首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   8795篇
  免费   2387篇
  国内免费   2848篇
测绘学   1148篇
大气科学   1854篇
地球物理   2118篇
地质学   5111篇
海洋学   1433篇
天文学   433篇
综合类   841篇
自然地理   1092篇
  2024年   35篇
  2023年   233篇
  2022年   639篇
  2021年   708篇
  2020年   542篇
  2019年   661篇
  2018年   641篇
  2017年   639篇
  2016年   658篇
  2015年   688篇
  2014年   681篇
  2013年   710篇
  2012年   782篇
  2011年   741篇
  2010年   700篇
  2009年   611篇
  2008年   540篇
  2007年   503篇
  2006年   399篇
  2005年   326篇
  2004年   249篇
  2003年   224篇
  2002年   224篇
  2001年   247篇
  2000年   197篇
  1999年   212篇
  1998年   151篇
  1997年   164篇
  1996年   126篇
  1995年   121篇
  1994年   107篇
  1993年   89篇
  1992年   84篇
  1991年   55篇
  1990年   40篇
  1989年   36篇
  1988年   46篇
  1987年   33篇
  1986年   19篇
  1985年   16篇
  1984年   17篇
  1983年   13篇
  1982年   11篇
  1981年   10篇
  1980年   8篇
  1979年   10篇
  1977年   7篇
  1975年   8篇
  1958年   9篇
  1957年   7篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
Water flow velocity is an important hydraulic variable in hydrological and soil erosion models, and is greatly affected by freezing and thawing of the surface soil layer in cold high-altitude regions. The accurate measurement of rill flow velocity when impacted by the thawing process is critical to simulate runoff and sediment transport processes. In this study, an electrolyte tracer modelling method was used to measure rill flow velocity along a meadow soil slope at different thaw depths under simulated rainfall. Rill flow velocity was measured using four thawed soil depths (0, 1, 2 and 10 cm), four slope gradients (5°, 10°, 15° and 20°) and four rainfall intensities (30, 60, 90 and 120 mm·h−1). The results showed that the increase in thawed soil depth caused a decrease in rill flow velocity, whereby the rate of this decrease was also diminishing. Whilst the rill flow velocity was positively correlated with slope gradient and rainfall intensity, the response of rill flow velocity to these influencing factors varied with thawed soil depth. The mechanism by which thawed soil depth influenced rill flow velocity was attributed to the consumption of runoff energy, slope surface roughness, and the headcut effect. Rill flow velocity was modelled by thawed soil depth, slope gradient and rainfall intensity using an empirical function. This function predicted values that were in good agreement with the measured data. These results provide the foundation for a better understanding of the effect of thawed soil depth on slope hydrology, erosion and the parameterization scheme for hydrological and soil erosion models.  相似文献   
2.
To enhance the utilization efficiency of farmland irrigation water and reduce the leakage of water conveyance channels, the leakage process of channels was simulated dynamically. The simulated results were compared with data measured in laboratory experiments, and the performance of the model was evaluated. The results indicated that the simulated values of the model were consistent with the observation values, and the R2 values varied between 0.91 and 0.99. In addition, based on the laboratory experiments, a water supply system (Mariotte bottles) and soil box were built using plexiglass. Three influencing factors, namely, the channel form, soil texture and channel cross-sectional area, were varied to observe and calculate the resulting cumulative infiltration amount, infiltration rate and wetting front migration distance. HYDRUS-3D software was used to solve the three-dimensional soil water movement equation under different initial conditions. The results demonstrated that the U-shaped channel was more effective than the trapezoidal channel in increasing the utilization efficiency of the water resources. A U-shaped channel with a small channel cross-sectional area should be adopted and the soil particle size should be prioritized in the construction of water conveyance channels for farmlands. The simulation results were in agreement with the observed results, which indicates that HYDRUS-3D is a reliable tool that can accurately simulate the soil moisture movement in water conveyance channels. The research results can provide a reference for the design and operation of farmland irrigation systems.  相似文献   
3.
钱磊 《天文学报》2021,62(1):7-87
通过结构函数可以测量湍流的能量级联速率.在实际观测中,无法测量分子云中气体的3维速度,这使得其湍流结构函数难以测量.对垂直于视线方向的薄分子云的情形,结构函数Stt2可以通过云核速度弥散(core velocity dispersion,CVD)进行测量,CVD2=1/2Stt2.对此进行推广,对于不垂直于视线方向的薄分子云,CVD2=1/2Stt2(1-1/8cos2θ)R2/3,其中,θ是视线方向与投影方向的夹角,平均投影距离与3维距离之比R可以用第2类椭圆积分E(k,φ)表示为R=2/πE(cosθ,π/2).  相似文献   
4.
