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1.
北京石景山工业区附近一个污染土壤剖面的磁学研究   总被引:21,自引:2,他引:19  
对北京西郊石景山工业区附近的土壤剖面进行环境磁学研究,结合粒度、金属元素分析、磁学指标测试和多元统计分析,发现磁参数(χ,ARM,SIRM)与重金属元素(Mn,Cu,Fe,Pb,Zn,Al,Sr)含量呈同步垂向变化趋势.来源于工业区附近工业生产排放(钢铁厂、发电厂、水泥厂)的污染物是土壤剖面上部(0~3 cm)磁性和金属含量增强的主要原因,由富集在细粉砂和中粉砂的多畴磁铁矿主导了样品的磁性特征.3~10 cm重金属含量逐渐下降,土壤的磁性特征与上层相似,但磁性矿物含量降低,属于剖面中的迁移过渡阶段.10 cm以下,土壤基本未受到污染,磁性矿物和重金属含量都低,磁性颗粒大小变化稳定,基本代表了该地区土壤的自然背景.指标聚类和相关分析表明,土壤磁参数与重金属元素含量显著相关.结合模糊聚类分析,磁参数可用于追踪、识别工业污染物质在土壤剖面中的富集、迁移状态,揭示不同深度土壤的污染程度.  相似文献
2.
煤系岩石物理力学参数与声波速度之间的关系   总被引:17,自引:2,他引:15       下载免费PDF全文
 通过超声-时间动态测试方法系统地分析了煤系沉积岩石纵波和横波速度,计算了煤系岩石动弹性力学参数,同步测试了煤系岩石的静态力学参数,建立了煤系沉积岩石动弹性力学参数与静弹性力学参数之间和煤系岩石物理力学参数与其声波速度之间的定性定量关系.研究结果表明,煤系岩石的动弹性模量与岩石的纵波或横波速度具有很好的正相关关系,而与泊松比不具有这种正相关关系.煤系岩石的动弹性模量要大于其静弹性模量,而动泊松比要小于其静泊松比,它们之间呈线性相关关系.煤系岩石密度、单轴抗压和抗拉强度与其纵波或横波速度之间也呈正相关关系,它们分别服从二次函数、指数函数和线性函数分布.  相似文献
3.
太湖上游流域农业土地中氮的剩余对太湖的富营养化具有至关重要的影响.利用2002年各乡镇的农业统计资料,对上游流域农业土地中氮的剩余量进行计算.计算结果表明,上游流域农业土地中氮的剩余总量为134.8×103t/a,单位农业土地面积的剩余量为178.9 kg/(hm2·a).从单位面积氮剩余量的空间变化看,东、西苕溪流域的剩余量较低,而其它流域的剩余量相对较高.借助典型区域氮剩余的长系列计算数据,对上游地区氮剩余的长期变化规律进行分析.并在此基础上,探讨太湖的富营养化演变趋势与氮剩余长期变化的关系.  相似文献
4.
电离层GPS掩星观测改正TEC反演方法   总被引:11,自引:3,他引:8       下载免费PDF全文
 电离层掩星观测中,当低轨卫星(LEO)轨道高度较低时,轨道以上的电离层电子总含量(TEC)对掩星反演的影响不能忽略.目前,一般采用指数函数等外推方法来处理该问题,对反演结果可能引起较大误差.为提高电离层掩星反演精度,本文研究利用LEO处于非掩星一侧GPS观测数据的改正TEC新反演方法.用三维射线追踪程序计算出电离层掩星观测模拟数据,分别应用改正TEC方法和外推方法进行反演,将反演结果与所用模式值进行比较.结果表明:对于轨道高度约800km的GPS/MET掩星模拟数据,外推方法和改正TEC方法反演结果都与模式值基本一致;对于轨道高度约400km的CHAMP掩星模拟数据,外推方法误差较大,改正TEC方法反演结果与模式值相符得较好.将改正TEC方法应用于GPS/MET实测数据的反演,取得了合理的结果.这些说明,改正TEC算法是一种有效的电离层掩星反演方法,尤其是对于轨道较低的LEO的电离层掩星观测反演特别有用.  相似文献
5.
6.
