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1.
One of the largest explosive eruptions in the past several thousand years occurred at Tianchi volcano, also known as Changbaishan, on the China–North Korea border. This historically active polygenetic central volcano consists of three parts: a lower basaltic shield, an upper trachytic composite cone, and young comendite ash flows. The Millennium Eruption occurred between 938 and 946?ad, and was preceded by two smaller and chemically different rhyolitic pumice deposits. There has been at least one additional, small eruption in the last three centuries. From 2002 to 2005, seismicity, deformation, and the helium and hydrogen gas contents of spring waters all increased markedly, causing regional concern. We attribute this event to magma recharge or volatile exhalation or both at depth, followed by two episodes of addition of magmatic fluids into the overlying aquifer without a phreatic eruption. The estimated present magma accumulation rate is too low by itself to account for the 2002–2005 unrest. The most serious volcanic hazards are ash eruption and flows, and lahars. The available geological information and volcano monitoring data provide a baseline for comprehensive assessment of future episodes of unrest and possible eruptive activity.  相似文献
2.
西昆仑阿什火山机构及岩石学、矿物学特征   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
阿什库勒盆地位于NE向阿尔金断裂与NW向康西瓦断裂的"弧形"交会处,构造活动十分活跃,盆地内发育10余座火山,其中阿什火山为该火山群中最新活动的火山。文中从火山地质、熔岩和斑晶成分、显微结构特征及地质温压计4个方面对阿什火山进行了详细研究。结果表明,阿什火山由火山锥和熔岩流组成,锥体由早期的渣锥和晚期的溅落锥组成,熔岩流分布面积约33km2,可划分为4个流动单元。熔岩属于钾玄岩系列,岩性为粗安岩,显微镜下呈斑状结构。斑晶以长石(主要为中长石)和辉石(包括普通辉石、古铜辉石和紫苏辉石)为主;基质为玻璃质、隐晶质、微晶质,部分含有大量的长石和辉石。斑晶与岩浆的平衡温度为1 104~1 194℃,压力为570~980MPa,对应的岩浆房深度为18.92~32.29km。  相似文献
3.
汶川MS8.0地震是近代少有的大陆褶皱逆断层型巨大地震,其地表破裂带是研究和解剖褶皱逆断层地表同震变形样式,并以此探讨古地震遗迹的不可多得的现实案例。在整理和分析汶川地震地表破裂带地质地貌调查资料的基础上,选择可能仅记录1次事件的平通、邓家(北川-映秀断裂)和九龙(江油-灌县断裂)等地为例,分析同震变形的特点和类型,并结合映秀、桂溪等地的古地震研究成果,讨论褶皱逆断层型古地震识别的技术要点。结果显示:地表变形主要包括逆断层直接位错、折曲位错变形和弯曲褶皱变形等类型;崩积楔、断层与地层切盖关系是分析断错地表型古地震事件的可行依据,而折曲位错变形型和弯曲褶皱变形型古地震识别则强调在上盘是否存在侵蚀不整合面,下盘是否存在生长地层,以及标志地层在断层两盘位差的突然增减;断层陡坎高度的倍数关系在一定程度上与古地震次数相关,但不能简单地用同震位移量除以陡坎高度的方法确定古地震期次;对于低角度逆断层的古地震识别,薄长状崩积楔、断层与堆积地层的切错关系和不同标志地层在断层两侧的累积位差的突变是重要的标志。识别古地震应因地制宜、思考多种因素的影响、用多种证据相互印证。  相似文献
4.
Field investigations have determined 24 Quaternary volcanoes and volcanic rocks with an area of about 600 km 2 in the Nuomin River and Kuile River area in the north of the Greater Hinggan Mountains.In the volcanic field,explosive eruption produced pyroclasts,which constitute volcanic cones,and effusive eruption produced aa,pahoehoe and block lava,which make up lava flows.There are three volcano types here,i.e.,cinder cone,spatter cone,and scutulum type volcano.Multi-vent pyroclastic cones and scutulum type volcanoes characterize this volcanic field.The volcanic features,stratigraphy,and weathering extent,in conjunction with dating data,indicate that the volcanism occurred in four periods:early Pleistocene,middle Pleistocene,late Pleistocene,and Holocene.Basalts of the early Pleistocene dominated by lava flows were distributed in a few valleys.Volcanic products of the middle Pleistocene constitute the main part of the Quaternary volcanic deposits,which indicates the peak season of volcanism.Volcanism in the late Pleistocene and Holocene were constrained in the Bila River valley,products of which make up fresh lava flows and spectacular volcanoes.  相似文献
5.