ABSTRACT

This paper discusses characteristics of the seasonal variation in phthalate acid esters (PAEs) in the PM2.5 in the city of Changji, which is located an arid area of Xinjiang Province, northwest China. Samples were collected using a Laoying 2030 median discharge intelligent total suspended particulate (TSP) sampler and analyzed by a Shimadzu GC-2010 gas chromatograph. The results showed that PAEs in PM2.5 were mainly composed of phthalic acid dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and phthalic acid (2-)ethyl hexyl ester (DEHP). DBP and DEHP are the most commonly used plasticizers, accounting for the majority of plasticizers used, and have large environmental emissions. Compared with the proportions of TSPs, proportions of DBP and DEHP in the PM2.5 were lower, while the proportions of DMP and DEP were higher. A correlation exists between the distribution of PAEs and the particle size and concentration of atmospheric particulates. Seasonal variations in DBP and DEHP were the same, with lowest concentrations in the summer. Although seasonal variation in DMP was not the same as those of DBP and DEHP, the general trend was similar. Seasonal variation in DEP was different from those of other PAEs. This pattern is related to PAE characteristics and seasonal variations in their sources.  相似文献   
5.
基于前人研究成果以及现场的实测结果,采用卓资山露天钼矿微震监测项目产出资料,提取了5类微震事件的波形特征和时频特征。波形特征显示:微地震的振幅、辐射均匀性和频率变化特征表明微地震是由于岩层受到单力偶和剪切力作用破裂而产生;爆破具有P波初动方向向上、S波不易识别的特点,包含“初震段、主震段、尾波段”三段变化形态;小型边坡滑坡波事件属楔体滑坡,是由多个“加速—缓冲—终止”构成,波形是由包络线呈“V”字形的多组脉冲波列组成;机械开采震动事件具有自振能量不变、脉冲幅度相差很大、持续时间间隔不确定的特点;运输车辆波形振幅具有形态“弱—强—弱”、等频率、包络线呈多段纺锤形的特征。时频空间分布可以分为相对独立、界限分明的两类:一类包含微地震、爆破、机械开采、小型边坡滑坡事件,另一类只包含车辆运输事件。  相似文献   
6.
盛蕾 《世界地理研究》2019,28(3):202-212
作为重要的在线营销渠道,OTA一直是传统旅游企业的重要合作伙伴之一。无论是OTA抢夺资源还是传统旅游企业对抗升级,双方之间的竞争趋势愈加明显。由此,相关方面的研究逐步增多。国外研究从OTA与饭店、航空公司等传统旅游企业合作、竞争和竞合平衡三个方面入手,主要围绕OTA与饭店的竞合问题展开。重视实证分析,采用数理统计和模型构建等定量研究方法,针对航空公司和饭店企业,从市场细分、定价、客房分配等角度提出实现双方竞合平衡的方案。建议今后加强对OTA和传统旅游企业合作模式变化的跟踪分析,关注OTA与景区、餐馆等旅游供应商的博弈关系。  相似文献   
7.
Wang  Yaji  Gao  Lei  Peng  Xinhua 《中国科学:地球科学(英文版)》2019,62(11):1730-1743
The impacts of hydrological processes on N loss is of great value to understand the N transport at catchment scale,which is far from clear. Rainfall, soil water, groundwater and stream water and their N concentrations were monitored from March 2017 to February 2018 in Sunjia agricultural catchment of the red soil critical zone. Objectives of this study were:(1) to determine the dynamics of N concentration of different waters and their N loads;(2) to assess their contributions to N load of streamflow in the paddy and upland mixed agricultural catchment. Our results showed that the N concentrations of soil water(4.8 mg L~(-1)) and groundwater(6.0 mg L~(-1)) were the highest, approximately 2 to 5 times higher than those of stream water(2.7 mg L~(-1)), rain water(1.7 mg L~(-1)) and irrigation water(1.2 mg L~(-1)). The N net loss of the catchment(38.2 kg ha~(-1) yr~(-1))accounted for 15% of the total fertilizer N input. Rainy season(April–June) was a high-risk period of N loss, contributing to more than one third of the total annual loss amount. Using end-member mixing analysis model(EMMA), we found groundwater(whose discharge accounted for 25% of the catchment streamflow) was an important source for the N loss in the agricultural catchment. Even in this catchment with coexisting upland and paddy field ecosystems, identified end-members could be used to predict the N load well(R~20.87, p0.001). These results can deepen our understanding of the relationship between hydrological process and N transport in the red soil critical zone and are also helpful to improve the water and fertilizer management in subtropical agricultural catchment.  相似文献   
8.
