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The numerical ‘class A’ predictions performed within the framework of the VELACS Project are compared to the experimental results recorded in the centrifuge experiments. The comparisons are made in terms of: (1) the root mean square error of the predictions with respect to the mean of the experimental results; and (2) the size of a confidence interval centered at the predicted value which contains the estimated true value of the experimental results with a 75% probability. An assessment of the capability of various groups of constitutive soil models to predict excess pore pressures induced by dynamic loading is also presented.  相似文献
3.
In this paper we present an approach for 3-D travel-time tomography, which works well in reconstructing high contrast velocity anomalies in both location and strength. It uses a revised ‘irregular’ approach to the shortest-path method as the ray tracer and a damped minimum norm, and constrained least-squares CG approach as the inversion solver. In ray tracing, the advantages of the revised ‘irregular’ over the ‘regular’ approach are that the secondary nodes introduced on the cell surfaces significantly improve accuracy of computed travel times, without dramatically increasing the total number of cells and nodes; the tri-linear velocity function defined across the cell guarantees accurate ray tracing in a high velocity contrast medium; and the capacity to calculate a relatively large 3-D model, due to the fast run speed (at least one order of magnitude over the ‘regular’ approach) and less number of total nodes. The introduction of ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ bounds into the inversion process changes the conditioning and makes the solution meaningful in a physical sense. Thus the artifacts caused by noise and high velocity contrasts are substantially suppressed and the image quality is considerably improved, making the solution realistic with noisy or inconsistent travel-time data. Several numerical tests indicate that we can obtain good quality images even for high velocity contrast anomalies (say more than 20%) in the target region. This means the inversion algorithm is an efficient and effective procedure. Meanwhile, the inversion procedure is not very sensitive to the quality of the travel-time data, which is promising for practical usage.  相似文献
4.
The ‘equal displacement’ rule is employed in seismic design practice to predict inelastic displacements from analyses of the corresponding linear elastic structural models. The accuracy and limitations of this rule have been investigated for ordinary structures but not for bridges subjected to spatially varying ground motions. The present study investigates this rule for moderate levels of inelastic behavior for four highway bridges in California accounting for the effects of spatial variability of the support motions due to incoherence, wave passage and differential site response. The bridge models vary significantly as to their fundamental periods and their overall configurations. Statistical analyses of pier‐drift responses are performed using as input simulated arrays of nonstationary ground motions in accordance with prescribed coherency models. It is found that the ‘equal displacement’ rule is fairly accurate for cases when the fundamental period of the bridge is longer than the transition period between the acceleration‐controlled and velocity‐controlled ranges of the response spectrum. Otherwise, the rule is non‐conservative for cases with large ductility factors and conservative for cases with small ductility factors. Wave passage and incoherence tend to reduce ratios of mean peak inelastic to elastic pier drifts, whereas incorporation of the differential site‐response effect by locating piers on softer soils tends to increase the same ratios. Mild or moderate positive correlation between these ratios and ductility demands is observed in most cases. Effects of spatial variability are more pronounced for longer and stiffer bridges. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
5.
Using field observations and geochemical and digital terrain analyses, we describe the structure and thickness of the regolith across a climosequence on the island of Hawai‘i to gain insight into the relative roles of precipitation and the near‐surface hydrologic structure in determining weathering patterns. In the wet portion of the climosequence, where the long‐term water balance is positive, the regolith thickness reaches an observed maximum of ~40 m and appears limited by the geomorphic base‐level of the landscape. However, even within this thick regolith, distinct units of varying weathering intensity occur; the vertical ordering of which largely reflects differences in the initial permeability structure of the basalt flows rather than a systematic decrease in weathering intensity downwards from the ground surface. In the dry portion of the climosequence, where the long‐term water balance is negative, the regolith thickness is confined to ~1 m, is highly dependent on the inferred permeability structure of the basalt flows, and is independent of geomorphic base‐level. Weathering intensity also varies according to permeability structure and decreases in this thin regolith with distance beneath the ground surface. The abrupt change in regolith depth and character that coincides with the transition from net‐positive to net‐negative long‐term water balance implies that small changes in precipitation rates around a neutral water balance result in large changes in the distribution and depth of weathering. Together our observations indicate that the distribution and depth of weathering in basalts (and probably other lithologies) might be best understood by considering how precipitation interacts with the complicated near‐surface permeability structure over regolith‐forming timescales to weather rock in the vadose zone. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
6.
In this paper, a contribution of various types of masonry infill to the behaviour of reinforced concrete frames under lateral loads is presented. As a part of the bigger project, ten one‐bay, one‐storey reinforced concrete frames were designed according to the EC8, built in a scale 1:2.5, infilled with masonry and tested under constant vertical and cyclic lateral load. The masonry wall had various strength properties, namely, high strength hollow clay brick blocks, medium strength hollow clay brick blocks and low strength lightweight autoclaved aerated concrete blocks. There were no additional shear connectors between the masonry and frame. The results showed that the composite ‘framed wall’ structure had much higher stiffness, damping and initial strength than the bare frame structure. Masonry infill filled in the load capacity gap from very low (0.05%) to drifts when the frame took over (0.75%). The structures behaved as linear monolithic elements to drifts of 0.1%, reached the maximum lateral capacities at drift of 0.3%, maintained it to drifts of 0.75% and after that their behaviour depended on the frame. Masonry infill had severe damage at drift levels of about 0.75% but contributed to the overall system resistance to drifts of about 1%. At that drift level, the frame had only minor damage and was tested to drifts of about 2% without any loss of capacity. Improvement of the ‘infill provisions’ in the codes could be sought by taking into account the contribution of a common masonry that reduces expected damages by lowering the drift levels. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
7.