通过分析青藏高原东南缘活动断裂带的活动特征和GPS资料显示的现今地壳形变场,辅以历史地震及地表破裂、震源机制解类型等资料,将青藏高原东南缘地区分成了11个次级块体.其中包括了西秦岭次级块体、阿坝次级块体、龙门山次级块体、藏东次级块体、雅江次级块体,香格里拉次级块体、滇中次级块体、保山次级块体、景谷次级块体、勐腊次级块体和西盟次级块体;并利用这些次级块体内的GPS站点速率计算出了这些块体现今运动情况及各块体之间断裂的滑动速率,分析认为各次级块体均受到了一种来自其相邻块体的主要应力作用而发生了旋转,其中保山次级块体、藏东次级块体、雅江次级块体、香格里拉次级块体、滇中次级块体的旋转尤为显著;同样,相邻块体之间的边界断裂带也呈现了相应的挤压或拉张活动特征,而藏东次级块体与雅江次级块体、雅江次级块体与滇中次级块体之间的挤压最为明显.利用上述结果,本文讨论了该地区的现今地壳形变特征,认为刚性块体的挤出作用与重力滑塌作用并存于该区域内,下地壳“管道流”的拖曳作用是该地区刚性块体挤出作用和重力滑塌的主要原因,另外缅甸板块相对于自身的逆时针旋转作用在其北部引起的拉张作用也是重要因素之一.  相似文献
6.
库木库里盆地位于青藏高原北缘,与柴达木盆地一山之隔,是二者的过渡地带,也是高原主体部分向NE扩展的前缘地区;现今构造表现为被3条大型活动构造带(走滑的阿尔金断裂带、东昆仑断裂带和逆冲的祁漫塔格褶皱逆冲系)所夹持。因此,该盆地对于研究青藏高原北缘的构造活动性、活动历史,探讨高原的扩展模式具有十分重要的意义。虽然库木库里盆地南、北两侧均发育活动性很强的大型走滑断裂,但是在盆地中央发育1条大型背斜,走向NWW-SEE,与祁漫塔格褶皱逆冲系和柴达木盆地内的褶皱构造走向一致,说明盆地目前遭受NNE向的挤压。通过对盆地地形横、纵剖面和阶地展布形态的分析,得出背斜有自西向东扩展变形的特征;野外调查和测年结果显示,背斜东段冰川融水形成了大型冰水扇,形成年龄为(87.09±2.31)~(102.4±3.7)ka,进而获得背斜东段自晚更新世以来平均隆升速率的最大值为(2.78±0.28)~(3.28±0.28)mm/a。库木库里盆地整体的活动性很强,在构造上与其北边的柴达木盆地类似,都受控于阿尔金断裂南侧的NNE向的区域挤压作用。  相似文献
7.
4.20芦山地震后,有学者在芦山县龙门乡发现一系列的线性裂缝和砖块的旋转变形等"地震地表破裂迹象",由此推测芦山—龙门一线存在隐伏逆断裂,并认为该断裂有可能是此次地震的发震断裂。因此,进一步探讨芦山—龙门一线是否存在潜在的发震断裂,无论是对研究芦山7.0级地震的发震断裂,还是对灾区的重建指导都十分重要。在龙门乡开展了地质灾害调查、跨谷地的地质剖面实测,槽探和人工地震勘探等工作。结果显示:至少在800m深度范围内,不存在芦山-龙门隐伏断裂。此带上的地裂缝等现象不是由断层位错引起,而更可能是地震动在阶地陡坎附近造成的地基或边坡效应所致。  相似文献
8.
