首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   2304篇
  免费   989篇
  国内免费   59篇
测绘学   102篇
大气科学   367篇
地球物理   911篇
地质学   1044篇
海洋学   300篇
天文学   3篇
综合类   137篇
自然地理   488篇
  2024年   2篇
  2023年   60篇
  2022年   129篇
  2021年   142篇
  2020年   142篇
  2019年   135篇
  2018年   130篇
  2017年   107篇
  2016年   127篇
  2015年   113篇
  2014年   194篇
  2013年   218篇
  2012年   158篇
  2011年   167篇
  2010年   144篇
  2009年   137篇
  2008年   163篇
  2007年   133篇
  2006年   158篇
  2005年   102篇
  2004年   93篇
  2003年   81篇
  2002年   71篇
  2001年   62篇
  2000年   48篇
  1999年   46篇
  1998年   47篇
  1997年   24篇
  1996年   46篇
  1995年   43篇
  1994年   37篇
  1993年   25篇
  1992年   25篇
  1991年   13篇
  1990年   7篇
  1989年   6篇
  1988年   5篇
  1987年   2篇
  1986年   3篇
  1985年   2篇
  1984年   2篇
  1983年   1篇
  1982年   1篇
  1978年   1篇
排序方式: 共有3352条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
分析了2001~2011年烟台港倾倒区表层沉积物中6种重金属的含量及时空分布特征,采用地累积指数(Igeo)和潜在生态风险指数(ERI)对重金属富集现状及潜在生态风险进行评价。结果显示:历次调查重金属含量均较低且空间分布差异小,与黄海背景值相比, Cd和Cu出现一定程度的富集。ERI评价表明2011年倾倒区潜在生态风险性较低,年际变化顺序为:2008年>2006年>2009年>2011年>2001年, Cd和Hg是近年来的主要风险因子。  相似文献   
2.
GPS observation indicates that the Fujian coastal region of China mainland, the region of Taiwan Strait and northern Taiwan island all show a generally homogenous horizontal motion with weak deformation. Historical earthquake record over more than 800 years and modern instrumental data reveal that there is potential seismic risk in and around Taiwan Strait region. After the National Seismic Zoning Map of China (2001) the expected seismic risk in northern part of the Taiwan Strait is lower than that in middle and southern part. The suggested northern route of the Taiwan Strait passage project seems to be relatively save seismically.  相似文献   
3.
Flood hazard and risk assessment was conducted to identify the priority areas in the southwest region of Bangladesh for flood mitigation. Simulation of flood flow through the Gorai and Arial Khan river system and its floodplains was done by using a hydrodynamic model. After model calibration and verification, the model was used to simulate the flood flow of 100‐year return period for a duration of four months. The maximum flooding depths at different locations in the rivers and floodplains were determined. The process in determining long flooding durations at every grid point in the hydrodynamic model is laborious and time‐consuming. Therefore the flood durations were determined by using satellite images of the observed flood in 1988, which has a return period close to 100 years. Flood hazard assessment was done considering flooding depth and duration. By dividing the study area into smaller land units for hazard assessment, the hazard index and the hazard factor for each land unit for depth and duration of flooding were determined. From the hazard factors of the land units, a flood hazard map, which indicates the locations of different categories of hazard zones, was developed. It was found that 54% of the study area was in the medium hazard zone, 26% in the higher hazard zone and 20% in the lower hazard zone. Due to lack of sufficient flood damage data, flood damage vulnerability is simply considered proportional to population density. The flood risk factor of each land unit was determined as the product of the flood hazard factor and the vulnerability factor. Knowing the flood risk factors for the land units, a flood risk map was developed based on the risk factors. These maps are very useful for the inhabitants and floodplain management authorities to minimize flood damage and loss of human lives. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
4.
One of the potential applications of polarimetric Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data is the classification of land cover, such as forest canopies, vegetation, sea ice types, and urban areas. In contrast to single or dual polarized SAR systems, full polarimetric SAR systems provide more information about the physical and geometrical properties of the imaged area. This paper proposes a new Bayes risk function which can be minimized to obtain a Likelihood Ratio (LR) for the supervised classification of polarimetric SAR data. The derived Bayes risk function is based on the complex Wishart distribution. Furthermore, a new spatial criterion is incorporated with the LR classification process to produce more homogeneous classes. The application for Arctic sea ice mapping shows that the LR and the proposed spatial criterion are able to provide promising classification results. Comparison with classification results based on the Wishart classifier, the Wishart Likelihood Ratio Test Statistic (WLRTS) proposed by Conradsen et al. (2003) and the Expectation Maximization with Probabilistic Label Relaxation (EMPLR) algorithm are presented. High overall classification accuracy of selected study areas which reaches 97.8% using the LR is obtained. Combining the derived spatial criterion with the LR can improve the overall classification accuracy to reach 99.9%. In this study, fully polarimetric C-band RADARSAT-2 data collected over Franklin Bay, Canadian Arctic, is used.  相似文献   
5.
