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1.
Multi-conjugate adaptive optics(MCAO),consisting of several deformable mirrors(DMs),can significantly increase the adaptive optics(AO)correction field of view.Current MCAO can be realized by either star-oriented or layer-oriented approaches.For solar AO,ground-layer adaptive optics(GLAO)can be viewed as an extreme case of layer-oriented MCAO in which the DM is conjugated to the ground,while solar tomography adaptive optics(TAO)that we proposed recently can be viewed as star-oriented MCAO with only one DM.Solar GLAO and TAO use the same hardware as conventional solar AO,and therefore it will be important to see which method can deliver better performance.In this article,we compare the performance of solar GLAO and TAO by using end-to-end numerical simulation software.Numerical simulations of TAO and GLAO with different numbers of guide stars are conducted.Our results show that TAO and GLAO produce the same performance if the DM is conjugated to the ground,but TAO can only generate better performance when the DM is conjugated to the best height.This result has important application in existing one-DM solar AO systems.  相似文献   
2.
Glaciers and snow cover are important constituents of the surface of the Tibetan Plateau. The responses of these phenomena to global environmental changes are sensitive, rapid and intensive due to the high altitudes and arid cold climate of the Tibetan Plateau. Based on multisource remote sensing data, including Landsat images, MOD10A2 snow product, ICESat, Cryosat-2 altimetry data and long-term ground climate observations, we analysed the dynamic changes of glaciers, snow melting and lake in the Paiku Co basin using extraction methods for glaciers and lake, the degree-day model and the ice and lake volume method. The interaction among the climate, ice-snow and the hydrological elements in Paiku Co is revealed. From 2000 to 2018, the basin tended to be drier, and rainfall decreased at a rate of −3.07 mm/a. The seasonal temperature difference in the basin increased, the maximum temperature increased at a rate of 0.02°C/a and the minimum temperature decreased at a rate of −0.06°C/a, which accelerated the melting from glaciers and snow at rates of 0.55 × 107 m3/a and 0.29 × 107 m3/a, respectively. The rate of contribution to the lake from rainfall, snow and glacier melted water was 55.6, 27.7 and 16.7%, respectively. In the past 18 years, the warmer and drier climate has caused the lake to shrink. The water level of the lake continued to decline at a rate of −0.02 m/a, and the lake water volume decreased by 4.85 × 108 m3 at a rate of −0.27 × 108 m3/a from 2000 to 2018. This evaluation is important for understanding how the snow and ice melting in the central Himalayas affect the regional water cycle.  相似文献   
3.
Difficulties are involved in discrete element method (DEM) modelling of the flexible boundary, that is, the membranes covering the soil sample, which can be commonly found in contemporary laboratory soil tests. In this paper, a novel method is proposed wherein the finite difference method (FDM) and DEM are coupled to simulate the rubber membrane and soil body, respectively. Numerical plane strain and triaxial tests, served by the flexible membrane, are implemented and analysed later. The effect of the membrane modulus on the measurement accuracy is considered, with analytical formulae derived to judge the significance of this effect. Based on an analysis of stress-strain responses and the grain rotation field, the mechanical performances produced by the flexible and rigid lateral boundaries are compared for the plane strain test. The results show that (1) the effect of the membrane on the test result becomes more significant at larger strain level because the membrane applies additional lateral confining pressure to the soil body; (2) the tested models reproduce typical stress and volumetric paths for specimens with shear bands; (3) for the plane strain test, the rigid lateral boundary derives a much higher peak strength and larger bulk dilatation, but a similar residual strength, compared with the flexible boundary. The latter produces a more uniform (or ‘diffuse') rotation field and more mobilised local kinematics than does the former. All simulations show that the proposed FDM-DEM coupling method is able to simulate laboratory tests with a flexible boundary membrane.  相似文献   
4.
基于毛乌素沙区10个气象站1961-2016年观测资料,应用Mann-Kendall方法和t检验法对各气象站年降水量进行了突变检验,借助小波分析讨论了各气象站年降水量的周期特征,根据降水量等值线划分结果对整个研究区分区分析了年、季、月和日尺度上的降水变化特征,并在两个时段上分析了季节性降水的差异。结果表明:毛乌素沙区年降水量空间特征差异明显,东部亚区呈上升趋势,中西部亚区呈下降趋势,但变化趋势不显著且无突变发生;降水年内分配不均,干湿季分明,降水集中在5-9月,夏秋季降水占全年降水比重大,季、月和日尺度降水量存在梯度递减变化;年降水量的年际变化过程存在多重时间尺度的自相似结构;近26年的冬春季降水增加显著,但降水波动幅度小于前30年。  相似文献   
5.
Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a popular data mining technique, and it has been widely applied in astronomical tasks, especially in stellar spectra classification. Since SVM doesn’t take the data distribution into consideration, and therefore, its classification efficiencies can’t be greatly improved. Meanwhile, SVM ignores the internal information of the training dataset, such as the within-class structure and between-class structure. In view of this, we propose a new classification algorithm-SVM based on Within-Class Scatter and Between-Class Scatter (WBS-SVM) in this paper. WBS-SVM tries to find an optimal hyperplane to separate two classes. The difference is that it incorporates minimum within-class scatter and maximum between-class scatter in Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) into SVM. These two scatters represent the distributions of the training dataset, and the optimization of WBS-SVM ensures the samples in the same class are as close as possible and the samples in different classes are as far as possible. Experiments on the K-, F-, G-type stellar spectra from Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), Data Release 8 show that our proposed WBS-SVM can greatly improve the classification accuracies.  相似文献   
6.