This study addresses a need to document changes in streamflow and base flow (groundwater discharge to streams) in Hawai‘i during the past century. Statistically significant long‐term (1913–2008) downward trends were detected (using the nonparametric Mann–Kendall test) in low‐streamflow and base‐flow records. These long‐term downward trends are likely related to a statistically significant downward shift around 1943 detected (using the nonparametric Pettitt test) in index records of streamflow and base flow. The downward shift corresponds to a decrease of 22% in median streamflow and a decrease of 23% in median base flow between the periods 1913–1943 and 1943–2008. The shift coincides with other local and regional factors, including a change from a positive to a negative phase in the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, shifts in the direction of the trade winds over Hawai‘i, and a reforestation programme. The detected shift and long‐term trends reflect region‐wide changes in climatic and land‐cover factors. A weak pattern of downward trends in base flows during the period 1943–2008 may indicate a continued decrease in base flows after the 1943 shift. Downward trends were detected more commonly in base‐flow records than in high‐streamflow, peak‐flow, and rainfall records. The decrease in base flow is likely related to a decrease in groundwater storage and recharge and therefore is a valuable indicator of decreasing water availability and watershed vulnerability to hydrologic changes. Whether the downward trends will continue is largely uncertain given the uncertainty in climate‐change projections and watershed responses to changes. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
8.
The southern part of the Outer Zone of Southwest Japan including the Kii peninsula belongs to the tectonic ‘shadow zone’, where fewer conspicuous active faults and less Quaternary sediments develop than in the Nankai subduction zone and Inner Zone of Southwest Japan. In order to study the paleostress sequence of the Kii peninsula, we analyzed fault‐slip data and tension gashes at pilot sites of Early–Middle Miocene forearc sediments and Late Cretaceous accretionary complex. According to the results, six faulting events are reconstructed in sequence: (i) east–west extension (normal faulting); (ii) east–west compression and north–south extension (strike‐slip faulting); (iii) NNW–SSE compression and ENE–WSW extension (strike‐slip faulting); (iv) northeast–southwest compression and northwest–southeast extension (strike‐slip faulting); (v) WNW–ESE compression (strike‐slip or reverse faulting); and (vi) NNE–SSW extension. The north–south to NNW–SSE trending dyke swarm of Middle Miocene age in the Kii peninsula is thought to be related to Event 3, implying that Event 3 was active at least during the Middle Miocene. Because Event 6 is recognized solely at a site, the overall latest faulting event seems to be Event 5. Assuming that the compression results from the motion of the crust or plate, the compression direction of Event 5 is in good accordance with the present‐day WNW crustal velocity vectors of the Kii peninsula. The stress trajectory map of Southeast Korea and Southwest Japan reveals that the current compression directions of the Kii peninsula correspond to the combinatory stress fields of the Himalayan and Philippine Sea tectonic domains.  相似文献
9.
Experimentally determined spatial patterns of soil redistribution across a break in slope derived using 10 rare earth element (REE) oxides as sediment tracers are presented. An erosion experiment was conducted using simulated rainfall within a laboratory slope model measuring 2·5 m wide by 6 m long with a gradient of 15° declining to 2°. Soil was tagged with multiple REE and placed in different locations over the slope and at the end of the experiment REE concentrations were measured in samples collected spatially. A new method was developed to quantify the erosion and deposition depths spatially, the relative source contributions to deposited sediment and the sediment transport distances. Particle‐size selectivity over an area of net deposition was also investigated, by combining downslope changes in particle‐size distributions with changes in sediment REE composition within a flow pathway. During the experiment, the surface morphology evolved through upslope propagation of rill headcuts, which gradually incised the different REE‐tagged zones and led to sediment deposition at the break in slope and the development of a fan extending over the shallow slope segment. The spatial patterns in REE concentrations, the derived erosion and deposition depths, the relative source contributions to deposition zones and the sediment transport distances, corroborate the morphological observations and demonstrate the potential of using REE for quantifying sediment transport processes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
10.
Material cored during the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 310 ‘Tahiti Sea Level’ revealed that the fossil reef systems around Tahiti are composed of two major stratigraphic sequences: (i) a last deglacial sequence; and (ii) an older Pleistocene sequence. The older Pleistocene carbonate sequence is composed of reef deposits associated with volcaniclastic sediments and was preserved in Hole 310‐M0005D drilled off Maraa. Within an approximately 70‐m‐thick older Pleistocene sequence (33.22–101.93 m below seafloor; 92.85–161.56 m below present sealevel) in this hole, 11 depositional units are defined by lithological changes, sedimentological features, and paleontological characteristics and are numbered sequentially from the top of the hole downward (Subunits P1–P11). Paleowater depths inferred from nongeniculate coralline algae, combined with those determined by using corals and larger foraminifers, suggest two major sealevel rises during the deposition of the older Pleistocene sequence. Of these, the second sealevel rise is associated with an intervening sealevel drop. It is likely that the second sealevel rise corresponds to that during Termination II (TII, the penultimate deglaciation, from Marine Isotope Stages 6 to 5e). Therefore, the intervening sealevel drop can be correlated with that known as the ‘sealevel reversal’ during TII. Because there are limited data on the Pleistocene reef systems in the tropical South Pacific Ocean, this study provides important information about Pleistocene sealevel history, the evolution of coral reef ecosystems, and the responses of coral reefs to Quaternary climate changes.  相似文献
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