The catalogue by Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517?C541, 2009a) of earthquakes in central, northern, and north-western Europe with M w????3.5 (CENEC) has been expanded to cover also southern Europe and the Mediterranean area. It has also been extended in time (1000?C2006). Due to the strongly increased seismicity in the new area, the threshold for events south of the latitude 44°N has here been set at M w????4.0, keeping the lower threshold in the northern catalogue part. This part has been updated with data from new and revised national and regional catalogues. The new Euro-Mediterranean Earthquake Catalogue (EMEC) is based on data from some 80 domestic catalogues and data files and over 100 special studies. Available original M w and M 0 data have been introduced. The analysis largely followed the lines of the Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517?C541, 2009a) study, i.e., fake and duplicate events were identified and removed, polygons were specified within each of which one or more of the catalogues or data files have validity, and existing magnitudes and intensities were converted to M w. Algorithms to compute M w are based on relations provided locally, or more commonly on those derived by Grünthal et al. (J Seismol 13:517?C541, 2009a) or in the present study. The homogeneity of EMEC with respect to M w for the different constituents was investigated and improved where feasible. EMEC contains entries of some 45,000 earthquakes. For each event, the date, time, location (including focal depth if available), intensity I 0 (if given in the original catalogue), magnitude M w (with uncertainty when given), and source (catalogue or special study) are presented. Besides the main EMEC catalogue, large events before year 1000 in the SE part of the investigated area and fake events, respectively, are given in separate lists.  相似文献
7.
Series of sensitivity tests were performed with a z-coordinate, global eddy-permitting (1/4°) ocean/sea-ice model (the ORCA-R025 model configuration developed for the DRAKKAR project) to carefully evaluate the impact of recent state-of-the-art numerical schemes on model solutions. The combination of an energy–enstrophy conserving (EEN) scheme for momentum advection with a partial step (PS) representation of the bottom topography yields significant improvements in the mean circulation. Well known biases in the representation of western boundary currents, such as in the Atlantic the detachment of the Gulf Stream, the path of the North Atlantic Current, the location of the Confluence, and the strength of the Zapiola Eddy in the south Atlantic, are partly corrected. Similar improvements are found in the Pacific, Indian, and Southern Oceans, and characteristics of the mean flow are generally much closer to observations. Comparisons with other state-of-the-art models show that the ORCA-R025 configuration generally performs better at similar resolution. In addition, the model solution is often comparable to solutions obtained at 1/6 or 1/10° resolution in some aspects concerning mean flow patterns and distribution of eddy kinetic energy. Although the reasons for these improvements are not analyzed in detail in this paper, evidence is shown that the combination of EEN with PS reduces numerical noise near the bottom, which is likely to affect current–topography interactions in a systematic way. We conclude that significant corrections of the mean biases presently seen in general circulation model solutions at eddy-permitting resolution can still be expected from the development of numerical methods, which represent an alternative to increasing resolution.  相似文献
8.
Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.  相似文献
9.
We present a set of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs) derived for the geometrical mean of the horizontal components and the vertical, considering the latest release of the strong motion database for Italy. The regressions are performed over the magnitude range 4?C6.9 and considering distances up to 200?km. The equations are derived for peak ground acceleration (PGA), peak ground velocity (PGV) and 5%-damped spectral acceleration at periods between 0.04 and 2?s. The total standard deviation (sigma) varies between 0.34 and 0.38?log10 unit, confirming the large variability of ground shaking parameters when regional data sets containing small to moderate magnitude events (M?<?6) are used. The between-stations variability provides the largest values for periods shorter than 0.2?s while, for longer periods, the between-events and between-stations distributions of error provide similar contribution to the total variability.  相似文献
10.
Hans Jürgen Hahn   《Limnologica》2006,36(2):119-137
Between June 2001 and December 2002, 18 hyporheic and groundwater bores were sampled for fauna and environmental data using phreatic traps. The bores were situated in three different natural geographic regions in Palatinate, Southwestern Germany.Faunal data correlated with the relative amount of detritus, bacterial abundances and the standard deviation of temperature, while very few and weak correlations were found with physical–chemical variables. Dissolved oxygen was assumed to be a limiting factor for most metazoans with a critical concentration at around 0.5–1 mg l−1.To quantify the strength of the hydrological exchange with surface water and its effects on fauna, a so-called GW-Fauna-Index was developed and calculated using the relative amount of detritus, standard deviation of temperature, and oxygen concentration. From all environmental data and on all spatial scales, this index best explained the total faunal abundance and taxonomic richness.To describe the availability of organic aliments in the groundwater, the terms of “alimonic” and “alimony” [from lat. alimonium=(food) supply] were proposed.Although stygofauna was different in the geographic regions investigated, the GW-Fauna-Index was independent from these regional particularities. Using the GW-Fauna-Index, three groups of groundwater habitats could be classified according to the alimonic conditions. From oligo-alimonic group I samples, fauna was mostly absent, while meso-alimonic group II samples were prevailingly populated by stygobites, and eu-alimonic group III samples by ubiquists and stygoxenes. Total abundances and taxonomic richness increased significantly from group I to group III. Group I samples were characterized by low index values, group II samples by intermediate and group III samples by high values.The GW-Fauna-Index provides promising perspectives for application, but needs some improvement. First of all, detritus should be analysed quantitatively and qualitatively, rather than semi-quantitatively. Also, a standard protocol for sampling has to be developed.  相似文献
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