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1.
 为了理解地震的发生和地壳结构不均匀性的关系,利用南加州地震台网的固定台和临时台所记录的2863个兰德斯余震和区域地震,共计107401个P波和19624个S波高质量的到时数据,采用地震层析成像方法得到了兰德斯地震区P波和S波的精细的三维速度结构和泊松比分布.结果显示,地震的发生和分布与地壳结构的横向不均匀性有密切的关系.总体上看,兰德斯地震区余震成丛分布,并被低速块体截断,其中4级以上地震大多分布于P波高、低速异常过渡区域或偏向高速块体一侧,这可能是因为高速区多属地壳脆性介质,易于造成应力集中,导致地震;反之,低速度区则可能代表破碎程度较高、富含流体或温度较高区域,因而更倾向于产生无震变形.基于兰德斯地震区强震震源位置、地震区P波、S波速度异常与泊松比分布推断,兰德斯地震区可能有流体存在.地壳流体易使地壳岩石弱化,从而引发大地震.  相似文献
2.
Volcanic plumes interact with the wind at all scales. On smaller scales, wind affects local eddy structure; on larger scales, wind shapes the entire plume trajectory. The polar jets or jetstreams are regions of high [generally eastbound] winds that span the globe from 30 to 60° in latitude, centered at an altitude of about 10 km. They can be hundreds of kilometers wide, but as little as 1 km in thickness. Core windspeeds are up to 130 m/s. Modern transcontinental and transoceanic air routes are configured to take advantage of the jetstream. Eastbound commercial jets can save both time and fuel by flying within it; westbound aircraft generally seek to avoid it.Using both an integral model of plume motion that is formulated within a plume-centered coordinate system (BENT) as well as the Active Tracer High-resolution Atmospheric Model (ATHAM), we have calculated plume trajectories and rise heights under different wind conditions. Model plume trajectories compare well with the observed plume trajectory of the Sept 30/Oct 1, 1994, eruption of Kliuchevskoi Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia, for which measured maximum windspeed was 30–40 m/s at about 12 km. Tephra fall patterns for some prehistoric eruptions of Avachinsky Volcano, Kamchatka, and Inyo Craters, CA, USA, are anomalously elongated and inconsistent with simple models of tephra dispersal in a constant windfield. The Avachinsky deposit is modeled well by BENT using a windspeed that varies with height.Two potentially useful conclusions can be made about air routes and volcanic eruption plumes under jetstream conditions. The first is that by taking advantage of the jetstream, aircraft are flying within an airspace that is also preferentially occupied by volcanic eruption clouds and particles. The second is that, because eruptions with highly variable mass eruption rate pump volcanic particles into the jetstream under these conditions, it is difficult to constrain the tephra grain size distribution and mass loading present within a downwind volcanic plume or cloud that has interacted with the jetstream. Furthermore, anomalously large particles and high mass loadings could be present within the cloud, if it was in fact formed by an eruption with a high mass eruption rate. In terms of interpretation of tephra dispersal patterns, the results suggest that extremely elongated isopach or isopleth patterns may often be the result of eruption into the jetstream, and that estimation of the mass eruption rate from these elongated patterns should be considered cautiously.  相似文献
3.
Hydrogen peroxide is photochemically produced in natural waters. It has been implicated in the oxidative-induced mortality of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), a microbial water quality measure. To assess levels and cycling of peroxide in beach waters monitored for FIB, diel studies were carried out in surf zone waters in July 2009 at Crystal Cove State Beach, Southern California, USA. Maximum concentrations of 160–200 nM were obtained within 1 h of solar noon. Levels dropped at night to 20–40 nM, consistent with photochemical production from sunlight. Day-time production and night-time dark loss rates averaged 16 ± 3 nM h−1 and 12 ± 4 nM h−1 respectively. Apparent quantum yields averaged 0.07 ± 0.02. Production was largely dominated by sunlight, with some dependence on chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) levels in waters with high absorption coefficients. Peroxide levels measured here are sufficient to cause oxidative-stress-induced mortality of bacteria, affect FIB diel cycling and impact microbial water quality in marine bathing waters.  相似文献
4.
