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1.
风和径流量对长江口缺氧影响的数值模拟   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
受自然和人类活动的影响,海洋缺氧现象日益严重,威胁着海洋生态环境,海洋缺氧问题已经引起了人们的广泛关注。本文应用区域海洋模式并耦合生态模式,对东海的生态系统进行了数值模拟和分析研究。与观测数据比较显示,该模型能较好地模拟长江口外生态变量的分布趋势。另外本文通过设置不同敏感性实验,探讨风和径流量对长江口底层缺氧现象的影响,结果分析表明,风和径流量对长江口外缺氧区的形成有显著的影响。径流量变化虽然对长江口外缺氧区的季节变化影响并不显著,但是对缺氧区域面积却存在显著的影响。径流量增加,水体层化增强,表层叶绿素浓度增加,最终导致缺氧区域范围扩展;径流量减小,水体层化减弱,表层叶绿素浓度减小,缺氧区域范围缩小。风向和风速的改变不仅影响长江口外缺氧区的季节变化,还影响缺氧区域面积。  相似文献   
2.
海面风不仅是驱动上层海洋运动的主要动力, 其能量也是维持海洋表层流动的主要机械能来源。为了分析南海表层流风能输入的变化, 用SODA(Simple Ocean Data Assimilation)(1901—2010)资料估算了风向南海表层流(表层地转流+表层非地转流)的能量输入。结果表明, 风向南海表层流、表层地转流和表层非地转流输入的能量总体均呈减少趋势, 110年间分别减小了约56%、65%和49%。导致风能输入减小的最主要因素是风应力的减弱(减小了35%)。由于南海受季风系统的控制, 风向表层流及其各成分输入的能量呈现出显著的季节性变化。冬季风能输入最强, 高值区位于南海西部及北部区域, 呈一个显著的“回力镖”状结构。这些结果对深入认识南海环流具有理论意义。  相似文献   
3.
乌兰布和沙漠典型植物群落土壤风蚀可蚀性研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
为探明植被恢复对乌兰布和沙漠土壤风蚀可蚀性的影响,以乌兰布和沙漠内不同沙地固 定阶段的 8 种典型植物群落及群落内表土作为研究对象,对土壤物理因子(可蚀性颗粒含量、土壤 含水量、有机质含量)、土壤结皮因子、植被因子 3 类土壤风蚀可蚀性因子指标进行监测,分析土壤 风蚀可蚀性因子在不同植物群落类型间、沙地固定阶段间的差异。结果表明:(1)在乌兰布和沙漠 典型植物群落中,沙蓬、沙生针茅、盐爪爪等草本植物群落的土壤风蚀可蚀性最强,白刺、梭梭、沙 冬青等灌木植物群落土壤风蚀可蚀性弱于草本植物群落,说明灌木林能显著降低土壤风蚀作用。 (2)随着沙地的不断固定,土壤结构不断发育,土壤可蚀性不断降低,土壤风蚀可蚀性强弱表现为 固定沙地<半固定沙地<流动沙地。(3)土壤可蚀性颗粒含量、土壤有机质含量、土壤含水量、土壤结 皮、植被因子与植被类型及沙地固定阶段具有显著相关关系。因此,在沙区生态建设工程中,为了 减少土壤风蚀量,不仅要考虑物种的选择,还要促进人工生态系统的演替和恢复,从而有效降低土 壤风蚀可蚀性。研究结果可为乌兰布和沙区植被生态系统服务功能的科学评价、防沙治沙工程的 建设与管理提供一定参考。  相似文献   
4.
敦煌-格尔木铁路沿线地形复杂、起沙因素多变、沙源丰富,沙害问题日益严重。目前对其风沙活动规律还未有研究,不利于防沙工作的开展。为此,通过对自北向南的5个观测点(S1、S2、S3、S4、S5)风速和风向的观测、计算和分析,利用平均风速、起沙风况及输沙势对敦格铁路沿线的风动力环境特征进行研究。结果表明:S5、S4和S3的风况对铁路风沙灾害防治意义较大。S5年平均风速、起沙风频率和输沙势最大,春季风沙活动最为强烈,且风向单一、风力强劲,风沙运动方向基本与铁路垂直,沙粒易在铁路附近堆积。S4夏季风沙活动最为强烈;S3春季风沙活动最为强烈,且风向单一,S4和S3的风沙运动方向与铁路夹角小于90°,附近沙源广阔,铁路易受风沙侵蚀,阻碍交通运营。  相似文献   
5.
Astronomy Letters - The acceleration of anomalous cosmic rays (ACRs) at the heliospheric termination shock and their influence on the shock structure and location are analyzed in terms of a...  相似文献   
6.
