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1.
The variability of rainfall-dependent streamflow at catchment scale modulates many ecosystem processes in wet temperate forests. Runoff in small mountain catchments is characterized by a quick response to rainfall pulses which affects biogeochemical fluxes to all downstream systems. In wet-temperate climates, water erosion is the most important natural factor driving downstream soil and nutrient losses from upland ecosystems. Most hydrochemical studies have focused on water flux measurements at hourly scales, along with weekly or monthly samples for water chemistry. Here, we assessed how water and element flows from broad-leaved, evergreen forested catchments in southwestern South America, are influenced by different successional stages, quantifying runoff, sediment transport and nutrient fluxes during hourly rainfall events of different intensities. Hydrograph comparisons among different successional stages indicated that forested catchments differed in their responses to high intensity rainfall, with greater runoff in areas covered by secondary forests (SF), compared to old-growth forest cover (OG) and dense scrub vegetation (CH). Further, throughfall water was greatly nutrient enriched for all forest types. Suspended sediment loads varied between successional stages. SF catchments exported 455 kg of sediments per ha, followed by OG with 91 kg/ha and CH with 14 kg/ha, corresponding to 11 rainfall events measured from December 2013 to April 2014. Total nitrogen (TN) and phosphorus (TP) concentrations in stream water also varied with rainfall intensity. In seven rainfall events sampled during the study period, CH catchments exported less nutrients (46 kg/ha TN and 7 kg/ha TP) than SF catchments (718 kg/ha TN and 107 kg/ha TP), while OG catchments exported intermediate sediment loads (201 kg/ha TN and 23 kg/ha TP). Further, we found significant effects of successional stage attributes (vegetation structure and soil physical properties) and catchment morphometry on runoff and sediment concentrations, and greater nutrients retention in OG and CH catchments. We conclude that in these southern hemisphere, broad-leaved evergreen temperate forests, hydrological processes are driven by multiple interacting phenomena, including climate, vegetation, soils, topography, and disturbance history.  相似文献   
2.
This work provides a comprehensive physically based framework for the interpretation of the north Australian rainfall stable isotope record (δ18O and δ2H). Until now, interpretations mainly relied on statistical relationships between rainfall amount and isotopic values on monthly timescales. Here, we use multiseason daily rainfall stable isotope and high resolution (10 min) ground‐based C‐band polarimetric radar data and show that the five weather types (monsoon regimes) that constitute the Australian wet season each have a characteristic isotope ratio. The data suggest that this is not only due to changes in regional rainfall amount during these regimes but, more importantly, is due to different rain and cloud types that are associated with the large scale circulation regimes. Negative (positive) isotope anomalies occurred when stratiform rainfall fractions were large (small) and the horizontal extent of raining areas were largest (smallest). Intense, yet isolated, convective conditions were associated with enriched isotope values whereas more depleted isotope values were observed when convection was widespread but less intense. This means that isotopic proxy records may record the frequency of which these typical wet season regimes occur. Positive anomalies in paleoclimatic records are most likely associated with periods where continental convection dominates and convection is sea‐breeze forced. Negative anomalies may be interpreted as periods when the monsoon trough is active, convection is of the oceanic type, less electric, and stratiform areas are wide spread. This connection between variability of rainfall isotope anomalies and the intrinsic properties of convection and its large‐scale environment has important implications for all fields of research that use rainfall stable isotopes.  相似文献   
3.
CHANGE OF NUTRIENT IMPORT AND EXPORT IN PROCESS OF RAINFALL IN AILAO MOUNTAIN OF YUNNAN PROVINCEGanJianmin(甘健民);XueJingyi(薛敬意...  相似文献   
4.
1 IntroductionAnicecoreobtainedfrom polarglaciersoricesheetsisoneofthemostimportantarchivestoreconstructpaleoclimaticandpaleoatmosphericcondition .Informationonpale o environmentcanbeextractedfromicecoresaschemicaland/orphysicalsignals.Amongthechemicalsignals,heavymetalsarenotedassignalsofterrestrialenvironmentalchangeandanthropogenicpollution (e.g .Murozumietal.1 969;NgandPatterson 1 981 ;Hongetal.1 994) .SinceconcentrationsofmostofthemetalsinpolarsnowincentralGreen landareatorbelowthepptl…  相似文献   
5.
