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1.
This study deals with a unusual cooling event after Typhoon Mujigea passed over the northern South China Sea(SCS) in October 2015. We analyze the satellite sea surface temperature(SST) time series from October 3 to 18,2015 and find that the cooling process in the coastal ocean had two different stages. The first stage occurred immediately after typhoon passage on October 3, and reached a maximum SST drop of –2℃ on October 7 as the usual cold wake after typhoon. The second stage or the unusual extended cooling event occurred after 7d of the typhoon passage, and lasted for 5d from October 10 to 15. The maximum SST cooling was –4℃ and occurred after 12d of typhoon passage. The mechanism analysis results indicate that after landing and moving northwestward to the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau(YGP), Typhoon Mujigea(2015) met the westerly wind front on October 5. The lowpressure and positive-vorticity disturbances to the front triggered meridional air flow and low-pressure trough,thus induced a katabatic cold jet downward from the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau(QTP) passing through the YGP to the northwestern SCS. The second cooling reached the maximum SST drop 4d later after the maximum air temperature drop of –9℃ on October 11. The simultaneous air temperature and SST observations at three coastal stations reveal that it is this katabatic cold jet intrusion to lead the unusual SST cooling event.  相似文献   
2.
The soil factor is crucial in controlling and properly modeling the initiation and development of ephemeral gullies (EGs). Usually, EG initiation has been related to various soil properties (i.e. sealing, critical shear stress, moisture, texture, etc.); meanwhile, the total growth of each EG (erosion rate) has been linked with proper soil erodibility. But, despite the studies to determine the influence of soil erodibility on (ephemeral) gully erosion, a universal approach is still lacking. This is due to the complex relationship and interactions between soil properties and the erosive process. A feasible soil characterization of EG erosion prediction on a large scale should be based on simple, quick and inexpensive tests to perform. The objective of this study was to identify and assess the soil properties – easily and quickly to determine – which best reflect soil erodibility on EG erosion. Forty‐nine different physical–chemical soil properties that may participate in establishing soil erodibility were determined on agricultural soils affected by the formation of EGs in Spain and Italy. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and in the field (in the vicinity of the erosion paths). Because of its importance in controlling EG erosion, five variables related to antecedent moisture prior to the event that generated the gullies and two properties related to landscape topography were obtained for each situation. The most relevant variables were detected using multivariate analysis. The results defined 13 key variables: water content before the initiation of EGs, organic matter content, cation exchange capacity, relative sealing index, two granulometric and organic matter indices, seal permeability, aggregates stability (three index), crust penetration resistance, shear strength and an erodibility index obtained from the Jet Test erosion apparatus. The latter is proposed as a useful technique to evaluate and predict soil loss caused by EG erosion. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Lacustrine groundwater discharge (LGD) can substantially impact ecosystem characteristics and functions. Fibre optic distributed temperature sensing (FO‐DTS) has been successfully used to locate groundwater discharge into lakes and rivers at the sediment–water interface, but locating groundwater discharge would be easier if it could be detected from the more accessible water surface. So far, it is not clear if how and under which conditions the LGD signal propagates through the water column to the water surface–atmosphere interface, and what perturbations and signal losses occur along this pathway. In the present study, LGD was simulated in a mesocosm experiment. Under winter conditions, water with temperatures of 14 to 16 °C was discharged at the bottom of a 10 × 2.8‐m mesocosm. Water within this mesocosm ranged from 4.0 to 7.4 °C. Four layers (20, 40, 60, and 80 cm above the sediment) of the 82 cm deep mesocosm were equipped with FO‐DTS for tracing thermal patterns in the mesocosm. Aims are (a) to test whether the positive buoyancy of relatively warm groundwater imported by LGD into shallow water bodies allows detection of LGD at the lake's water surface–atmosphere interface by FO‐DTS, (b) to analyse the propagation of the temperature signal from the sediment‐water interface through the water column, and (c) to learn more about detectability of the signal under different discharge rates and weather conditions. The experiments supported the benchmarking of scale dependencies and robustness of FO‐DTS applications for measuring upwelling into aquatic environments and revealed that weather conditions can have important impacts on the detection of upwelling at water surface–atmosphere interfaces at larger scales.  相似文献   
4.
