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1.
随着新观测技术和理论的进一步发展,同位素地球化学方法在地震监测预测研究中发挥了越来越重要的作用。通过同位素地球化学方法确定地下流体来源,研究地下流体循环特征,分析地震前兆异常的成因,评估地质构造活动的程度,开展地震预测研究。同位素示踪技术还可以结合深源流体监测和地球物理方法,揭示地震孕育、流体与震源之间的关系。此外,同位素地球化学还可以构建断裂带流体地球化学背景特征,用于地震监测点映震效能的评估,提高地震监测预测的准确性,为地震新监测点的布设和震情跟踪提供技术支撑。通过对现今同位素在地震监测预测中所使用的方法、技术及国内外应用情况的总结分析,力图全面认识同位素地球化学在地震监测预测应用中的现状及发展趋势。  相似文献   
2.
杨斌  帅向华  李继赓 《中国地震》2023,39(1):189-197
现有地震灾害评估系统多以设定地震的方式进行震害评估,无法满足地震灾害风险评估中按照不同烈度对整个行政区域进行地震灾害评估的业务需求,本文以现有计算模型为框架、以ArcEngine 为GIS开发平台、采用C/S结构进行基于居民地的不同烈度下地震灾害评估系统设计。系统以居民地为评估单元,根据选择的评估区域,按照Ⅵ度、Ⅶ度、Ⅷ度、Ⅸ度、大于等于Ⅹ度5个级别分别进行地震灾害建筑物损坏情况和人员伤亡评估,结果可为各级政府及相关部门进行区域地震风险评估、地震灾害预评估提供技术支持。  相似文献   
3.
This paper describes a new pseudostatic limit equilibrium method for the design of cantilevered retaining walls under seismic actions. The method has been applied in a parametric study of the effects of the geometry of the wall, considering different excavated and embedded depths, of the strength of the soil, and of the contact between the soil and the wall. The pseudostatic predictions are in very good agreement, both in terms of horizontal contact stress and bending moment distributions, with the results of truly dynamic 2-D finite difference analyses and published experimental data. It is found that for increasing strengths of the soil–wall system both the critical acceleration and the maximum bending moment on the wall increase. In other words, a stronger soil–wall system will experience smaller displacements during the earthquake, but this is paid for by increasing internal forces in the wall.  相似文献   
4.
Non-uniform ground motions are generated based on a single record available at a site and seismic wave scattering analysis. The Chino Hills 2008 earthquake records at the Pacoima Dam site are used to indicate the accuracy of the method. Dynamic analysis of the Pacoima dam-reservoir-foundation under uniform and non-uniform ground motions is carried out using the EACD-3D2008 software, and the results are compared to recorded responses at different locations on the dam. There is good agreement between computed and recorded displacements of the dam for non-uniform excitation. For uniform excitation, the displacements are underestimated in comparison with those obtained from recorded excitation. Significant intensification of stresses, especially near the foundation, and different patterns of stress distribution are observed for non-uniform excitation in comparison with uniform excitation. For uniform excitation maximum stresses occur in the crown cantilever near the crest, but for non-uniform excitation the maximum stresses occur along the sides and near the foundation.  相似文献   
5.
In tectonically active domains, fault propagation processes are revealed by landforms. A characteristic morphological feature of exposed active faults is the occurrence of triangular facets. Triangle-shaped landforms morphologically similar to fault-related triangular facets result from erosion of moderately-to-steeply dipping strata or layered successions along fold limbs and are known as flatirons. Triangular facets and flatirons may commonly coexist in mountain chains resulting from the superposition of recent extensional faulting on inherited fold-and-thrust architecture. In these settings analysis of flatirons and triangular facets is not trivial and may result in geomorphologic misinterpretations, hence undermine the interpretations of the geological structure and related deformation history. Here we show that active fault lineaments can be discriminate by inherited morpho-structure. We present the combined results of photo-geological and field survey carried out along well-exposed triangular shaped landforms located in the seismically active Upper Agri River Valley of the Southern Apennine. We found that triangular shaped landforms develop along a major fold back-limb, the Mt. Lama western slope, making it possible to unequivocally interpret these as flatirons. Downslope, Mt. Lama back limb is affected by a large deep-sited landslide whose scarp bound the flatirons and mimics a Holocene fault scarp. This inference appears significant, since the investigated landforms were interpreted by many authors as triangular facets related to an active normal fault, located at its foot, responsible for large historical earthquakes (i.e., the 1857 earthquake). We provide new criteria to discriminate morphologic convergence in tectonically active domains, with consequences for the regional geological interpretation, and for the assessment of geological hazards.  相似文献   
6.
