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1.
浅水湖泊生态系统恢复的理论与实践思考   总被引:55,自引:19,他引:36       下载免费PDF全文
随着我国湖泊生态环境越来越严峻,湖泊生态恢复也逐渐被人们所重视.实际上,湖泊生态恢复应该是一项系统工程、是通过一定程度地减缓或改善环境压力,结合某种或多种水生生物的种养措施,逐步使得生态系统向良性的或者是被改变前的状态发展,目前.湖泊生态恢复不是被单纯地理解为种草、养鱼等,就是被解释为生物群落的人为搭配或镶嵌.由于这种认识上的偏差,导致湖泊治理中有关生态修复的实践长期以来鲜有成功的实例.最后、以太湖为例,给出了湖泊局部水体生态修复达致净化水质的技术思路——通过改善环境来恢复水生植物,通过水生植物恢复来引导乍态系统向草型湖泊转变,通过水生系统恢复达到改善水质的目的.这种思路能否成功用于指导湖泊水生植物与生态系统恢复、还有待于进一步实践的检验.  相似文献
2.
太湖梅梁湾水动力及相关过程的研究   总被引:54,自引:13,他引:41       下载免费PDF全文
太湖是位于长江下游的一个大型水湖泊,水动力过程和要素对浅水湖泊的环境演化有着复杂和深远的影响,本文基于1998年开展的有关太湖梅梁湾的水动力过程的野外调查结果,总结了梅梁湾在夏季盛行风向条件下湖流特征,发现了梅梁湾在夏季偏南风条件下,表层湖流以顺时针环流为主要特征,但在湾内靠近梁溪河口地区,流场受地形影响而有所不同,反映在叶绿素浓度和总磷、总氮浓度分布上,因受湖流影响较大而富集在梁溪河口周转,即偏  相似文献
3.
采集柱状芯样,室内静态模拟不同温度下太湖沉积物铵态氮释放.结果表明,经面积加权,5℃、15℃和25℃下氮的交换速率分别为-16.0±17.6mg/穴m2·d雪、12.6±6.9mg/穴m2·d雪和34.1±20.8mg/穴m2·d雪,不同湖区其释放速率差异极大.受外源污染影响较大的水域,氮释放量随温度的升高而增加;受死亡残体沉降和分解影响明显的草藻型湖区,氮的年释放通量较大.全太湖沉积物-水界面NH4 -N的年净通量为9960.3±4960.0t,其中成汇的通量值约为-911±637.9t/a,大部分泥区在一年中至少经过了一次的源-汇转换过程.  相似文献
4.
太湖梅梁湾中碱性磷酸酶的活性及其与藻类生长的关系   总被引:32,自引:12,他引:20       下载免费PDF全文
通过对1998年5月-1999年5月的太湖梅梁湾水体中碱性磷酸酶活性及其它水化学因子的同步实地监测,初步探讨了富营养化较严重的太湖梅梁湾湖区的碱性磷酸酶活性的时空变化规律及其与藻类水华的相关性.研究表明,水体中各种形态磷之间的转化非常快.在磷的循环、转化过程中,碱性磷酸酶的作用至关重要.太湖梅梁湾各采样点水体中碱性磷酸酶的最大反应速率(Vmax)的年际变化有着显著的规律性,各点位在春季(3-4月)及夏季(7-8月)均分别出现峰值,与水体中水华出现的峰值相吻合.尤其在水体中水华暴发前的4月份,各采样点中的碱性磷酸酶的活性急剧增加,其Vmax均为年内的最大值或接近最大值,预示着水体中其它形态磷的转化速率加快,为水华的形成提供了充足的活性磷.水体中特异性碱性磷酸酶活性(总碱性磷酸酶活性/Chl.a)与水体中的PO43-存在着较好的负相关.尤其是在春季相关性更加显著,可达-0.9以上;夏季太湖梅梁湾水华暴发时,水体中的磷酸盐浓度远低于碱性磷酸酶的激发阈值,藻类体中的酶被诱导大量产生,从而使得水体中碱性磷酸酶的数量、活性急剧增加,达到较高的水平.这种短时间的有机质快速降解以及由此导致的营养盐释放,维持了水体中藻类的生长.  相似文献
5.