Interplanetary field enhancements were first discovered in the vicinity of Venus. These events are characterised by an increase in the magnitude of the heliospheric magnetic field with a near-symmetrical, sometimes thorn-shaped profile, and last from minutes to hours. Surveys of the events near Venus and Earth indicated clustering of the events in inertial space, which suggested that their sources were Solar System objects other than the Sun. A survey is presented of strong events of this type detected by the Ulysses spacecraft from 1990 to late 2001. Most of the events are accompanied by a discontinuity in the field direction near the events' centres. Other discontinuities are often symmetrical about the enhancement. The majority of events last less than two hours. When examined as a whole, the events tend to be accompanied by subtle changes in some plasma parameters. The majority of the enhancements are accompanied by magnetic holes on their fringes. The enhancements' occurrence rate increases with decreasing heliocentric distance. Possible formation mechanisms are discussed. No link was found with solar, or solar wind sources. Several aspects of the survey results are consistent with an origin related to cometary dust trails. Possible processes associated with a dust-solar wind interaction are discussed.  相似文献   
7.
Examples of extreme events of solar wind and their effect on geomagnetic conditions are discussed here. It is found that there are two regimes of high speed solar wind streams with a threshold of ∼ 850 km s-1. Geomagnetic activity enhancement rate (GAER) is defined as an average increase in Ap value per unit average increase in the peak solar wind velocity (Vp) during the stream. GAER was found to be different in the two regimes of high speed streams with +ve and-ve IMF. GAER is 0.73 and 0.53 for solar wind streams with +ve and -ve IMF respectively for the extremely high speed streams (< 850 km s-1). This indicates that streams above the threshold speed with +ve IMF are 1.4 times more effective in enhancing geomagnetic activity than those with -ve IMF. However, the high speed streams below the threshold with -ve IMF are 1.1 times more effective in enhancing geomagnetic activity than those with +ve IMF. The violent solar activity period (October–November 2003) of cycle 23 presents a very special case during which many severe and strong effects were seen in the environment of the Earth and other planets; however, the z-component of IMF (Bz) is mostly positive during this period. The most severe geomagnetic storm of this cycle occurred when Bz was positive.  相似文献   
8.
A theoretical model for wind‐sand flow is developed by considering the coupling between wind flow and sand particle motion, the latter subject to the Magnus effect, under different atmospheric stability conditions. Using this model, the characteristics of the wind‐sand flow are discussed in detail. The results show that the atmospheric stability and the Magnus effect both have a strong influence on wind profiles and on the trajectories of sand particles. This approach produces results with characteristics that differ from those previously reported; the latter only applying to atmospheric conditions of neutral stability. The saltating sand reaches a greater height under non‐neutral stability than under neutral stability, while the maximum horizontal distance is greater under unstable conditions and is smaller under stable conditions than under conditions of neutral stability.  相似文献   
9.
It is expected that a roughly two-year forecast of the Kuroshio transport variation can be made from a past record of wind stress data over the ocean, since it takes nearly ten years for the first-mode baroclinic Rossby wave to traverse the entire basin in the midlatitude North Pacific (∼30°N). We therefore investigated the predictability using an ocean general circulation model driven by the wind stress data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP/NCAR) reanalysis. Referring to a hindcast experiment as the control run, we carried out fifteen forecast experiments, the initial conditions of which are taken from the hindcast experiment at intervals of two years during the period from the end of 1969 to the end of 1997. Each of the forecast experiments is driven only by wind stress in the year preceding each experiment. The forecasted Kuroshio transport anomaly south of Japan agrees better with the hindcasted one during the first two years of the forecast in most cases. In some cases, however, significant disagreements occur, most of which are likely due to larger unpredictable variations caused by wind stress anomalies near Japan. At the end of forecast year 2, the anomaly correlation coefficient is about 0.7, and rms of the forecast error is smaller than rms of the hindcasted anomaly. These results indicate that the prediction of the interannual variability in the Kuroshio transport could be made two years in advance at a statistically significant level. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献   
10.
揭示Rankine涡风场模式和Jelesnianski风场模式之间的联系,并设计了一种台风风场分布模式,它的风速分布曲线落在Jelesnianski和Rankine涡两个风场模式的风速分布曲线之间,具有一个既优于Jelesnianski又优于Rankine涡的风速衰减速率,因此它同时克服了Rankine涡模式计算风速偏小和Jelesnianski模式计算风速偏大的缺点,以一种比较合理的变化趋势向远方衰减,成为一个比较切合实际的台风风场分布模式。同时,文中提出的移行台风风场计算方法对宫崎正卫、上野武夫和Jelesnianski模式都有一定的改进。  相似文献   
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