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1.
IPCC AMIP模式对西南澳类季风环流的模拟   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:1  
以西南澳类季风环流为出发点,考察了IPCC第四次评估报告AMIP提供的12个大气环流模式对于澳大利亚西南部(SWWA)地区降水的季节演化特征,西南澳类季风环流(SWAC)的季节特征、季节演化、对应的异常环流型及其年际变率的模拟性能进行了评估。结果表明,除了NCAR_CAM3模式以外,其余模式均能较好的再现SWWA地区近地层盛行风向季节性反转及副热带高压脊线的季节性跳跃特征。对副热带高压脊线的季节演化特征,虽然大部分模式可以模拟出其季节移动特征,但是对于副热带高压脊线的北跳、南撤时间、到达位置和年内振幅均不能很好模拟。其次,除了NCAR_CAM3,其余模式基本能刻画出与SWAC相联系的异常环流型结构;而对于SWAC的年际变率,基本所有模式均不能较好模拟。整体权衡,GISS_MODEL_E_R在模拟SWAC环流的年际变率方面表现出较其它模式稍好的性能,大致可以模拟出与观测SWAC相似的特征,对SWWA地区的冬季降水显示出了与观测相似的显著影响。  相似文献
2.
北半球定常波输送西风动量的气候态及其年变化   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
王林  陈文  黄荣辉 《大气科学》2007,31(3):377-388
利用高分辨率的再分析资料ERA40,分析了纬向平均状态下北半球不同尺度的定常波对西风动量沿经向输送的气候态及其年变化。结果表明,对流层中定常波对西风动量输送最强的区域位于中纬度对流层的中上层,定常波在该区域长年向北输送纬向动量,且输送中心随季节有南北移动和强弱变化。此外,在高纬度地区的对流层中上层以及赤道对流层顶附近还有两个相对较弱的输送中心。前者对西风动量的输送长年向南,其垂直范围从对流层低层一直伸展到平流层下层,中心位置相对固定,强度有明显的季节变化。后者位置也相对固定,但输送方向随季节改变。平流层中定常波对西风动量的输送主要位于中高纬度的平流层中上层,定常波在该区域长年向北输送西风动量,中心位置非常稳定,而强度则随季节变化明显。行星尺度定常波的输送作用与总波动的输送作用非常一致,并在很大程度上决定了波动对动量输送强度的季节变化。天气尺度定常波和10波以上的短波的输送作用主要集中在中纬度对流层的中高层。前者与行星尺度定常波共同决定了该区域内的输送强度,并主导了输送中心的南北移动;后者的作用很小,除夏季外均可以忽略。作者给出的不同尺度定常波对西风动量输送的气候态分布不但可以作为日后研究其年际变化的基础,而且还可以为大气环流模式对大气环流模拟能力的评估提供重要的参考。  相似文献
3.
从描述南、北半球间大气经向质量传输的角度人手,考察IPCC第4次评估报告提供的8个AMIP大气环流模式对越赤道质量通量输送的模拟性能。结果表明:NCAR、MPI和UKMO模式模拟出的越赤道整层大气质量通量与观测大体相一致;MIROC3模拟的整层大气质量通量年循环与观测结果相去甚远,尤其在夏季模拟出较强的虚假向北大气质量输送;IAP模拟的整层大气质量通量年循环方向与观测结果在7个月份中相反;把垂直大气分为4层.各模式对700 hPa以下(I_1)和300-70 hPa(I_3)两层质量通量的模拟能力普遍较好;对700-300 hPa层(I_2)质量通量模拟结果偏差较大;除MIROC3外,其余模式基本能够模拟出70-10 hPa(I_4)大气质量通量的季节变化.显然,不仅南、北半球间大气存在质量交换,越过其他纬度同样存在着经向大气质量输送,无论冬季、夏季还是年平均,各模式对越过其他纬度(60°S-60°N)经向大气质量输送的模拟结果与观测差异明显。整体权衡,UKMO_HADGEMl在模拟越赤道大气质量通量方面表现突出,MPI_ECHAM5模式优势较明显;NCAR、GISS和GFDL 3个模式在某些压力层内具有较好的模拟水平;MIROC模式对整层、700-300 hPa层的模拟能力较低,而对700 hPa以下层和300-70 hPa层的模拟水平较高;IAP_FGOALS和CNRM模式在模拟越赤道大气质量通量方面存在一定的不足.  相似文献
4.
