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1.
The study of the chemical stability of vitreous material in aqueous media is well‐established. There has to date been little consideration of the implications of variations in the chemical durability of tephra in Quaternary tephrochronology. Chemical alteration can take the form of cationic leaching from the matrix, or complete destruction of the silica network, either of which could constrain the ability to chemically identify distal tephra. Here we apply established models of vitreous durability to the published chemical analyses of a large number of Icelandic tephras in order to predict their relative durabilities under equivalent conditions. This suggests that some important tephras have relatively poor chemical stability, and that rhyolitic tephras are, in general, more stable than basaltic. We conclude that tephras should be expected to show predictable differential chemical stability in the post‐depositional environment. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
2.
A lacustrine carbonate sequence from Hawes Water, Lancashire, UK, has been studied using stable isotopic, lithological, pollen and mineral magnetic analysis. The data reveal four abrupt climatic oscillations in the Late‐glacial Interstadial leading up to the onset of the Loch Lomond Stadial. The data also point to climatic warming relatively early within the stadial, ca. 12 500 GRIP yr, prior to the onset of the Holocene. The oxygen isotope record is taken as a signature of climate forcing against which the response of the lake‐system can be monitored. By adopting this approach it is revealed that the response of the biological system to the rapid climatic oscillations is non‐linear and primarily a function of the antecedent conditions. A significant end‐Devensian isotopic excursion (A) is matched by only minor changes in the cold‐adapted floras and faunas. During the warmer interstadial, the response of the biological ecosystem (events B–D) is clearly influenced by thresholds: major changes in the catchment vegetation associated with relatively minor oscillations in the isotopic signature. The stratigraphical patterns reveal significant lag effects between the onset of climate deterioration and resulting changes in vegetation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract Petrological, oxygen isotope and 40Ar/39Ar studies were used to constrain the Tertiary metamorphic evolution of the lower tectonic unit of the Cyclades on Tinos. Polyphase high-pressure metamorphism reached pressures in excess of 15 kbar, based on measurements of the Si content in potassic white mica. Temperatures of 450–500° C at the thermal peak of high-pressure metamorphism were estimated from critical metamorphic assemblages, the validity of which is confirmed by a quartz–magnetite oxygen isotope temperature of 470° C. Some 40Ar/39Ar spectra of white mica give plateau ages of 44–40 Ma that are considered to represent dynamic recrystallization under peak or slightly post-peak high-pressure metamorphic conditions. Early stages in the prograde high-pressure evolution may be documented by older apparent ages in the high-temperature steps of some spectra. Eclogite to epidote blueschist facies mineralogies were partially or totally replaced by retrograde greenschist facies assemblages during exhumation. Oxygen isotope thermometry of four quartz–magnetite pairs from greenschist samples gives temperatures of 440–470° C which cannot be distinguished from those deduced for the high-pressure event. The exhumation and overprint is documented by decreasing ages of 32–28 Ma in some greenschists and late-stage blueschist rocks, and ages of 30–20 Ma in the lower temperature steps of the Ar release patterns of blueschist micas. Almost flat parts of Ar–Ar release spectra of some greenschist micas gave ages of 23–21 Ma which are assumed to represent incomplete resetting caused by a renewed prograde phase of greenschist metamorphism. Oxygen isotope compositions of blueschist and greenschist facies minerals show no evidence for the infiltration of a δ18O-enriched fluid. Rather, the compositions indicate that fluid to rock ratios were very low, the isotopic compositions being primarily controlled by those of the protolith rocks. We assume that the fundamental control catalysing the transformation of blueschists into greenschists and the associated resetting of their isotopic systems was the selective infiltration of metamorphic fluid. A quartz–magnetite sample from a contact metamorphic skarn, taken near the Miocene monzogranite of Tinos, gave an oxygen isotope temperature of 555° C and calculated water composition of 9.1%. The value of δ18O obtained from this water is consistent with a primary magmatic fluid, but is lower than that of fluids associated with the greenschist overprint, which indicates that the latter event cannot be directly related to the monozogranite intrusion.  相似文献   
4.
