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1.
通过改进Tessier连续提取法对贵州草海黑颈鹤栖息地不同水位梯度下沉积物汞(Hg)、砷(As)形态及生态风险进行了研究.结果表明,草海湿地沉积物中Hg含量在0.45~1.51-mg/kg之间,超过国家土壤环境质量农用地土壤风险管控标准;形态组成上,残渣态汞(Res-Hg)有机结合态汞(Org-Hg)碳酸盐结合态(Car-Hg)铁锰氧化态(Fe-O-Hg)可交换态(Ex-Hg),不同水位梯度下含量和赋存形态在不同区域不一致.As含量在16.4~23.8-mg/kg之间,形态依次为残渣态砷(Res-As)有机结合态砷(Org-As)铁锰氧化态砷(Fe-O-As)碳酸盐结合态砷(Car-As)可交换态砷(Ex-As).-As含量与贵州省土壤背景值持平,随着水位梯度的抬升,其总量呈增加趋势,残渣态占比逐步增多,性质逐渐稳定.采用地积累指数(I_(geo))、潜在生态风险指数(E_r~i)、风险评价编码法(RAC)对Hg、As的危害程度进行分析表明,基于草海较高Hg环境背景值,Hg整体污染风险较高,As处于低水平的污染风险等级且对环境影响较小.该研究揭示了不同水位梯度下Hg、As总量及形态分布特征,对草海湿地水位抬升恢复湿地提供了参考.  相似文献   
2.
The water level of marsh wetlands is a dominant force controlling the wetland ecosystem function, especially for aquatic habitat. For different species, water level requirements vary in time and space, and therefore ensuring suitable water levels in different periods is crucial for the maintenance of biodiversity in marsh wetlands. Based on hydrodynamic modelling and habitat suitability assessment, we determined suitable dynamic water levels considering aquatic habitat service at different periods in marsh wetlands. The two-dimensional hydrodynamic model was used to simulate the temporal and spatial variation of water level. The habitat suitability for target species at various water levels was evaluated to obtain the fitting curves between Weighted Usable Area (WUA) and water levels. And then suitable water levels throughout the year were proposed according to the fitting curves. Using the Zhalong Wetland (located in northeastern China) as a case study, we confirmed that the proposed MIKE 21 model can successfully be used to simulate the water level process in the wetland. Suitable water levels were identified as being from 143.9–144.2 m for April to May, 144.1–144.3 m for June to September, and 144.3–144.4 m for October to November (before the freezing season). Furthermore, proposed water diversion schemes have been identified which can effectively sustain the proposed dynamic water levels. This study is expected to provide appropriate guidance for the determination of environmental flows and water management strategies in marsh wetlands.  相似文献   
3.
Springs are the point of origin for most headwater streams and are important regulators of their chemical composition. We analysed solute concentrations of water emerging from 57 springs within the 3 km2 Fool Creek catchment at the Fraser Experimental Forest and considered sources of spatial variation among them and their influence on the chemical composition of downstream water. On average, calcium and acid neutralizing capacity (bicarbonate-ANC) comprised 50 and 90% of the cation and anion charge respectively, in both spring and stream water. Variation in inorganic chemical composition among springs reflected distinct groundwater sources and catchment geology. Springs emerging through glacial deposits in the upper portion of the catchment were the most dilute and similar to snowmelt, whereas lower elevation springs were more concentrated in cations and ANC. Water emerging from a handful of springs in a geologically faulted portion of the catchment were more concentrated than all others and had a predominant effect on downstream ion concentrations. Chemical similarity indicated that these springs were linked along surface and subsurface flowpaths. This survey shows that springwater chemistry is influenced at nested spatial scales including broad geologic conditions, elevational and spatial attributes and isolated local features. Our results highlight the role of overlapping factors on solute export from headwater catchments.  相似文献   
4.
对贵州草海湿地4种水位梯度下(农田区、过渡区、浅水区和深水区)表层土壤(0~10 cm)碳、氮、磷含量及其生态化学计量比进行研究,以期揭示草海湿地不同水位梯度下土壤碳、氮、磷生态化学计量比的分布特征及其影响因素.结果表明:土壤总有机碳(TOC)、总氮(TN)及总磷(TP)含量在不同水位梯度之间均差异显著,由过渡区至深水区,土壤TOC及TN含量均呈递增趋势,而TP含量呈先降低后增加的趋势;农田区土壤TN含量显著高于浅水区,但深水区土壤TP含量显著低于农田区.不同水位梯度土壤碳氮比(C/N)、碳磷比(C/P)和氮磷比(N/P)也存在显著差异,由过渡区至深水区,土壤C/P和N/P均呈递增趋势,而C/N呈先增加后降低的趋势;与过渡区相比,农田区土壤C/N、C/P和N/P总体偏低.相关性分析表明:土壤C/N、C/P和N/P的空间分布与土壤TOC、TN、含水量等理化性质有关.可见,草海湿地水位变化对土壤TOC、TN和TP含量以及C/N、C/P及N/P的空间分布具有显著影响,且水位升高有利于增强土壤碳、氮、磷的固存潜力.  相似文献   
5.