We investigate a new proxy for ENSO climate variability based on particle‐size data from long‐term, coastal sediment records preserved in a barrier estuary setting. Corresponding ~4–8 year periodicities identified from Wavelet analysis of particle‐size data from Pescadero Marsh in Central Coast California and rainfall data from San Francisco reflect established ENSO periodicity, as further evidenced in the Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and thus confirms an important ENSO control on both precipitation and barrier regime variability. Despite the fact that barrier estuary mean particle size is influenced by coastal erosion, precipitation and streamflow, balanced against barrier morphology and volume, it is encouraging that considerable correspondence can also be observed in the time series of MEI, regional rainfall and site‐based mean particle size over the period 1871–2008. This correspondence is, however, weakened after c.1970 by temporal variation in sedimentation rate and event‐based deposition. These confounding effects are more likely when: (i) accommodation space may be a limiting factor; and (ii) particularly strong El Niños, e.g. 1982/1983 and 1997/1998, deposit discrete >cm‐thick units during winter storms. The efficacy of the sediment record of climate variability appears not to be compromised by location within the back‐barrier setting, but it is limited to those El Niños that lead to barrier breakdown. For wider application of this particle size index of ENSO variability, it is important to establish a well‐resolved chronology and to sample the record at the appropriate interval to characterize deposition at a sub‐annual scale. Further, the sample site must be selected to limit the influence of decreasing accommodation space through time (infilling) and event‐based deposition. It is concluded that particle‐size data from back‐barrier sediment records have proven potential for preserving evidence of sub‐decadal climate variability, allowing researchers to explore temporal and spatial patterns in phenomena such as ENSO. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
5.
The hemolytic activity of the dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides from Bahía de La Paz, Gulf of California was investigated as part of the ichthyotoxic mechanism of this microalga. Two different kinds of erythrocytes, fish and human, were tested for the hemolytic assay. Since fatty acids have been associated with hemolytic activity in C. polykrikoides, the composition of fatty acids of this dinoflagellate was also analyzed. The concentration of C. polykrikoides causing 50% hemolysis (HE50) was 4.88 and 5.27 × 106 cells L−1, for fish and human erythrocytes, respectively. According to the standard curve of saponin, an equivalence between the hemolytic activity of saponin and the dinoflagellate concentration was found with 1 μg saponin mL−1 equivalent to 1 × 106 cells L−1 of C. polykrikoides. The polyunsaturated fatty acids: hexadecaenoic (16:0), docosahexaenoic (22:6 n3) and octadecapentaenoic (18:5 n3) were found in an abundance of 62% of total fatty acids.  相似文献
6.
This article reviews the types and effectiveness of marine mammal mitigation measures used during some naval activities worldwide. The three main standard methods used to mitigate the potential impacts of naval sonar sound on marine mammals are (1) time/area planning (of exercises/active sonar use) to avoid marine mammals; (2) implementation of operational procedures (e.g. ‘soft start’ - where sound levels are gradually increased over time); and (3) monitoring of animals for the purpose of maintaining an ‘exclusion zone’ around the sound source. Suggestions towards a minimum worldwide mitigation standard are made.  相似文献
7.
The objective of this study was to use a probabilistic approach to determine the ecological risk of Irgarol and its major metabolite (GS26575) in coastal California marinas and reference areas by using monitoring data collected during the summer of 2006. Distributions of environmental exposure data were compared with the distribution of plant species response data from laboratory toxicity studies and the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) from a microcosm study to quantify the likelihood and significance of ecological risk. Toxicity testing indicates plants are much more sensitive to Irgarol than animals; therefore, the conservative effects benchmark used to characterize risk was the plant 10th centile for both Irgarol (193 ng/L) and GS26575 (5622 ng/L). In addition, the microcosm NOEC of 323 ng/L was also used to characterize risk. Irgarol concentrations from 15 California marinas ranged from 1.45 to 339 ng/L while GS26575 concentrations ranged from non-detected to 74 ng/L. The probability of exceeding the Irgarol plant 10th centile of 193 ng/L for 15 marinas sampled in coastal California in 2006 was 7.3% while the probability of exceeding the microcosm NOEC of 323 ng/L was even lower (5.5%). In general, this probability of exceedence for either effects benchmark and subsequent ecological risk is considered to be low for these marinas as only one marina (Kings Harbor marina in Redondo Beach) had measured concentrations of Irgarol exceeding 193 ng/L. Irgarol exposure is concentrated within marinas and ecological risk from Irgarol exposure in adjoining reference areas was judged to be very low. Ecological risk from GS26575 exposure was also low in both marina and reference areas in California.  相似文献
8.
The northern Gulf of California (NGC) is characterized by seasonal hydrography and circulation (cyclonic in summer and anticyclonic in winter), by intense tidal mixing in the midriff archipelago region (MAR), and by coastal upwelling on the eastern side from autumn to spring. We examined changes in larval fish assemblages (LFAs) in relation with hydrography and circulation during both phases of the seasonal circulation, as indicators of changes in the pelagic ecosystem. A canonical correspondence analysis defined LFAs (r>0.70), which were related with: (i) the coastal current on the mainland shelf, (ii) the central eddy and (iii) the MAR. In the early cyclonic phase, when the temperature and stratification were increasing and the coastal current was starting, demersal (Gobulus crescentalis, Lythrypnus dalli) and mesopelagic species (Benthosema panamense) dominated the NGC. The highest larval abundance was in the Current LFA area and the lowest in the MAR LFA area. In the mature cyclonic phase, the larval abundance increased in the NGC and species characteristic of eastern boundary current systems such as Opisthonema libertate and Engraulis mordax displaced the demersal species and became dominant, together with B. panamense in the Current LFA area; the latter species dominated in the Eddy LFA area. In the early anticyclonic phase, the direction of the coastal current reversed and the temperature and larval abundance decreased. E. mordax and B. panamense larvae continued dominating the NGC with higher abundance in the MAR than in the Current and Eddy LFA areas. In the mature anticyclonic phase, E. mordax larvae dominated in the Current and the Eddy LFA areas with the highest abundance in the former, while M. productus larvae (an eastern boundary current species) dominated in the Eddy LFA area. Results showed that in the NGC, the dramatically seasonal and predictable hydrographic and circulation features trigger the seasonal spawning of the dominant species. The biological richness of the coastal current area, in both circulation phases, suggested that this area has an important role in the pelagic ecosystem functionality of the NGC.  相似文献
9.