Pure fraction (92%–95%) of phagocytes (FP) and a mixture of amoebocytes (62%) and morula cells (38%)-FPMC- of the holothurianEupentacta fraudatrix' (Holothuroidea, Dendrochirota) were obtained by using ficoll-verographine step gradient. Basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in FP quantified by using reduction of nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) was more than twice that in FPMC. Thermostable toxin ofYersinia pseudotuberculosis (TST) at different concentrations (0.2; 0.5; 2.5 μg/ml, but not 0.1 μg/ml) stimulated NBT reduction in FPMC after 24 h incubation. In FP, TST at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.2 μg/ml inhibited and at concentrations of 0.5 and 2.5 μg/ml stimulated NBT reduction after 24 h incubation. Maximal effect was observed in FP and FPMC at TST concentrations of 0.5 and 0.2 μg/ml, respectively. Addition of catalase (0.7 μg/ml) to the cells treated with TST (2.5 μg/ml) was followed by a decrease in NBT reduction compared to that under toxin treatment alone. TST stimulated superoxide dismutase activity in concentration-dependent manner (maximum at 0.5 μg/ml concentration in FP) after 24 h treatment, and this stimulation was prevented by a commercial catalase. Plant lectin concanavalin A stimulated NBT reduction more than 5-fold in FPMC compared to the control. With addition of TST, lectin stimulated ROS to lesser extent than that with lectin alone. When catalase, TST, and lectin were added into the FPMC simultaneously, ROS increase was similar to that under lectin treatment alone. On the whole, data obtained indicated that ROS generation in holothurian coelomocytes especially occurs in both stimulated and not stimulated phagocytes, and that changes in ROS production by these cells may be one of the mechanisms of antibacterial protection of holothurians. This work was financially supported by the Russian Foundation for Fundamental Research Grant (No. 00-04-48949).  相似文献   
5.
A palaeotemperature reconstruction based on periglacial phenomena in Europe north of approximately 51 °N, is compared with high‐resolution regional climate model simulations of the marine oxygen isotope Stage 3 (Stage 3) palaeoclimate. The experiments represent Stage 3 warm (interstadial), Stage 3 cold (stadial) and Last Glacial Maximum climatic conditions. The palaeotemperature reconstruction deviates considerably for the Stage 3 cold climate experiments, with mismatches up to 11 °C for the mean annual air temperature and up to 15 °C for the winter temperature. However, in this reconstruction various factors linking climate and permafrost have not been taken into account. In particular a relatively thin snow cover and high climatic variability of the glacial climate could have influenced temperature limits for ice‐wedge growth. Based on modelling the 0 °C mean annual ground temperature proves to be an appropriate upper temperature limit. Using this limit, mismatches with the Stage 3 cold climate experiments have been reduced but still remain. We therefore assume that the Stage 3 ice wedges were generated during short (decadal time‐scale) intervals of extreme cold climate, below the mean temperatures indicated by the Stage 3 cold climate model simulations. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
6.
The oxygen isotope records of both benthic and planktonic Foraminifera in five piston cores, collected from the region between the Oyashio and Kuroshio Currents near Japan, clearly show the marked latitudinal shifts of these two currents during the past 25 kyr. Under the present hydrographic condition, a clear relationship between the sea‐surface temperature (SST) and oxygen isotope differences from benthic to planktonic Foraminifera is observed in this region. Using this relationship, we find decreased SSTs of 12–13°C (maximum 15°C) in the southernmost core site at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), indicating the Oyashio Current shifted southward. The SSTs at the southern two core sites abruptly increased more than 10°C at 10–11 ka, suggesting the Kuroshio Current shifted northward over these sites at 10–11 ka. In contrast, the northern two core sites have remained under the influence of the cold Oyashio Current for the past 25 kyr. With the reasonable estimate of bottom‐water temperature decrease of 2.5°C at the LGM, the SSTs estimated by this new method give exactly the same SST values calculated from Mg/Ca ratio of planktonic Foraminifera, allowing palaeosea‐surface salinities to be reconstructed. The result suggests that the ice volume effect was 1.0 ± 0.1‰ at the LGM. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) was measured at four or eight hour intervals between mid-1989 and mid-1991 in two catchments in west central Scotland. The experimental catchment had been recently clear-felled and the control remained under forest. The amount of DOC varied during individual storm events following the stream hydro-graph. Maximum variations were found in the summer half-year and in the clear-felled catchment. There was also evidence of the exhaustion of DOC in the later events of a sequence. Differences between the catchments were related to catchment characteristics and to land-use change. The reduced magnitude of variation in DOC with discharge in the control stream was due to the influence of a wetland area through which the stream flowed. The mean DOC concentrations were similar in the two streams and annual exports were 15 g m?2 from the control and 16g m?2 from the felled catchment. The stream draining the clear-felled catchment had greater high flow DOC concentrations in the summer half-year, probably due to the effect of greater mean summer temperatures on DOC release and of the greater supply of organic debris in the stream channel.  相似文献   
8.
