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1.
Barley(Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the earliest domesticated crop species and ranked as the fourth largest cereal production worldwide. Forward genetic studies in barley have greatly advanced plant genetics during the last century; however, most genes are identified by the conventional mapping method. Array genotyping and exome-capture sequencing have also been successfully used to target the causal mutation in barley populations, but these techniques are not widely adopted because of associated costs and partly due to the huge genome size of barley. This review summarizes three mapping cases of barley cuticle mutants in our laboratory with the help of RNA-sequencing. The causal mutations have been successfully identified for two of them and the target genes are located in the pericentromeric regions. Detailed information on the mapping-by-sequencing, mapping-and-sequencing, and RNA-sequencing assisted linkage mapping are presented and some limitations and challenges on the mapping assisted by RNA sequencing are also discussed. The alternative and elegant methods presented in this review may greatly accelerate forward genetics of barley mapping, especially for laboratories without large funding.  相似文献   
2.
A wide-field time-series CCD photometric survey of variable stars in the field of the open cluster NGC 2168 was carried out using the BATC Schmidt telescope. In total 13 new variable stars are discovered with three W UMa systems, one EA type and two EB type eclipsing binaries (one of them could be a W UMa system), and seven pulsating stars including three candidates of δScuti stars.  相似文献   
3.
Starfish oocytes with intact germinal vesicles (GVs) were cut along desired planes with glass needles or ligated using silk thread loops into two parts and allowed to mature in vitro, and inseminated. The experimental results showed that (1) only the parts with GVs or partial GV contents (PGVCs) cleaved, those without any GV materials did not; but nucleated and non-nucleated fragments cut from mature eggs were able to divide; (2) the development of animal parts of oocytes containing GVs or PGVCs was like that of animal fragments of matured oocytes with female pronuclei; most of them gave rise to permanent blastulae, and just a few formed ectodermal vesicles with a little primary mesenchyme; (3) a large part of vegetal fragments with GVs or PGVCs, and the vegetal parts of mature eggs without female pronuclei developed into small but normal embryos; (4) the fragments containing GVs or PGVCs obtained from the oocytes along a plane parallel to the animal-vegetal (A-V) axis developed as normally as the halves (with or without female pronuclei) severed from mature eggs along the same axis. Based on the data above, it was concluded that (1) the non-chromatin materials in the oocyte GVs are indispensable for successful fertilization and cleavage of starfish eggs; (2) some factor (s) located asymmetrically in the vegetal hemispheres of starfish oocytes is (are) responsible for formation of the archenteron and primary mesenchyme. It is evident from the above findings that the oocyte cytoplasm of the starfish had already regionalized before the GV break-down. Contribution No. 1722 from the Institute of Oceanology, Academia Sinica  相似文献   
4.
Using one-minute cadence vector magnetograms from Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO), we analyze the temporal behavior of derived longitudinal electric currents associated with two flares on July 26, 2002. One of the events is an M1.0 flare which occurred in active region NOAA 10044, while the other is an M8.7 flare in the adjacent region 10039. Rapid changes of magnetic fields in the form of flux emergence are found to be associated with both of these events. However, the temporal behavior of electric currents are very different. For the M1.0 flare, the longitudinal electric current density drops rapidly near the flaring neutral line; while for the M8.7 flare, the current density rapidly increases, confirming the picture of the current-carrying flux emergence. We offer a possible explanation for such a difference: magnetic reconnection at different heights for the two events, near the photosphere for the M1.0 flare, and higher up for the M8.7 flare.  相似文献   
5.
Recent Doppler velocity measurements have revealed the existence of two planets orbiting the star HD 12661 on medium-eccentricity orbits. The inner planet has a period of 263.6 d and a mass of 2.3 Jupiter masses, and the outer planet has a period of 1444.5d and a mass of 1.57 Jupiter masses. The stability of this system requires the two planets to be in a state of mean-motion orbit resonances. By numerical method we have studied the orbit migration and stability of the system in its early ages under the action of the proto-stellar disk, and calculated the probabilities of the planets being captured into the mean -motion resonances during their migrations. It is found that at present the two planets are probably situated at the edge of the 11:2 mean-motion resonance and are in chaotic motions. This result may be helpful to clarify the arguments on the present configuration. Besides, it is indicated that very probably, after the formation of the system, the gaseous disk has almost disappeared before the planets migrated to the present configuration.  相似文献   
6.
江山—绍兴断裂带是中国南方最重要的构造带之一。它是江南陆块与华夏陆块神功运动形成的碰撞拼贴带。它表现出明显的多期变形、构造叠加的特征:神功运动形成近东西向平卧褶皱;印支运动沿断裂带有向北西强烈的推覆挤压。断裂带不同时期的活动反映了不同特征的构造环境,形成不同的构造变形特征,并对两侧的地质历史具有明显的控制作用。  相似文献   
7.
8.
The time evolution behaviour of the superhumps of the dwarf nova1RXS J232953.9+ 062814 is investigated with the wavelet analysis method. On the basis of two nights CCD photometry performed during its first superoutburst as well as other published brightness data, we reveal the superhump's time-dependence as a function of periods and time. Our light curves, which phased in the rapid decay ending portion of the superoutburst and in the dawn of a following normal outburst, are important to help trace the superhump evolution for the star. Both the superhump period and the orbital period of the binary system are detected in the present data. We obtain P sh=0.0458±0.0002d and P orb=0.0450±0.0002d. They agree with those existing values. The two periods exchanged their roles during the superhump evolution. The general profile of brightness fading over the outbursts roughly followed an exponential decay law or a form of a five-order polynomial. This revised version was published online in July 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献   
9.
It is well known that the Babuska–Brezzi stability criterion or the Zienkiewicz–Taylor patch test precludes the use of the finite elements with the same low order of interpolation for displacement and pore pressure in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases, unless some stabilization techniques are introduced for dynamic analysis of saturated porous medium where coupling occurs between the displacement of solid skeleton and pore pressure. The numerical manifold method (NMM), where the interpolation of displacement and pressure can be determined independently in an element for the solution of up formulation, is derived based on triangular mesh for the requirement of high accurate calculations from practical applications in the dynamic analysis of saturated porous materials. The matrices of equilibrium equations for the second‐order displacement and the first‐order pressure manifold method are given in detail for program coding. By close comparison with widely used finite element method, the NMM presents good stability for the coupling problems, particularly in the nearly incompressible and undrained cases. Numerical examples are given to illustrate the validity and stability of the manifold element developed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.

As well known, the methods of remote sensing and Bowen Ratio for retrieving surface flux are based on energy balance closure; however, in most cases, surface energy observed in experiment is lack of closure. There are two main causes for this: one is from the errors of the observation devices and the differences of their observational scale; the other lies in the effect of horizontal advection on the surface flux measurement. Therefore, it is very important to estimate the effects of horizontal advection quantitatively. Based on the local advection theory and the surface experiment, a model has been proposed for correcting the effect of horizontal advection on surface flux measurement, in which the relationship between the fetch of the measurement and pixel size for remote sensed data was considered. By means of numerical simulations, the sensitivities of the main parameters in the model and the scaling problems of horizontal advection were analyzed. At last, by using the observational data acquired in agricultural field with relatively homogeneous surface, the model was validated.

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