夏季平流层盛行强东风,Rossby波能量难以从对流层向上传播至平流层,而冬季平流层盛行西风,Rossby波能量容易上传,因此以往对Rossby波能量向平流层传播的研究多考虑冬季的情况.而事实上,因为夏季高原上空南亚高压反气旋环流,并非只有强东风存在,所以Rossby波能量也可能在南亚高压区向上传播,从而影响平流层的温度、风场及大气成分等.因此,本文利用ERA-interim逐日再分析资料,分析了1979—2015年夏季南亚高压区Rossby波能量穿越对流层顶传播的特征与机制.结果表明:Rossby波能量可以从南亚高压西北部的窗口区上传至平流层,最高可到达平流层顶,而在南亚高压的其他部分,Rossby波能量均不能穿越对流层顶上传或穿越对流层顶后无法继续上传.南亚高压西北区Rossby波能量可以穿越对流层顶传播的原因是盛行西风,且西风急流出现的频率很小,同时涡动热量通量异常引起的垂直分量的第一项对其上传有很大贡献.南亚高压东北区也盛行西风,然而Rossby波能量不能向上穿越对流层顶的原因是强西风出现频率较高,且温度脊与高度脊位相相近,不利于上传.南亚高压南部均盛行东风,在平流层中下层均为稳定层结,因此Rossby波能量很难上传.南亚高压西南区在对流层位于青藏高原环流的伊朗高原下沉区附近,层结稳定,并且温度脊超前于高度脊,所以Rossby波能量很难上传.而南亚高压东南区在对流层位于南海-西太平洋热带幅合带,层结不稳定,存在Rossby波能量较弱的上传,达到对流层顶后无法继续上传,该区域温度脊落后于高度脊的温压场配置也为Rossby波能量在对流层内的传播提供了条件.  相似文献   
5.
Application of the standard Eulerian model to simulations of sand scour results in unrealistic phenomena. Therefore, the present work develops a modified Eulerian model based on sand incipient motion theory. The modified model is applied for simulating a two-dimensional single vertical jet and a moving planar jet. The simulation results generally demonstrate fairly good agreement with published results of scour profiles and the velocity contours of the water and sand phases. In addition, equations to describe self-similar scour profiles for the moving planar jet cases are given. The results demonstrate that the modified model efficiently and accurately simulates the two-dimensional sand scour produced by jets, particularly for the moving jet cases.  相似文献   
6.
A coupled ocean-ice-wave model is used to study ice-edge jet and eddy genesis during surface gravity wave dissipation in a frazil-pancake ice zone. With observational data from the Beaufort Sea, possible wave dissipation processes are evaluated using sensitivity experiments. As wave energy dissipated, energy was transferred into ice floe through radiation stress. Later, energy was in turn transferred into current through ocean-ice interfacial stress. Since most of the wave energy is dissipated at the ice edge, ice-edge jets, which contained strong horizontal shear, appeared both in the ice zone and the ocean. Meanwhile, the wave propagation direction determines the velocity partition in the along-ice-edge and cross-ice-edge directions, which in turn determines the strength of the along-ice-edge jet and cross-ice-edge velocity. The momentum applied in the along-ice-edge(cross-ice-edge)direction increased(decreased) with larger incident angle, which is favorable condition for producing stronger mesoscale eddies, vice versa. The dissipation rate increases(decreases) with larger(smaller) wavenumber, which enhances(reduces) the jet strength and the strength of the mesoscale eddy. The strong along-ice-edge jet may extend to a deep layer(> 200 m). If the water depth is too shallow(e.g., 80 m), the jet may be largely dampened by bottom drag, and no visible mesoscale eddies are found. The results suggest that the bathymetry and incident wavenumber(magnitude and propagation direction) are important for wave-driven current and mesoscale eddy genesis.  相似文献   
7.
胥虹 《探矿工程》2020,47(1):48-52
地浸钻孔是一种以采矿为目的的钻孔,提高钻孔出水量就是提高钻孔的采矿量。通过对多年地浸钻孔施工经验和理论进行分析,发现影响钻孔出水量的主要因素为钻井泥浆的成分和性能以及人工过滤层的渗透性差异,提出在地浸钻孔施工方案中采用植物胶净化泥浆钻进和扩孔、投砾罐射吸式填砾、物理化学组合洗井3种技术措施,对比前后施工钻孔的出水量大小,证明了该技术措施对提高地浸钻孔出水量具有良好的效果。  相似文献   
8.