滨海湿地是地球上十分重要的一类生态系统, 可为人类社会提供诸如调节气候、降解污染、碳汇氮汇等众多生态服务功能。近年来, 由于气候变化和围填海等开发活动的影响, 我国滨海湿地面积锐减, 功能退化, 面临多种生态问题。为应对滨海湿地退化及日益凸显的生态环境问题, 滨海湿地保护和修复工作逐渐受到重视, 滨海湿地生态修复工程项目的数量和规模也随之急剧增加。滨海湿地生态修复技术规范对滨海湿地生态修复工作具有重要意义, 然而我国滨海湿地生态修复领域规范体系尚不完善, 导致滨海湿地生态修复项目实施无序以及生态修复成效低等问题。本文全面搜集了我国滨海湿地生态修复领域规范, 对检索到的规范进行分类统计与分析, 从而揭示其存在的问题, 主要包括规范体系系统性不足、生态修复理念滞后、规范之间缺乏协调性、规范可操作性差、规范更新迟滞等。针对存在的问题提出了相应的对策建议, 为完善我国滨海湿地生态修复领域规范体系、不断推进我国生态文明建设进程提供参考。  相似文献   
6.
Reflecting internal catchment hydrological processes in hydrological models is important for accurate predictions of the impact of climate and land-use change on water resources. Characterizing these processes is however difficult and expensive due to their dynamic nature and spatio-temporal variability. Hydropedology is a relatively new discipline focusing on the synergistic integration of hydrology, soil physics and pedology. Hydropedological interpretations of soils and soil distribution can be used to characterize key hydrological processes, especially in areas with no or limited hydrometric measurements. Here we applied a hydropedological approach to reflect flowpaths through detailed routing in SWAT+ for a 157 ha catchment (Weatherley) in South Africa. We compared the hydropedological approach and a standard (no routing) approach against measured streamflow (two weirs) and soil water contents (13 locations). The catchment was treated as ‘ungauged’ and the model was not calibrated against hydrometric measurements in order to determine the direct contribution of hydropedology on modelling efficiency. Streamflow was predicted well without calibration (NSE > 0.8; R2 > 0.82) for both approaches at both weirs. The standard approach yielded slightly better streamflow predictions. The hydropedological approach resulted in considerable improvements in the simulation of soil water contents (R2 increased from 0.40 to 0.49 and PBIAS decreased from 40% to 20%). The routing capacity of SWAT+ as employed in the hydropedological approach reduced the underestimation of wetland water regimes drastically and resulted in a more accurate representation of the dominant hydrological processes in this catchment. We concluded that hydropedology can be a valuable source of ‘soft data’ to reflect internal catchment structure and processes and, potentially, for realistic calibrations in other studies, especially those conducted in areas with limited hydrometric measurements.  相似文献   
7.
长江口南汇湿地植被的光谱吸收特征研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
植被的光谱吸收特征与植被生长状况密切相关,同时也受土壤湿度等外界因素影响。本文以长江口南汇湿地典型植被芦苇、互花米草和海三棱藨草为研究对象,在计算其光谱特征参数的基础上,分析了这3种植被的光谱吸收特征形变PSDI值。最后结合实测的土壤湿度,分析了3种植被的PSDI值和土壤湿度的相关性。研究结果发现:互花米草的PSDI值最大,海三棱藨草的PSDI值最小,芦苇介于两者之间,表明互花米草受外界的环境影响较大;互花米草的PSDI值与土壤湿度的相关性最大,芦苇的PSDI值与土壤湿度的相关性最小,海三棱藨草介于两者之间,表明互花米草适应湿地环境能力较强。  相似文献   
8.