A right annual cycle is of critical importance for a model to improve its seasonal prediction skill. This work assesses the performance of the Grid-point Atmospheric Model of IAP LASG (GAMIL) in retrospective prediction of the global precipitation annual modes for the 1980 2004 period. The annual modes are gauged by a three-parameter metrics: the long-term annual mean and two major modes of annual cycle (AC), namely, a solstitial mode and an equinoctial asymmetric mode. The results demonstrate that the GAMIL one-month lead prediction is basically able to capture the major patterns of the long-term annual mean as well as the first AC mode (the solstitial monsoon mode). The GAMIL has deficiencies in reproducing the second AC mode (the equinoctial asymmetric mode). The magnitude of the GAMIL prediction tends to be greater than the observed precipitation, especially in the sea areas including the Arabian Sea, the Bay of Bengal (BOB), and the western North Pacific (WNP). These biases may be due to underestimation of the convective activity predicted in the tropics, especially over the western Pacific warm pool (WPWP) and its neighboring areas. It is suggested that a more accurate parameterization of convection in the tropics, especially in the Maritime Continent, the WPWP and its neighboring areas, may be critical for reproducing the more realistic annual modes, since the enhancement of convective activity over the WPWP and its vicinity can induce suppressed convection over the WNP, the BOB, and the South Indian Ocean where the GAMIL produces falsely vigorous convections. More efforts are needed to improve the simulation not only in monsoon seasons but also in transitional seasons when the second AC mode takes place. Selection of the one-tier or coupled atmosphere-ocean system may also reduce the systematic error of the GAMIL prediction. These results offer some references for improvement of the GAMIL seasonal prediction skill.  相似文献
5.
Monthly mean temperatures at 562 stations in China are estimated using a statistical downscaling technique. The technique used is multiple linear regressions (MLRs) of principal components (PCs). A stepwise screening procedure is used for selecting the skilful PCs as predictors used in the regression equation. The predictors include temperature at 850 hPa (7), the combination of sea-level pressure and temperature at 850 hPa (P+T) and the combination of geo-potential height and temperature at 850 hPa (H+T). The downscaling procedure is tested with the three predictors over three predictor domains. The optimum statistical model is obtained for each station and month by finding the predictor and predictor domain corresponding to the highest correlation. Finally, the optimum statistical downscaling models are applied to the Hadley Centre Coupled Model, version 3 (HadCM3) outputs under the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES) A2 and B2 scenarios to construct local future temperature change scenarios for each station and month, The results show that (1) statistical downscaling produces less warming than the HadCM3 output itself; (2) the downscaled annual cycles of temperature differ from the HadCM3 output, but are similar to the observation; (3) the downscaled temperature scenarios show more warming in the north than in the south; (4) the downscaled temperature scenarios vary with emission scenarios, and the A2 scenario produces more warming than the B2, especially in the north of China.  相似文献
6.
The traditional anomaly (TA) reference frame and its corresponding anomaly for a given data span changes with the extension of data length. In this study, the modulated annual cycle (MAC), instead of the widely used climatological mean annual cycle, is used as an alternative reference frame for computing climate anomalies to study the multi-timescale variability of surface air temperature (SAT) in China based on homogenized daily data from 1952 to 2004. The Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method is used to separate daily SAT into a high frequency component, a MAC component, an interannual component, and a decadal-to-trend component. The results show that the EEMD method can reflect historical events reasonably well, indicating its adaptive and temporally local characteristics. It is shown that MAC is a temporally local reference frame and will not be altered over a particular time span by an extension of data length, thereby making it easier for physical interpretation. In the MAC reference frame, the low frequency component is found more suitable for studying the interannual to longer timescale variability (ILV) than a 13-month window running mean, which does not exclude the annual cycle. It is also better than other traditional versions (annual or summer or winter mean) of ILV, which contains a portion of the annual cycle. The analysis reveals that the variability of the annual cycle could be as large as the magnitude of interannual variability. The possible physical causes of different timescale variability of SAT in China are further discussed.  相似文献
7.
