西北海域;风的季节变化是南海SSH季节变化的主要原因。  相似文献
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