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排序方式: 共有93条查询结果,搜索用时 17 毫秒
1.
We studied the distribution of cyanotoxins and potential producers, as well as the variability of microcystin to biomass parameters (chlorophyll-a; MC/Chl-a; and biovolume; MC/BV) in 12 drinking water reservoirs of the world’s largest reservoir system, the Volga-Kama-Don cascade (European part of Russia) during the summers of 2016 and 2018. MC concentrations varied from below 0.1 μg L−1 in June up to 16.4 μg L−1 in August and exceeded 1 μg L-1 in 25 % of the samples. This MC variability was associated to changes in the abundance of widespread bloom formers such as Microcystis spp., Dolichospermum spp. and Planktothrix agardhii. Ratios of MC/Chl-a and MC/BVcyano ranged up to 0.88 μg μg−1 and 4.5 μg mm³, respectively. Together with microcystin profiles MC/BVcyano ratios characterized cyanobacterial populations along the reservoir cascade and they indicated a potential toxin hazard better than MC/Chl-a. The neurotoxin anatoxin-a was observed only in the most southern and hypereutrophic Tsimlyansk Reservoir (maximum 0.01 μg L−1). Toxin gene analysis revealed that MC mostly originated from Microcystis and Dolichospermum. During their co-existence up to 14 MC congeners co-occurred. Cuspidothrix issatschenkoi cf. Raphidiopsis mediterranea was identified as possible neurotoxin producers.  相似文献   
2.
Murchison Bay is a shallow embayment in the north-western part of Lake Victoria, strongly influenced by urban pollution from the Ugandan capital Kampala. Two stations, representing the semi-enclosed innermost part of the bay and the wider outer part of the bay, were sampled in the period from April 2003 to March 2004, in order to assess the phytoplankton community and the nutrient status in the bay. Murchison Bay was highly eutrophic with average concentrations (n=25) of total phosphorous >90 μg L−1 and total nitrogen >1100 μg L−1 in the inner part of the bay. The phytoplankton community was dominated by a variety of cyanobacterial species and diatoms. Cyanobacteria were dominant in the whole bay, whereas diatoms were more abundant in the outer part of the bay. Moreover, the proportion of N-fixing species like Anabaena sp. was higher in the outer part of the bay, whereas species like Microcystis sp. were more abundant in the inner part of the bay. The phytoplankton community, especially in the outer part of the bay, may be influenced by light limitation. Low NO3-N concentrations in the bay may also indicate a possible N-limitation, thus favouring growth of N-fixing cyanobacteria. The open bay is, however, a complex system, and additional environmental factors and loss processes most likely affect the phytoplankton community.  相似文献   
3.
The phytoplankton assemblage of Zhubi Reef, a closed coral reef in Nansha Islands (South China Sea, SCS) was studied in June 2007. A total of 92 species belonging to 53 genera and four phyla have been identified. The dominant taxa in the lagoon were the diatom Chaetoceros and cyanobacteria Nostoc and Microcystis, while in reef flats were cyanobacteria Trichodesmium erythraeum, dinoflagellates Gymnodinium and Prorocentrum. The species richness and diversity were consistently lower in the lagoon than in reef flats. Classification and nMDS ordination also revealed significant dissimilarity in phytoplankton community structure between the reef flat and lagoon, with statistical difference in species composition and abundance between them (ANOSIM, p = 0.025). Nutrient concentrations also spatially varied, with ammonium-enrichment in the lagoon, while high Si-concentration existed in reef flat areas. Both nutrient levels and currents in SCS may play important roles in determining the composition and distribution of microalgae in Zhubi Reef and SCS.  相似文献   
4.