用功率谱分析、小波分析和经验正交函数(EOF)分析三种方法,对比分析了1953~2002年北京单站以及中国区域地表气温的传统距平与以集合经验模分解(EEMD)的频-幅调制年循环(MAC)为参照的“距平”,同时还比较了用传统距平描述的“年际及更长尺度变率”和以MAC为参照的年以上尺度低频分量。通过对比分析,发现传统距平和用传统距平所描述的“年际及更长尺度变率”仍然包含有年周期,而且还包含有小于年尺度的波动;而去除MAC的距平则更好地去除了准年周期,而且以MAC为参照的年以上尺度低频分量只包含有1年以上尺度的波动,因而更适合用来描述“年际及更长尺度变率”。  相似文献
8.
Climatic changes in the onset of spring in northern China associated with changes in the annual cycle and with a recent warming trend were quantified using a recently developed adaptive data analysis tool, the Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition. The study was based on a homogenized daily surface air temperature (SAT) dataset for the period 1955–2003. The annual cycle here is referred to as a refined modulated annual cycle (MAC). The results show that spring at Beijing has arrived significantly earlier by about 2.98 d (10 yr)-1, of which about 1.85 d (10 yr)-1 is due to changes in the annual cycle and 1.13 d (10 yr)-1 due to the long-term warming trend. Variations in the MAC component explain about 92.5% of the total variance in the Beijing daily SAT series and could cause as much as a 20-day shift in the onset of spring from one year to another. The onset of spring has been advancing all over northern China, but more significant in the east than in the west part of the region. These differences are somehow unexplainable by the zonal pattern of the warming trend over the whole region, but can be explained by opposite changes in the spring phase of the MAC, i.e. advancing in the east while delaying in the west. In the east of northern China, the change in the spring phase of MAC explains 40%–60% of the spring onset trend and is attributable to a weakening Asian winter monsoon. The average sea level pressure in Siberia (55°–80°N, 50°–110°E), an index of the strength of the winter monsoon, could serve as a potential short-term predictor for the onset of spring in the east of northern China.  相似文献
9.
The seasonal cycle and interannual variability in the tropical oceans simulated by three versions of the Flexible Ocean-Atmosphere-Land System (FGOALS) model (FGOALS-g1.0, FGOALS-g2 and FGOALSs2), which have participated in phases 3 and 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP3 and CMIP5), are presented in this paper. The seasonal cycle of SST in the tropical Pacific is realistically reproduced by FGOALS-g2 and FGOALSs2, while it is poorly simulated in FGOALS-g1.0. Three feedback mechanisms responsible for the SST annual cycle in the eastern Pacific are evaluated. The ocean-atmosphere dynamic feedback, which is successfully reproduced by both FGOALS-g2 and FGOALS-s2, plays a key role in determining the SST annual cycle, while the overestimated stratus cloud-SST feedback amplifies the annual cycle in FGOALS-s2. Because of the serious warm bias existing in FGOALS-g1.0, the ocean-atmosphere dynamic feedback is greatly underestimated in FGOALS-g1.0, in which the SST annual cycle is mainly driven by surface solar radiation. FGOALS-g1.0 simulates much stronger ENSO events than observed, whereas FGOALS-g2 and FGOALSs2 successfully simulate the observed ENSO amplitude and period and positive asymmetry, but with less strength. Further ENSO feedback analyses suggest that surface solar radiation feedback is principally responsible for the overestimated ENSO amplitude in FGOALS-g1.0. Both FGOALS-g1.0 and FGOALS-s2 can simulate two different types of El Ni-no events — with maximum SST anomalies in the eastern Pacific (EP) or in the central Pacific (CP) — but FGOALS-g2 is only able to simulate EP El Ni-no, because the negative cloud shortwave forcing feedback by FGOALS-g2 is much stronger than observed in the central Pacific.  相似文献
10.
华南前汛期降水包含锋面降水和夏季风降水,提高对这2种不同性质降水的认识及如何区分是非常重要的.本文利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料,分析了华南不同性质降水期间大气特性的差异,并采用集合经验模态分解(EEMD)方法,自适应地提取假相当位温θse的调制年循环变量(MAC),得到华南前汛期夏季风降水开始日期的划分标准.结果表明,当某年θse的MAC>δ标准差时,南海夏季风推进至华南地区,夏季风降水开始.利用该标准划分的华南前汛期夏季风降水开始日期平均为5月第6候,且具有2~3a、13~ 15 a的年际、年代际变化周期.进一步对比分析表明,此标准划分的结果基本合理.  相似文献
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