The emergence of artificial neural network (ANN) technology has provided many promising results in the field of hydrology and water resources simulation. However, one of the major criticisms of ANN hydrologic models is that they do not consider/explain the underlying physical processes in a watershed, resulting in them being labelled as black‐box models. This paper discusses a research study conducted in order to examine whether or not the physical processes in a watershed are inherent in a trained ANN rainfall‐runoff model. The investigation is based on analysing definite statistical measures of strength of relationship between the disintegrated hidden neuron responses of an ANN model and its input variables, as well as various deterministic components of a conceptual rainfall‐runoff model. The approach is illustrated by presenting a case study for the Kentucky River watershed. The results suggest that the distributed structure of the ANN is able to capture certain physical behaviour of the rainfall‐runoff process. The results demonstrate that the hidden neurons in the ANN rainfall‐runoff model approximate various components of the hydrologic system, such as infiltration, base flow, and delayed and quick surface flow, etc., and represent the rising limb and different portions of the falling limb of a flow hydrograph. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
Introducing a concept of equivalent mass depth of flow, this study describes the phenomenon of non‐point source pollutant (metal) transport for pavement (or overland) flow in analogy with wave propagation in wide open channels. Hysteretic and normal mass rating curves are developed for runoff rate and mass of 12 dissolved and particulate‐bound metal elements (pollutants) using the rainfall‐runoff and water quality data of the 15 × 20 m2 instrumented pavement in Cincinnati, USA. Normal mass rating curves developed for easy computation of pollutant load are found to be of a form similar to Manning's, which is valid for open channel flows. Based on the hysteresis analysis, wave types for dissolution and mixing of particulate‐bound metals are identified. The analysis finds that the second‐order partial‐differential equation normally used for metal transport does not have the efficacy to describe fully the strong non‐linear phenomena such as is described for various metal elements by dynamic waves. In addition, the proportionality concept of the popular SCS‐CN concept is extended for determining the potential maximum metal mass Mp of all the 12 elements transported by a rain storm and related to the antecedent dry period (ADP). For the primary metal zinc element, Mp is found to increase with the ADP and vice versa. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
Introduction The Himalaya is considered to be the youngest mountains on the earth, and is tectonically very active, and hence inherently (geologically) vulnerable to hazards. Extreme rainfall events, landslides, debris flows, torrents and flash floods due…  相似文献   
8.
江西省德兴铜矿矿区重金属元素的环境效应   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6  
初娜  赵元艺  张光弟  杨慧 《地质学报》2008,82(4):562-576
本文系统研究了德兴铜矿排石场和尾砂库的环境问题,以环境介质(水土植物)中重金属元素含量为研究对象,论述矿区重金属的环境效应。研究结果表明祝家村低品位矿石堆浸场淋滤产生的酸性废水是造成大坞河流域重金属污染的主要来源。大坞河上游水体中Cu元素含量高达14506μg/L,是国家Ⅲ级水标准的14倍之多,Zn元素含量高达2938μg/L,是国家Ⅲ级水标准的2.9倍,同时pH值在3~4范围内;到中下游水体中Cu元素含量减小到几千到几百μg/L,水质有所改善。大坞河沿岸上游和中游土壤重金属含量受河水影响,随着与河岸距离的增加而减小。同时水稻中Pb元素含量是国家粮食标准的2倍。推测4#尾砂库尾砂表层氧化带深度大于80cm;而1#尾砂库库内尾砂中氧化带估计在0~25cm处。推测两个尾砂库产酸能力小于酸中和能力,故坝底水中pH值在7左右,对周围水体影响较小。与4#尾砂库距离近的石墩头村稻田表层土壤中Cu、Mo元素含量较高,远离尾砂库土壤中重金属含量降低。同时4#尾砂库周围土壤中Cd、Pb、Cu元素的吸附态、碳酸盐态比例在20%左右,因而在酸性环境下较容易被植物吸收。1#尾砂库矿建村种植的小白菜中Pb元素含量超过国家蔬菜标准的4倍,Cu、Pb、Zn元素含量严重超过背景值。  相似文献   
9.
强降雨条件下土质边坡瞬态稳定性分析   总被引:9,自引:1,他引:8  
基于实际降雨气象资料,设计了单峰降雨和8个不同时间间隔的双峰降雨计算方案,利用非饱和土力学理论,对边坡的瞬态稳定性进行了计算和分析,研究了水分在坡体内的运移对边坡稳定性的时间空间影响效应,同时考察了降雨入渗造成的土性渗透特性的改变。分析发现:一次降雨的影响历时约12 d,降雨后约0.5 d该类土质边坡最危险;不同时间间隔的两次降雨对边坡稳定的影响比单峰降雨的最小安全系数滞后约0.3 d~0.8 d,影响历时基本保持不变;土体物理力学性质、边坡最危险滑动面及其对应的安全系数随水分在坡体内渗透运移而变化。  相似文献   
10.
浙江省小流域山洪灾害临界雨量确定方法分析   总被引:12,自引:2,他引:10  
叶勇  王振宇  范波芹 《水文》2008,28(1):56-58
小流域山洪灾害具有突发性,预测预警难度较大.本文结合浙江省小流域山洪灾害防御的实践经验,研究提出了以水位反推法计算临界雨量,简单实用,具有较好的实践价值和推广意义.  相似文献   
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