Based on the observed surface suspended matter in the East China Sea in February 2007 and June 2015, an empirical model was established using L1 b's band 4 data to retrieve surface suspended matter from the Moderate Resolution Imagine Spectroradiometer Terra imagery. The squared correlation coefficient is 0.8358, and the root mean square error is 0.4285 mg L-1. The model reflects the distribution characteristics of surface suspended matter in the inner shelf of the East China Sea. In this paper, the satellite images of the study area were retrieved in January from 2001 to 2015, and the monthly distribution of surface suspended matter were obtained. The inter-annual distribution of the study area is similar, and the concentration of surface suspended matter is higher near the shore than offshore. A large amount of surface suspended matter is transported southeast under the influence of Zhejiang and Fujian coastal current and Taiwan warm current. Only a small amount of surface suspension can reach the Kuroshio area. The surface suspended matter concentration changes obviously near the estuary because of the effect of differences in the flux of the Yangtze River. Meanwhile, winter monsoon, temperature front, El Ni?o events, and other factors affect the distribution of surface suspended matter in 100 m isobath to coastal water but minimally influence the distribution in 100 m isobath to deep sea.  相似文献   
9.
江南造山带(湖南段)金矿成矿规律与资源潜力   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
扬子地块—华夏地块经历武陵期—雪峰期增生造山-碰撞造山形成江南造山带,构成统一的华南板块,进入板内演化阶段。本文从构造-岩浆作用-沉积建造角度,结合地质年代学、古地磁、岩相古地理分析,加里东运动、印支运动属陆内作用,造就了加里东期、印支期两次主要的金矿成矿事件。湖南雪峰山—幕阜山(俗称“金腰带”)加里东期和印支晚期金矿床分区成带产出,构成一条复合型造山型金矿带。区域性构造导矿、次级构造交汇或叠加控矿明显;矿石普遍发育条带状构造,属韧性剪切递进变形的产物。通过对区域成矿背景、金矿成矿理论,金矿床(体)地质特征,结合同位素地球化学、地质找矿成果及深部验证情况等多方面研究表明该成矿带深部找矿潜力巨大,2000 m以浅金远景资源量有望达到3000 t。  相似文献   
10.
目前针对环境样品中有机氯和拟除虫菊酯类农药的检测方法主要有气相色谱法和气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS),由于气相色谱法采用电子捕获检测器从而具有较高的灵敏度,在污染物的环境行为研究中得到广泛应用,GC-MS法的定性效果好,但检测灵敏度相对偏低。本文研究了2018年土壤详查江苏地区样品中有机氯农药和拟除虫菊酯的残留状况,结果显示,即使经过多次净化仍有20%的样品存在假阳性或基质干扰现象。为了提高定性准确度,同时保证检测灵敏度,实验建立了复杂基质土壤中20种有机氯农药和4种拟除虫菊酯的全二维气相色谱-电子捕获检测器检测方法,最终选择中等极性的TG-35MS为第一色谱柱,非极性的(DB-1)为第二色谱柱,将鲜样与无水硫酸钠混合均匀后,以正己烷-丙酮(1:1,V/V)为提取剂进行索氏提取,采用全二维气相色谱-电子捕获检测器进行检测,外标法定量。各物质的质量浓度均在1.0~500μg/L内与其峰面积呈线性关系,相关系数均大于0.995,检出限为0.02~0.17μg/kg。用标准加入法进行回收实验,测得回收率为80.7%~103.5%,测定值的相对标准偏差(n=6)为1.84%~10.12%。本方法将高灵敏度检测器与全二维色谱相结合,在保证检测灵敏度的同时增加了峰容量,有效去除了基质干扰。相比2018年土壤详查参考方法HJ 835—2017的检出限0.02~0.09mg/kg(全扫模式),本方法检出限显著降低,且操作简单,可为复杂基质样品中的痕量超痕量检测提供参考。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号