Zhang  Cun  Zhang  Lei 《Natural Resources Research》2019,28(3):1055-1069
Natural Resources Research - During longwall mining, the permeability evaluation in a caving zone is one of the most challenging risks for mine operators because it controls the behavior of gas...  相似文献   
7.
Li  Wei  Li  Xiaoyan  Huang  Yongmei  Wang  Pei  Zhang  Cicheng 《地理学报(英文版)》2019,29(9):1507-1526

In many arid ecosystems, vegetation frequently occurs in high-cover patches interspersed in a matrix of low plant cover. However, theoretical explanations for shrub patch pattern dynamics along climate gradients remain unclear on a large scale. This context aimed to assess the variance of the Reaumuria soongorica patch structure along the precipitation gradient and the factors that affect patch structure formation in the middle and lower Heihe River Basin (HRB). Field investigations on vegetation patterns and heterogeneity in soil properties were conducted during 2014 and 2015. The results showed that patch height, size and plant-to-patch distance were smaller in high precipitation habitats than in low precipitation sites. Climate, soil and vegetation explained 82.5% of the variance in patch structure. Spatially, R. soongorica shifted from a clumped to a random pattern on the landscape towards the MAP gradient, and heterogeneity in the surface soil properties (the ratio of biological soil crust (BSC) to bare gravels (BG)) determined the R. soongorica population distribution pattern in the middle and lower HRB. A conceptual model, which integrated water availability and plant facilitation and competition effects, was revealed that R. soongorica changed from a flexible water use strategy in high precipitation regions to a consistent water use strategy in low precipitation areas. Our study provides a comprehensive quantification of the variance in shrub patch structure along a precipitation gradient and may improve our understanding of vegetation pattern dynamics in the Gobi Desert under future climate change.

  相似文献   
8.
随着海洋生态系统模型的发展,生态变量增多,众多生物过程参数量值的确定成为制约生态环境模拟的瓶颈问题,生态系统结构区域性要求模型中的生态参数具有区域差异。为探究不同海区的关键参数及参数敏感度的空间差异,本研究在渤、黄海建立了ROMS-CoSiNE物理–生物耦合的高分辨率生态系统模型,并对13种生态参数的敏感度空间分布进行分析。结果表明:南黄海中部与渤海及近岸海域的敏感度差异较大。渤海敏感度最大的参数为决定光合速率的浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率,其次为浮游动物捕食半饱和常数和浮游动物最大捕食率。而南黄海中部敏感度最大的参数为浮游动物最大捕食率,其次为浮游植物死亡率和浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率。结合敏感度分布及浮游植物生物量收支得出,渤海水体透明度较南黄海偏低、浮游植物生长光限制较强,是引起浮游植物P-I曲线初始斜率敏感度在渤海高于黄海的主要原因。浮游动物最大捕食率及浮游植物死亡率的敏感度空间差异,受渤、黄海浮游植物生物量差异的影响,与生态系统中的高度非线性特征有关。  相似文献   
9.
The Three Gorges Project is the world's largest water conservancy project. According to the design standards for the 1,000‐year flood, flood diversion areas in the Jingjiang reach of the Yangtze River must be utilized to ensure the safety of the Jingjiang area and the city of Wuhan. However, once these areas are used, the economic and life loss in these areas may be very great. Therefore, it is vital to reduce this loss by developing a scheme that reduces the use of the flood diversion areas through flood regulation by the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR), under the premise of ensuring the safety of the Three Gorges Dam. For a 1,000‐year flood on the basis of a highly destructive flood in 1954, this paper evaluates scheduling schemes in which flood diversion areas are or are not used. The schemes are simulated based on 2.5‐m resolution reservoir topography and an optimized model of dynamic capacity flood regulation. The simulation results show the following. (a) In accord with the normal flood‐control regulation discharge, the maximum water level above the dam should be not more than 175 m, which ensures the safety of the dam and reservoir area. However, it is necessary to utilize the flood diversion areas within the Jingjiang area, and flood discharge can reach 2.81 billion m3. (b) In the case of relying on the TGR to impound floodwaters independently rather than using the flood diversion areas, the maximum water level above the dam reaches 177.35 m, which is less than the flood check level of 180.4 m to ensure the safety of the Three Gorges Dam. The average increase of the TGR water level in the Chongqing area is not more than 0.11 m, which indicates no significant effect on the upstream reservoir area. Comparing the various scheduling schemes, when the flood diversion areas are not used, it is believed that the TGR can execute safe flood control for a 1,000‐year flood, thereby greatly reducing flood damage.  相似文献   
10.
为科学评价测量结果的可靠性,对海水中137Cs γ能谱分析方法的不确定度进行了评估。根据《化学分析中不确定度的评估指南》,分析不确定度的来源并逐一对各不确定度分量进行了量化,最终计算了合成相对标准不确定度。结果表明,影响海水中137Cs γ能谱测量不确定度的因素分别为样品源137Cs峰区计数、标准源活度、取样体积、化学回收率、本底137Cs峰区计数及标准源137Cs峰区计数,其中样品源137Cs峰区计数的不确定度贡献最为突出。对于137Cs活度浓度为1.28 mBq/L的海水样品,其合成相对标准不确定度为9.78%。  相似文献   
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