Cyanobacteria have flexible photosynthetic apparatus that allows them to utilise light at very low levels, making them ideal symbionts for a wide range of organisms. Sponge associations with cyanobacteria are common in all areas of the world, but little is known about them. Recent research has revealed new cyanobacterial symbionts that may be host specific and two major clades, ' Candidatus Synechococcus spongiarum ' and Oscillatoria spongeliae , that occur in widely separated geographic locations in unrelated sponge hosts. These clades may represent a cluster of closely related symbiont species, or may be single species that are maintained by periods of horizontal transmission over large distances. Erroneous assumptions regarding the importance of cyanobacterial symbionts to the survival of individual sponges or species may arise from cyanosponges being deemed to be phototrophic or mixotrophic without studies of their photophysiology. This review brings together recent and past research on cyanobacterial associations with sponges, including their biogeography, phylogeny, host specificity, and ecology.  相似文献   
5.
Raman spectra of an extremophile cyanobacterial colony in hydromagnesite from Lake Salda in Turkey have revealed a biogeological modification which is manifest as aragonite in the stratum associated with the colony. The presence of key spectral biomarkers of organic protectant molecules such as β-carotene and scytonemin indicate that the survival strategy of the cyanobacteria is significantly one of UV-radiation protection. The terrestrial location of this extremophile is worthy of consideration further because of its possible putative link with the “White Rock” formations in Sabaea Terra and Juventae Chasma on Mars.  相似文献   
6.
蓝细菌聚金作用实验研究   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
林丽  朱利东 《地质科学》1998,33(4):483-488
蓝细菌聚金实验研究表明:①不同的生物由于生化组分的差异,其富金能力不同,低等蓝细菌生物比动物细胞富金能力强;②金在细胞中的分布与其各部分生化组成(也就是生物配体)密切相关;③金离子进入细胞不是一种简单的扩散作用,而是通过细胞膜界面两侧物质之间的交换而实现的,蓝细菌活体聚金机理主要是参与生命活动的吸收作用;④在较高温热水环境中微生物对成矿最显着。  相似文献   
7.
Silicified deposits, such as sinters, occur in several modern geothermal environments, but the mechanisms of silicification (and crucially the role of microorganisms in their construction) are still largely unresolved. Detailed examination of siliceous sinter, in particular sections of microstromatolites growing at the Krisuvik hot spring, Iceland, reveals that biomineralization contributes a major component to the overall structure, with approximately half the sinter thickness attributed to silicified microorganisms. Almost all microorganisms observed under the scanning electron microscope (SEM) are mineralized, with epicellular silica ranging in thickness from < 5 μm coatings on individual cells, to regions where entire colonies are cemented together in an amorphous silica matrix tens of micrometres thick. Within the overall profile, there appears to be two very distinct types of laminae that alternate repeatedly throughout the microstromatolite: ‘microbial’ layers are predominantly consisting of filamentous, intact, vertically aligned, biomineralized cyanobacteria, identified as Calothrix and Fischerella sp.; and weakly laminated silica layers which appear to be devoid of any microbial component. The microbial layers commonly have a sharply defined base, overlying the weakly laminated silica, and a gradational upper surface merging into the weakly laminated silica. These cyclic laminations are probably explained by variations in microbial activity. Active growth during spring/summer allows the microorganisms to keep pace with silicification, with the cell surfaces facilitating silicification, while during their natural slow growth phase in the dark autumn/winter months silicification exceeds the bacteria’s ability to compensate (i.e. grow upwards). At this stage, the microbial colony is probably not essential to microstromatolite formation, with silicification presumably occurring abiogenically. When conditions once again become favourable for growth, recolonization of the solid silica surface by free‐living bacteria occurs: cell motility is not responsible for the laminations. We have also observed that microbial populations within the microstromatolite, some several mm in depth, appear viable, i.e. they still have their pigmentation, the trichomes are not collapsed, cell walls are unbroken, cytoplasm is still present and they proved culturable. This suggests that the bulk of silicification occurred rapidly, probably while the cells were still alive. Surprisingly, however, measurements of light transmittance through sections of the microstromatolite revealed that photosynthetically active light (PAL) only transmitted through the uppermost 2 mm. Therefore the ‘deeper’ microbial populations must have either: (i) altered their metabolic pathways; (ii) become metabolically inactive; or (iii) the deeper populations may be dominated by different microbial assemblages from that of the surface. From these collective observations, it now seems unequivocal that microstromatolite formation is intimately linked to microbial activity and that the sinter fabric results from a combination of biomineralization, cell growth and recolonization. Furthermore, the similarities in morphology and microbial component to some Precambrian stromatolites, preserved in primary chert, suggests that we may be witnessing contemporaneous biomineralization processes and growth patterns analogous to those of the early Earth.  相似文献   
8.