In coseismic surface rupture zones caused by the 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake, some thin-layered fault gouges with strong deformation were observed in different locations. In this paper, fault gouge samples were taken as research objects from the Bajiaomiao village in the south-west segment of the principal rupture and the Heshangping village and the Shaba village in the north-east segment of the principal rupture where larger displacements were measured. Fabric characteristics of the fault gouge samples and the morphologies and structures of micro-nanometer grains on Y-shear surfaces were then analyzed by using a stereoscope and SEM. Observation results showed that obvious Y- and R-shears and obvious scratches were well developed in coseismic gouges caused by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. Micro-nanometer grains in the fault gouge of the Wenhcuan earthquake were formed mainly due to breaking, grinding, and powdering of fault slipping friction surface. Heat caused by fault slipping (maybe also including heat caused by thermal decomposition) played an important role in producing micro-nanometer sized grains. Existence occurrence state of micro-nanometer sized grains on fault slip surface includes singled grains and their complexes with shapes of ball, silkworm, pancake and mass. The structures mainly include dispersed and close-packed structures besides a few of striped and layered structures. All these structures were formed at the extreme unbalance conditions caused by rapid deforming during an earthquake. There always exist some voids between structures due to loosely contact. Only alienated grains are included in the stripped structure. But there are some singled grains with no deformation in dispersed and close-packed structures besides complexes of grains with morphologies of ball, silkworm, pancake and mass. The striped and close-packed structures are the results of plastic deformation, and the dispersed and layered structures are the results of brittle deformation whereas loose contact of different structures was caused mainly by discontinuous dynamic friction (fault stick-slipping). The structures of the micro-nanometer sized grains in coseismic fault gouge caused by the Wenchuan earthquake are the geological records of seismic fault slipping (it is not pseudotachylite), which could be used as an index of paleo-seismic events.  相似文献
9.
科洛火山群的新生代火山共有23座,坐落于科洛河两岸,火山岩面积约为350km2,岩性主要为碱性玄武岩.由于地处NE向断陷盆地这一特殊的构造位置,科洛地区的火山活动及展布主要受到区域基底断裂的制约.火山喷发形式总体为中心式,属斯通博利式火山.火山活动可划分为上新世、更新世和全新世3期.上新世在断陷盆地边缘形成了一系列NE向线性展布的中心式溢出型火山,其中部分火山因风化剥蚀而失去了原有的火山地貌特征,仅保留盾形熔岩台地.早更新世火山活动相对平静.中-晚更新世火山活动仍受到NE向基底断裂的控制,但喷发中心、喷发方式及喷发强度均发生改变,火山由碱玄质火山渣锥和熔岩流组成.进入全新世以后南山喷发,其火山结构保存完好,裸露的熔岩台地保留了较好的微地貌特征.该期火山亦由碱玄质火山渣锥和熔岩流构成.在科洛火山群的火山活动过程中,其熔岩流覆盖了早期沉积地层,并对盆地中的河流进行了改造,最终导致该区断陷盆地初始地貌的改变.  相似文献
10.
焉耆盆地是塔里木盆地东北缘天山山间的重要坳陷区,盆地北缘发育的和静逆断裂-褶皱带是一条现今活动强烈的逆断裂-褶皱带,对其第四纪以来缩短量和隆升量的计算有利于分析该区域的构造活动情况,对缩短速率和隆升速率的估计可以与天山造山带其他区域的活动速率进行横向对比,从而反映出焉耆盆地在天山晚新生代构造变形的作用。在深部资料不足的情况下,对背斜形态完整、构造样式简单的和静逆断裂-褶皱带,利用地表可获得的地层和断层产状,通过恢复褶皱几何形态,计算褶皱的缩短量、隆升量和断层滑动量,得到逆断裂-褶皱带早更新世晚期(1.8Ma)、中更新世(780ka)和晚更新世中期(80ka)以来的缩短量分别为1.79km、0.88km和26m,初步估计的缩短速率分别为0.99mm/a、1.13mm/a和0.33mm/a。显示和静逆断裂-褶皱带自开始形成以来构造活动强度并不一致。与地壳形变观测结果对比,作为南天山东段最主要的坳陷区,焉耆盆地吸收了这一区域(86°~88°E)的大部分地壳缩短,且主要表现为盆地北缘新生逆断裂-褶皱带的强烈变形。  相似文献
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