Many seismic loss problems (such as disruption of distributed infrastructure and losses to portfolios of structures) are dependent upon the regional distribution of ground‐motion intensity, rather than intensity at only a single site. Quantifying ground‐motion over a spatially‐distributed region therefore requires information on the correlation between the ground‐motion intensities at different sites during a single event. The focus of the present study is to assess the spatial correlation between ground‐motion spectral accelerations at different periods. Ground motions from eight well‐recorded earthquakes were used to study the spatial correlations. On the basis of obtained empirical correlation estimates, we propose a geostatistics‐based method to formulate a predictive model that is suitable for simulation of spectral accelerations at multiple sites and multiple periods, in the case of crustal earthquakes in active seismic regions. While the calibration of this model and investigation of its implications were somewhat complex, the model itself is very simple to use for making correlation predictions. A user only needs to evaluate a simple equation relying on three sets of coefficients provided here to compute a correlation coefficient for spectral values at two periods and at a specified separation distance. These results may then be used in evaluating the seismic risk of portfolios of structures with differing fundamental periods. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
The conditional spectrum (CS, with mean and variability) is a target response spectrum that links nonlinear dynamic analysis back to probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for ground motion selection. The CS is computed on the basis of a specified conditioning period, whereas structures under consideration may be sensitive to response spectral amplitudes at multiple periods of excitation. Questions remain regarding the appropriate choice of conditioning period when utilizing the CS as the target spectrum. This paper focuses on risk‐based assessments, which estimate the annual rate of exceeding a specified structural response amplitude. Seismic hazard analysis, ground motion selection, and nonlinear dynamic analysis are performed, using the conditional spectra with varying conditioning periods, to assess the performance of a 20‐story reinforced concrete frame structure. It is shown here that risk‐based assessments are relatively insensitive to the choice of conditioning period when the ground motions are carefully selected to ensure hazard consistency. This observed insensitivity to the conditioning period comes from the fact that, when CS‐based ground motion selection is used, the distributions of response spectra of the selected ground motions are consistent with the site ground motion hazard curves at all relevant periods; this consistency with the site hazard curves is independent of the conditioning period. The importance of an exact CS (which incorporates multiple causal earthquakes and ground motion prediction models) to achieve the appropriate spectral variability at periods away from the conditioning period is also highlighted. The findings of this paper are expected theoretically but have not been empirically demonstrated previously. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
This paper considers how farmers perceive and respond to climate change policy risks, and suggests that understanding these risk responses is as important as understanding responses to biophysical climate change impacts. Based on a survey of 162 farmers in California, we test three hypotheses regarding climate policy risk: (1) that perceived climate change risks will have a direct impact on farmer's responses to climate policy risks, (2) that previous climate change experiences will influence farmer's climate change perceptions and climate policy risk responses, and (3) that past experiences with environmental policies will more strongly affect a farmer's climate change beliefs, risks, and climate policy risk responses. Using a structural equation model we find support for all three hypotheses and furthermore show that farmers’ negative past policy experiences do not make them less likely to respond to climate policy risks through participation in a government incentive program. We discuss how future research and climate policies can be structured to garner greater agricultural participation. This work highlights that understanding climate policy risk responses and other social, economic and policy perspectives is a vital component of understanding climate change beliefs, risks and behaviors and should be more thoroughly considered in future work.  相似文献   
8.
Flood insurance plays an important role in climate adaptation by recovering insured losses in the event of catastrophic flooding. Voluntary adoption of flood insurance has been seen as a function of risk perception that is shaped by social norms. This paper attempts to clarify the relationship between these factors. It is based on a household survey conducted in the eastern cities of Australia and involving a total of 501 randomly selected residents. Results of a path analysis show that the likelihood of having flood insurance cover was associated with perceived social norms, but not perceived flood risk. In addition, perceived norms and risk were statistically related to each other. It is concluded that social norms played a mediating role between insuring decision and risk perception. Risk perception might influence the insuring decision indirectly through shaping perception of social norms. This implies that adaptive behaviour is not necessarily a function of risk perception, but an outcome of its impacts upon the ways in which the individuals situate themselves in their social circles or the society. There is a feedback process in which individual perceptions of risk manifest as both a cause and effect, shaping and being shaped by the socio-cultural context.  相似文献   
9.
加油站雷电灾害风险评估探讨   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
文章通过分析加油站所在地区的气象和地理环境、雷暴活动以及加油站内外的各项特征,对加油站进行了雷电灾害风险评估,通过评估出来的人员生命损失的风险值(R1为1.52×10-5)和容许值(R t为10-5)进行比较,确定出需要对该加油站采取防雷措施或采取何种程度的防雷措施,并从安装SPD等级及方法、防火系统、以及内外等电位连接方面提出了减少雷击导致的建筑物或服务设施的可能损失的参考解决方案。  相似文献   
10.
青海高原雪灾风险区划及对策建议   总被引:9,自引:6,他引:3  
李红梅  李林  高歌  刘义花 《冰川冻土》2013,35(3):656-661
利用青海省50个气象台站逐日积雪深度资料、遥感监测积雪深度资料和牲畜死亡率资料,对遥感监测积雪数据进行了验证,证实遥感监测积雪数据能很好的反映青海积雪状况.利用积雪指标分析青海各地致灾强度大小.结果表明:青海三江源地区和祁连山区的部分地区致灾因子危险性最高,柴达木盆地的西部和东部农业区以及环湖的部分地区致灾因子危险性较低.通过分析积雪指标和牲畜死亡率的相关关系,确定了不同雪灾等级临界气象指标,对青海地区进行了雪灾风险区划.区划结果为:轻灾主要发生在柴达木盆地、东部农业区的大部和环湖的部分地区,这些地区发生轻灾的频率大都在50%以上;中灾和重灾在青海发生频率均不高,都在20%以下;三江源的大部尤其是囊谦、玉树和称多一带是特大雪灾的高发区,发生频率均在50%以上.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号