Microcoleus vaginatus isolated from a desert algal crust of Shapotou was cultured in BG-11 medium containing 0.2 mol l−1 NaCl or 0.2 mol l−1 NaCl plus 100 mg l−1 sucrose, extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) or hot water-soluble polysaccharides (HWP), respectively. Photosynthetic oxygen evolution rates, photosystem II activity (Fv/Fm) and dark respiration of NaCl-stressed cells were enhanced significantly by the added sucrose or EPS under salt stress conditions (0.2 mol l−1 NaCl). Compared with cells treated with salt alone, sodium contents in cells reduced significantly; the content of cellular total carbohydrate did not change, and intracellular sucrose, water-soluble sugar increased significantly following the addition of exogenous carbohydrates. Sucrose synthase (SS) activity of NaCl-stressed cells increased following the addition of sucrose, and sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) activity of NaCl-stressed cells increased following the addition of exogenous sucrose, EPS or HWP compared with cells stressed with NaCl only. The results suggested that the extruded EPS might be re-absorbed by cells of M. vaginatus as carbon source, they could increase salt tolerance of M. vaginatus through the changes of carbohydrate metabolism and the selective uptake of sodium ions.  相似文献   
9.
Previous work showed the cryptoendolithic microbial communities of the Colorado Plateau act to harden the surfaces of Jurassic Navajo Sandstone outcrops via the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). It is our hypothesis that EPS produced in these systems serve to trap ions and maintain hydration. EPS isolated from in vitro and in vivo biofilms bind 200–600 nmol of ferrous iron per 10 g of biofilm sample. Initial characterizations of the EPS used preparations from two distinct microbial cultures grown in semi-submerged conditions with EPS harvested from approximately one-half of each culture immediately, the remaining biofilm was allowed to dry before the EPS was harvested. Analysis of ferrous iron binding of the four preparations showed that the culture dominated with non-filamentous cells only produced a chelating moiety after desiccation. Conversely, the second culture dominated by filamentous cells produced a ferrous iron binding activity when semi-submerged. Biochemical characterization showed that the extracted EPS was acidic, containing 37% uronic acid. Neither the EPS nor the biofilms had the ability to retain water though an increase in the rate of water loss was noted. We conclude that EPS produced by these communities are involved in nutrient capture as well as stabilization.  相似文献   
10.
We studied the changes in the submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) and phytoplankton community in a hard water lake during different meteorological conditions. We hypothesized that variations in climatic conditions (precipitation and temperature) can influence the physicochemical parameters of water and, in turn, affect SAV and phytoplankton development. The investigations were performed in Lake Rogóźno (the West Polesie region, Eastern Poland) over 10 years from 2003 to 2013. The physicochemical parameters, the structure of macrophytes and the phytoplankton community in the dry (2003–2006, DP) and wet periods (2007–2013, WP) were analyzed. Between the dry and wet periods, the water color and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) increased considerably, whereas water conductivity decreased. Other parameters (concentration of nutrients, water reaction and transparency) were comparable during both periods. When the precipitation and water level were low (DP), charophytes dominated the SAV and cyanobacteria dominated the phytoplankton community. After the precipitation and water level increased (WP), the charophyte population declined and the vascular plants and bryophytes dominated. Furthermore, flagellated algae belonging to the dinophytes and cryptophytes were the most numerous in the phytoplankton community. These changes in the SAV and phytoplankton were linked with the variations of physicochemical parameters determined by the total precipitation and mean air temperature in March.  相似文献   
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