Six anchor stations in the St. Lawrence River from the outflow of Lake Ontario to Quebec City, were occupied for ca. 24 hours in June 1987 during low flow conditions. Samples of water and suspended particulate matter were separated by continuous-flow centrifugation, and were collected every two hours.During this sampling period, fluxes of dissolved forms of zinc, copper and nickel increased in Lac St. François and downstream relative to the sum of the fluxes for the two upstream stations at the outflow of Lake Ontario. Increases in the flux of dissolved zinc and copper were pronounced below Montreal and above Lac St. Pierre. For particulate forms of metals, all five metals show that there are significant inputs in the section of the St. Lawrence River between Lac St. François and the station just above the entrance to Lac St. Pierre.The average concentrations of dissolved cadmium, lead, zinc, copper and nickel ranged from 7–23 ng/l; 9–35 ng/l; 0.434–0.939 g/l; 0.15–0.89 g/l and 0.58–1.12 g/l respectively.Regression analysis of the dissolved and particulate metal concentrations suggests that the concentration of dissolved cadmium, lead, zinc and nickel can be predicted from the regression equation and the determination of particulate metal concentration. This prediction appears to be independent of the suspended particulate matter concentration which varies from ca. 1 to 10 mg/l from the outflow of Lake Ontario to Québec City.  相似文献   
9.
The Asian monsoon is an important component of the global climate system. Seasonal variations in wind, rainfall, and temperature associated with the Asian monsoon systems affect a vast expanse of tropical and subtropical Asia. Speleothem-derived summer monsoon variation in East Asia was previously found to be closely associated with millennial-scale change in temperature in the North Atlantic region between 75 and 10 ka. New evidence recovered from East Asia, however, suggests that the teleconnection between summer monsoon in East Asia and temperature change in the North Atlantic region may have significantly reduced during 120 to ~ 110 ka, a period directly after the full last interglaciation and corresponding roughly to marine oxygen isotope stage 5d. This reduction may be due to the low ice volume in the North Hemisphere at that time, which makes the millennial-scale change in temperature in the North Atlantic region less effective in influencing the Asian summer monsoon. This is important for investigating the mechanisms controlling the Asian summer monsoon and the paleoclimatic teleconnection between East Asia and the North Atlantic region, and for predicting monsoon-associated precipitation in East Asia under a global-warming trend.  相似文献   
10.
Klauea historical summit lavas have a wide range in matrix 18OVSMOWvalues (4·9–5·6) with lower values in rockserupted following a major summit collapse or eruptive hiatus.In contrast, 18O values for olivines in most of these lavasare nearly constant (5·1 ± 0·1). The disequilibriumbetween matrix and olivine 18O values in many samples indicatesthat the lower matrix values were acquired by the magma afterolivine growth, probably just before or during eruption. BothMauna Loa and Klauea basement rocks are the likely sources ofthe contamination, based on O, Pb and Sr isotope data. However,the extent of crustal contamination of Klauea historical magmasis probably minor (< 12%, depending on the assumed contaminant)and it is superimposed on a longer-term, cyclic geochemicalvariation that reflects source heterogeneity. Klauea's heterogeneoussource, which is well represented by the historical summit lavas,probably has magma 18O values within the normal mid-ocean ridgebasalt mantle range (5·4–5·8) based on thenew olivine 18O values. KEY WORDS: Hawaii; Klauea; basalt; oxygen isotopes; crustal contamination  相似文献   
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