太湖藻类生长模型研究   总被引:32,自引:1,他引:31       下载免费PDF全文
本文提出了一改进的藻类生长模型及其新颖的计算机模拟算法,该模型不但考虑了不温、总氮、总氮、总磷、浮游动物的辐射等因素对藻类生长率的影响,而且根据水量,总磷和藻类浓度等因素对藻类死亡率进行了修正和计算精度至关重要的,因此,本文建立了具有绝对稳定性和二阶精度的数值算法求解藻类生长模型中的偏微分方程组,此外,为了进一步验证该藻类生长模型的实测值进行模拟,由于实测值为每个月中某一天的测量值,为了模拟过程能正确进行,本文采用样条插值的方法估计出每用插值等方法,本文提出了一种广义拟结果与测量数据基本符合,而在有明显的差异的地方,文中作出了相应的解释,结果表明,本文提出了藻类生长模型及其算法是有效的,各采样点藻类浓度的模拟值能较好地拟合实测值。  相似文献
6.
太湖近代沉积物中重金属元素的累积   总被引:22,自引:3,他引:19       下载免费PDF全文
利用210Pb、137Cs定年技术,对来自太湖不同生态和沉积特征的三个湖区的沉积物柱状样品进行了定年,用ICP—AES分析了沉积物中重金属等元素的含量,分析了太湖沉积物中重金属的累积特征及其成因.污染较重、蓝藻水华暴发频繁的梅梁湾沉积物中的重金属含量在近25年来逐年增加;太湖上游风浪较大的夹浦湖区表层10cm沉积速率大、粒度粗,除表层1cm外,1—10cm沉积物中各种重金属含量都较低,且层间变化剧烈;下游湖区正逐渐草型化的胥口湾除表层3cm外,沉积物中重金属的含量自底层向表层大致呈不断下降的趋势.研究表明,不同年代的太湖沉积物中重金属含量差异很大,明显大于不同湖区间沉积物重金属平均含量间的差异.水动力作用引起的沉积物粒度分异很可能是影响沉积物中重金属积累的一个重要因素.总体上太湖沉积物中重金属的污染比较轻微,但已经有一定程度的Cd污染,梅梁湾沉积物中自上世纪70年代开始明显积累Cd,其他重金属元素的积累也逐渐增加,值得关注.  相似文献
7.
模拟水动力对湖泊生物群落演替的实验   总被引:21,自引:7,他引:14       下载免费PDF全文
从静止状况到小水流,大水流的模拟水动力实验表明,水动力对湖泊生物群落演替重要作用,藻类种类数以大小流时最高,其生物量也最高,这与NO^-/TDN比值相一致,由静止状态到大小流状态,藻类数量呈现递增趋势,这与相应的TDN/TN、TDP/TP呈递减趋势相呼应,浮游动力物种类、数量的变化较之浮模特更明显,尤其是枝角类的变化更大,动力作用通过增加水体中悬浮质、降低透明度、改变水下光照条件及生物过程释放放营  相似文献
8.
太湖水体中碱性磷酸酶的作用阈值   总被引:21,自引:6,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
高光  高锡芸  秦伯强  季江 《湖泊科学》2000,12(4):353-358
对不同PO^3-4-P浓度下,不同粒级组分中碱性磷酸酶活性的分布及其变动规律的研究表明:(1)随着水体中PO^3-4-P浓度的增加,水体中总碱性磷酸酶活性(TAPA)相应的减少(r=-0.586,n=55),水体中的TAPA增值,在PO^3-4-P浓度范围为0-0.010mg.L^-1,无显著差异;而当PO^ 3-4-P浓度〉0.010mg.L^-1时,差异极显著(P〈0.01),(2)水体中的碱  相似文献
9.