7.
The study deals spatial mapping of earthquake hazard parameters like annual and 100-years mode along with their 90% probability of not being exceeded (NBE) in the Hindukush–Pamir Himalaya and adjoining regions. For this purpose, we applied a straightforward and most robust method known as Gumbel’s third asymptotic distribution of extreme values (GIII). A homogeneous and complete earthquake catalogue during the period 1900–2010 with magnitude MW  4.0 is utilized to estimate these earthquake hazard parameters. An equal grid point mesh, of 1° longitude X 1° latitude, is chosen to produce detailed earthquake hazard maps. This performance allows analysis of the localized seismicity parameters and representation of their regional variations as contour maps. The estimated result of annual mode with 90% probability of NBE is expected to exceed the values of MW 6.0 in the Sulaiman–Kirthar ranges of Pakistan and northwestern part of the Nepal and surroundings in the examined region. The 100-years mode with 90% probability of NBE is expected to exceed the value of MW 8.0 in the Hindukush–Pamir Himalaya with Caucasus mountain belt, the Sulaiman–Kirthar ranges of Pakistan, northwestern part of the Nepal and surroundings, the Kangra–Himanchal Pradesh and Kashmir of India. The estimated high values of earthquake hazard parameters are mostly correlated with the main tectonic regimes of the examined region. The spatial variations of earthquake hazard parameters reveal that the examined region exhibits more complexity and has high crustal heterogeneity. The spatial maps provide a brief atlas of the earthquake hazard in the region.  相似文献   
8.
对发震构造呈复杂几何关系(发震构造在平面投影呈非平行关系)下彼此发震影响的机理进行了研究.从发震的“垂震底继”影响关系研究了1933年迭溪地震M7.5和1976年松潘Ms7.2地震对后来发生汶川M8地震的龙门山地震构造的孕震能量叠加的加震作用;同时也指出汶川8级地震对周边断裂的减震作用,计算并指出了其影响减震的距离.研究对CPSHA中对发震构造呈复杂几何关系时,如何确定地震带内各潜在的震源空间分布函数fi,mj提供了大震加减震的判断理论依据.还讨论了汶川地震孕震模式的更复杂性,针对某些用巴颜喀拉块体向东南方向移动挤压龙门山孕震构造,进而解释汶川地震的逆冲性所带来的矛盾的观点,对其孕震的复杂性提出了问题所在和初步探讨.  相似文献   
9.
根据近场强震台加速度记录对2011年10月12日北京市石景山区ML2.1地震的加速度影响场进行了计算分析.同时使用了首都圈宽频带数字台站记录数据通过P波初动格点尝试法解算出该地震的震源机制解,并与加速度影响场进行对比研究.结果表明,此次地震加速度影响场水平向加速度高于垂直向;水平向峰值加速度分布区和加速度影响场高低速度过渡区总体呈EW向或NEE向分布,与震源机制解结果的两个节面走向较为一致;加速度衰减NS向快于EW向.本文研究结果可为强震或较大地震发生后快速判定震害影响场提供参考依据.  相似文献   
10.
农村住宅砌体结构地震破坏数值模拟研究   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
国内震害调查表明我国农村房屋在地震中破坏严重,主要原因是农村自建房屋大都缺乏基本抗震措施.近年来有关部门针对农村房屋的抗震性能提出一些改进措施,但这些措施实际抗震效果如何,除了极少数通过模型试验验证外,很少得到验证.本文建立了砌体结构非线性有限元分析模型,以一幢农宅为研究对象,通过地震时程反应来再现其在地震作用下的破坏状况.研究表明本文提出数值模型能够较好的模拟砌体结构在地震中破坏过程,发现结构抗震薄弱部位.通过对三种模型对比分析表明圈梁和构造柱可以有效提高砌体结构整体抗震性能,但对局部破坏影响不大,需要在以后抗震设计中加以考虑.  相似文献   
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