The effects from two winter rain storms on the coastal ocean of the Southern California Bight were examined as part of the Bight ‘03 program during February 2004 and February–March 2005. The impacts of stormwater from fecal indicator bacteria, water column toxicity, and nutrients were evaluated for five major river discharges: the Santa Clara River, Ballona Creek, the San Pedro Shelf (including the Los Angeles, San Gabriel, and Santa Ana Rivers), the San Diego River, and the Tijuana River. Exceedances of bacterial standards were observed in most of the systems. However, the areas of impact were generally spatially limited, and contaminant concentrations decreased below California Ocean Plan standards typically within 2–3 days. The largest bacterial concentrations occurred in the Tijuana River system where exceedances of fecal indicator bacteria were noted well away from the river mouth. Maximum nitrate concentrations (~40 μM) occurred in the San Pedro Shelf region near the mouth of the Los Angeles River. Based on the results of general linear models, individual sources of stormwater differ in both nutrient concentrations and the concentration and composition of fecal indicator bacteria. While nutrients appeared to decrease in plume waters due to simple mixing and dilution, the concentration of fecal indicator bacteria in plumes depends on more than loading and dilution rates. The relationships between contaminants (nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria) and plume indicators (salinity and total suspended solids) were not strong indicating the presence of other potentially important sources and/or sinks of both nutrients and fecal indicator bacteria. California Ocean Plan standards were often exceeded in waters containing greater than 10% stormwater (<28–30 salinity range). The median concentration dropped below the standard in the 32–33 salinity range (1–4% stormwater) for total coliforms and Enterococcus spp. and in the 28–30 salinity range (10–16% stormwater) for fecal coliforms. Nutrients showed a similar pattern with the highest median concentrations in water with greater than 10% stormwater. Relationships between colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and salinity and between total suspended solids and beam attenuation indicate that readily measurable, optically active variables can be used as proxies to provide at least a qualitative, if not quantitative, evaluation of the distribution of the dissolved, as well as the particulate, components of stormwater plumes. In this context, both CDOM absorption and the beam attenuation coefficient can be derived from satellite ocean color measurements of inherent optical properties suggesting that remote sensing of ocean color should be useful in mapping the spatial areas and durations of impacts from these contaminants.  相似文献
10.
An intensive Lagrangian particle-tracking analysis of the July 2004 upwelling period was conducted in a hindcast model of the US Pacific Northwest coast, in order to determine the effect of the Columbia River plume on the fate of upwelled water. The model, implemented using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), includes variable wind and atmospheric forcing, variable Columbia river flow, realistic boundary conditions from Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM), and 10 tidal constituents. Model skill has been demonstrated in detail elsewhere [MacCready, P., Banas, N.S., Hickey, B.M., Dever, E.P., Liu, Y., 2008. A model study of tide- and wind-induced mixing in the Columbia River estuary and plume. Continental Shelf Research, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.csr.2008.03.015]. Particles were released in the Columbia estuary, along the Washington coastal wall, and along the model's northern boundary at 48°N. Particles were tracked in three dimensions, using both velocities from ROMS and a vertical random displacement representing turbulent mixing. When 25 h of upwelling flow is looped and particles tracked for 12 d, their trajectories highlight a field of transient eddies and recirculations on scales from 5 to 50 km both north and south of the Columbia. Not all of these features are caused by plume dynamics, but the presence of the plume increases the entrainment of inner-shelf water into them. The cumulative effect of the plume's interaction with these transient features is to increase cross-shelf dispersion: 25% more water is transported laterally past the 100 m isobath when river and estuarine effects are included than when they are omitted. This cross-shelf dispersion also disrupts the southward transport of water along the inner shelf that occurs in the model when the Columbia River is omitted. This second effect—increased retention of upwelled water on the Washington shelf—may be partly responsible for the regional-scale alongcoast gradient in chlorophyll biomass, although variations in shelf width, the Juan de Fuca Eddy to the north, and the intermittency of upwelling-favorable winds are likely also to play important roles.  相似文献
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