叶翔  李靖  王爱军 《海洋学报》2018,40(7):79-89
滨海湿地作为人类活动和全球变化反应最为敏感的区域,其沉积记录可以反映出周边地区环境变化及人类活动信息。珠江口淇澳岛滨海湿地钻孔分析结果表明,在中全新世期间淇澳岛附近海域为河口湾环境,在风化层以上开始出现淤积,但在4 200 a BP前后受极冷气候的影响,沉积物粗化;自2 500 a BP以来,沉积环境相对稳定,在小冰期期间略有变化。沉积速率计算结果显示:淇澳岛附近海域自中全新世高海面以来的平均沉积速率为0.29 cm/a,4 160~2 500 a BP、2 500 a BP-1488年、1488-1893年、1893-1986年、1990-2007年期间的平均沉积速率分别为:0.17 cm/a、0.23 cm/a、0.35 cm/a、1.37 cm/a和5.94 cm/a,沉积速率逐渐增大,反映了珠江三角洲演化过程中沉积相与沉积环境的变化;1986-1990年期间的海堤建造极大地扰动了该钻孔上部的沉积过程,在工程施工期间共沉积了厚度约112 cm的沉积层,而在海堤建成后,沉积速率也显著增大。沉积物总有机碳、总氮和C/N值的垂向分布表明,在4 160~2 500 a BP期间受海洋环境影响较大,沉积物中有机碳以海源为主,2 500 a BP以来沉积物中碳、氮含量明显增大,C/N也相应变大,有机碳主要来源于陆源输入,但在小冰期期间海源有机碳贡献略有所增大;近百年来由于受人类活动影响显著,陆源有机碳的贡献快速增加。  相似文献   
9.
Erosion and the associated loss of carbon is a major environmental concern in many peatlands and remains difficult to accurately quantify beyond the plot scale. Erosion was measured in an upland blanket peatland catchment (0.017 km2) in northern England using structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry, sediment traps and stream sediment sampling at different spatial scales. A net median topographic change of –27 mm yr–1 was recorded by SfM over the 12-month monitoring period for the entire surveyed area (598 m2). Within the entire surveyed area there were six nested catchments where both SfM and sediment traps were used to measure erosion. Substantial amounts of peat were captured in sediment traps during summer storm events after two months of dry weather where desiccation of the peat surface occurred. The magnitude of topographic change for the six nested catchments determined by SfM (mean value: 5.3 mm, standard deviation: 5.2 mm) was very different to the areal average derived from sediment traps (mean value: –0.3 mm, standard deviation: 0.1 mm). Thus, direct interpolation of peat erosion from local net topographic change into sediment yield at the catchment outlet appears problematic. Peat loss measured at the hillslope scale was not representative of that at the catchment scale. Stream sediment sampling at the outlet of the research catchment (0.017 km2) suggested that the yields of suspended sediment and particulate organic carbon were 926.3 t km–2 yr–1 and 340.9 t km–2 yr–1, respectively, with highest losses occurring during the autumn. Both freeze–thaw during winter and desiccation during long periods of dry weather in spring and summer were identified as important peat weathering processes during the study. Such weathering was a key enabler of subsequent fluvial peat loss from the catchment. © 2019 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
Coastal wetlands represent an ecotone between ocean and terrestrial ecosystems, providing important services, including flood mitigation, fresh water supply, erosion control, carbon sequestration, and wildlife habitat. The environmental setting of a wetland and the hydrological connectivity between a wetland and adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems together determine wetland hydrology. Yet little is known about regional‐scale hydrological interactions among uplands, coastal wetlands, and coastal processes, such as tides, sea level rise, and saltwater intrusion, which together control the dynamics of wetland hydrology. This study presents a new regional‐scale, physically based, distributed wetland hydrological model, PIHM‐Wetland, which integrates the surface and subsurface hydrology with coastal processes and accounts for the influence of wetland inundation on energy budgets and evapotranspiration (ET). The model was validated using in situ hydro‐meteorological measurements and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ET data for a forested and herbaceous wetland in North Carolina, USA, which confirmed that the model accurately represents the major wetland hydrological behaviours. Modelling results indicate that topographic gradient is a primary control of groundwater flow direction in adjacent uplands. However, seasonal climate patterns become the dominant control of groundwater flow at lower coastal plain and land–ocean interface. We found that coastal processes largely influence groundwater table (GWT) dynamics in the coastal zone, 300 to 800 m from the coastline in our study area. Among all the coastal processes, tides are the dominant control on GWT variation. Because of inundation, forested and herbaceous wetlands absorb an additional 6% and 10%, respectively, of shortwave radiation annually, resulting in a significant increase in ET. Inundation alters ET partitioning through canopy evaporation, transpiration, and soil evaporation, the effect of which is stronger in cool seasons than in warm seasons. The PIHM‐Wetland model provides a new tool that improves the understanding of wetland hydrological processes on a regional scale. Insights from this modelling study provide benchmarks for future research on the effects of sea level rise and climate change on coastal wetland functions and services.  相似文献   
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