Estimation of internal nutrient release in large shallow Lake Taihu, China   总被引:19,自引:2,他引:17  
Based on field investigation of wave, sediment suspension and the changes in nutrient concentration of the water column in Lake Taihu, China, we proposed two release models to quantify nutrient release under static and dynamic conditions, respectively. Under static conditions, nutrient release from sediments to the overlying water mainly depends on chemical diffusion induced by concentration gradient, in which the nutrient release is controlled by the temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration in the sediment-water interface, oxidation-reduction potential and the concentration difference between porewater and overlying water. Under dynamic condition (or disturbed condition), both dissolved and particulate nutrients in sediments are released into the water column because of wind-induced sediment suspension. The amount of nutrient release under dynamic conditions is larger than that under the static condition. The release of dissolved nutrients, however, does not increase because the wind induced turbulence made oxidation of metallic elements such as Fe (ferric iron), Mn which are capable of precipitating soluble reactive phosphate (SRP). Under dynamic conditions, therefore, the release of total phosphorus (TP) increases dramatically but the release of SRP is close to those under static conditions. In sediments of Lake Taihu, high Fe content leads to a high ratio of Fe to P contents in sediments (Fe:P ratio). Under dynamic conditions, therefore, nutrient release is controlled by the intensity of disturbance, sediment consolidation and nutrient content in sediments. As for dissolved nutrients, especially SRP, the release is also controlled by the intensity of dynamic re-oxidation, Fe content in sediments and nutrient concentration gradient between porewater and overlying water. Based on these two release modes, the release flux in Lake Taihu has been estimated. In the static condition (i.e. laboratory experimental condition), total release of NH4 -N for whole lake is ca. 10,000 ton/a, and PO43--P is ca. 900 ton/a. In the dynamic condition, nutrient release following sediment suspension was estimated according to three different intensities of wind forcing which were defined as "calm" (wind speed is less than 2 m/s), "gentle" (wind speed is greater than 2 m/s and less than 6 m/s) and "gust" (wind speed is greater than 6 m/s). The release rate in the condition of "calm" was estimated in terms of the nutrient release in the laboratory experimental static condition; whereas the release rate in conditions of "gentle" and "gust" was estimated in terms of measurement during sediment resuspension conducted in flume experiments. With the observation of wind velocity and frequency in 2001, each type of wind forcing took the frequency of 12%, 82% and 6% for "calm", "gentle" and "gust", respectively. The yearly release of nitrogen was 81,000 ton and phos- phorus was 21,000 ton, which is about 2-6 folds of annual external loading, respectively.  相似文献
10.
Based on three continuous in situ underwater light field measurement under different wind waves conditions in Longgan Lake, Meiliang Bay of Taihu Lake in July 2003 and littoral zone near TLLER in July 2004, respectively, the effects of sediment resuspension caused by wind waves on PAR diffuse attenuation, absorption coefficients and euphotic depths are analyzed. In Longgan Lake, PAR diffuse attenuation coefficients during small, middle and large wind waves were 1.74, 2.02 and 2.45 m-1, respectively, and the corresponding PAR spectral diffuse attenuations ranged from 0.98 to 2.97, 1.34 to 3.95 and 1.80 to 5.40 m-1, respectively. In Meiliang Bay, PAR diffuse attenuation coefficients were 2.63, 3.72, 4.37 m-1 during small, middle and large wind waves. PAR diffuse attenuation coefficients increased by 41% and 66% from small to middle, large wind waves, respectively. Absorption coefficients integrated over the range of PAR of CDOM, phytoplankton were 0.26, 0.28 m-1; 0.76, 0.49 m-1, respectively during middle and large wind waves. Absorption coefficients integrated over the range of PAR of non-algal particulate matter and total suspended particulate matter increased from 0.94 to 1.73 m-1, and from 1.70 to 2.22 m-1, respectively during middle and large wind waves. Relative contributions of absorption coefficients of non-algal particulate matter to total absorption coefficient integrated over the range of PAR were 44.14%, 65.05%, respectively, during middle and large wind waves. PAR euphotic depths decreased by 0.40, 0.19, 0.20 m from middle to large wind waves in Longganhu Lake, Meliang Bay and littoral zone near TLLER. Significant correlations were found between transparency, PAR diffuse attenuation coefficients, euphotic depths and total suspended paniculate matter, wind velocity, wave height. Most significant correlations were found between transparency, PAR diffuse attenuation coefficients, euphotic depths and inorganic suspended paniculate matter but low correlations for chlorophyll a, dissolved organic carbon. Increase of total suspended paniculate matter, especially inorganic suspended paniculate matter caused by wind waves was the dominant factor affecting underwater light field in shallow lakes in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River based on observations at three stations.  相似文献
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