张红涛 《探矿工程》2021,48(6):113-117
太原万达广场A2区商住楼基坑工程部分区域为粗砂砾石地层,基坑隔水帷幕中深层搅拌桩无法有效使用。提出了在粗砂砾石地层采用高压旋喷桩隔水帷幕的施工技术方案,采用双套管锚杆钻机引孔、单管高压喷射工艺进行施工,成功实施了这一工程。经检查,喷射注浆体相互咬合良好,有效桩径内水泥含量均匀无夹块现象,隔水帷幕止水效果良好。  相似文献   
9.
陈健康  赵玉春  陈赛  黄惠镕  郑辉 《气象》2019,45(2):228-239
利用福建省逐小时加密自动站资料、风廓线、S波段双偏振雷达与雨滴谱等新型探测资料以及NCEP逐6 h的1°×1°大气再分析资料,分析了2017年2月21—22日福建中南部一次预报失败的冬季暴雨过程。结果表明:(1)此次暴雨过程类似于锋前暖区暴雨,自2000年以来仅此一例,十分罕见,是在低空急流偏强并长时间维持的背景下产生的,并未受到南支槽和冷空气的影响。(2)闽中大到暴雨带和闽南暴雨区的对流系统相互独立,有多个对流系统影响闽中地区,仅两个对流系统影响闽南地区。降水有较明显对流特征,属暖云弱对流降水,容易导致预报员对雨强估计不足。(3)此次冬季暴雨过程的水汽主要来自南海地区,低层水汽条件与汛期暴雨相当,但整层水汽条件较汛期略差;低空急流对暖湿气流的输送使暴雨区趋于不稳定,但对流不稳定度较汛期弱。(4)高空辐散低层辐合的配置为冬季暴雨带来了有利的动力抬升条件,但暴雨区涡旋性不强,无明显正涡度柱。其中,闽中大到暴雨主要与条件性对称不稳定有关,是在湿斜压作用下倾斜上升运动中产生,而闽南暴雨区既存在对流不稳定,也存在条件性对称不稳定。  相似文献   
10.
张文龙  崔晓鹏  黄荣  黎慧琦 《大气科学》2019,43(5):1171-1190
本文利用雷达、加密地面自动站等高时空分辨率的观测资料,结合NCEP 1°×1°再分析资料、常规观测等资料,对2011年6月23日发生在北京城区的极端强降水事件开展了细致的观测和诊断分析。结果表明,这次极端强降水事件,主要是由向东南移动的东北—西南走向的飑线右端的强降水超级单体(High Precipitation Supercell,简称HPS)造成的,这是目前已有文献记载的中国发生纬度最高的HPS。HPS在移动方向的右后侧和右前侧均有明显的“V”型入流,这不同于已有HPS模型,表明中、低层干冷空气和低层暖湿气流特征显著。在环境条件方面,存在对流层低层逆温层,其能量存储盖作用使得雷暴具有爆发性增强的潜势,但该逆温层是在08:00~14:00(北京时,下同)的6小时内形成的,对业务预报极具挑战性。相对其他大气层结热动力参数, 风暴相对螺旋度和粗理查逊数在14:00较08:00显著增大,对HPS的发生具有一定指示作用。高空偏西风急流和低层偏东风活动显著,使得北京地区的水平风垂直切变增强,形成上干下湿的对流不稳定以及次级环流圈。高空急流造成强烈的相当位温差动平流,促进对流不稳定度发展加强。结合复杂地形作用,在北京西部100 m地形高度线附近形成显著的平原暖湿空气与山地干冷空气的干湿分界线以及风场辐合线。水汽供应主要源自低层偏东风和本地水汽积累。当飑线从西北方向侵入北京并向东南方向移动时,在北部山区,由于条件不足,雷暴没有显著发展加强;然而,在西部山区,在湖面、城市热岛、低层偏东风、冷池出流共同作用下,加之其他有利的环境条件,飑线右端雷暴强烈发展加强,特别是当经过100 m地形高度线附近时发展成为HPS,进而造成石景山区模式口站的大暴雨中心。  相似文献   
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