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1.
This paper presents the first application of an advanced meshfree method, ie, the edge-based smoothed point interpolation method (ESPIM), in simulation of the coupled hydro-mechanical behaviour of unsaturated porous media. In the proposed technique, the problem domain is spatially discretised using a triangular background mesh, and the polynomial point interpolation method combined with a simple node selection scheme is adopted for creating nodal shape functions. Smoothing domains are formed on top of the background mesh, and a constant smoothed strain, created by applying the smoothing operation over the smoothing domains, is assigned to each smoothing domain. The deformation and flow models are developed based on the equilibrium equation of the mixture, and linear momentum and mass balance equations of the fluid phases, respectively. The effective stress approach is followed to account for the coupling between the flow and deformation models. Further coupling among the phases is captured through a hysteretic soil water retention model that evolves with changes in void ratio. An advanced elastoplastic constitutive model within the context of the bounding surface plasticity theory is employed for predicting the nonlinear behaviour of soil skeleton. Time discretisation is performed by adopting a three-point discretisation method with growing time steps to avoid temporal instabilities. A modified Newton-Raphson framework is designed for dealing with nonlinearities of the discretised system of equations. The performance of the numerical model is examined through a number of numerical examples. The state-of-the-art computational scheme developed is useful for simulation of geotechnical engineering problems involving unsaturated soils.  相似文献   
2.
Wetlands represent one of the world's most biodiverse and threatened ecosystem types and were diminished globally by about two‐thirds in the 20th century. There is continuing decline in wetland quantity and function due to infilling and other human activities. In addition, with climate change, warmer temperatures and changes in precipitation and evapotranspiration are reducing wetland surface and groundwater supplies, further altering wetland hydrology and vegetation. There is a need to automate inventory and monitoring of wetlands, and as a study system, we investigated the Shepard Slough wetlands complex, which includes numerous wetlands in urban, suburban, and agricultural zones in the prairie pothole region of southern Alberta, Canada. Here, wetlands are generally confined to depressions in the undulating terrain, challenging wetlands inventory and monitoring. This study applied threshold and frequency analysis routines for high‐resolution, single‐polarization (HH) RADARSAT‐2, synthetic aperture radar mapping. This enabled a growing season surface water extent hyroperiod‐based wetland classification, which can support water and wetland resource monitoring. This 3‐year study demonstrated synthetic aperture radar‐derived multitemporal open‐water masks provided an effective index of wetland permanence class, with overall accuracies of 89% to 95% compared with optical validation data, and RMSE between 0.2 and 0.7 m between model and field validation data. This allowed for characterizing the distribution and dynamics of 4 marsh wetlands hydroperiod classes, temporary, seasonal, semipermanent, and permanent, and mapping of the sequential vegetation bands that included emergent, obligate wetland, facultative wetland, and upland plant communities. Hydroperiod variation and surface water extent were found to be influenced by short‐term rainfall events in both wet and dry years. Seasonal hydroperiods in wetlands were particularly variable if there was a decrease in the temporary or semipermanent hydroperiod classes. In years with extreme rain events, the temporary wetlands especially increased relative to longer lasting wetlands (84% in 2015 with significant rainfall events, compared with 42% otherwise).  相似文献   
3.
We investigate our ability to assess transfer of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), from the soil to surface runoff by considering the effect of coupling diverse adsorption models with a two‐layer solute transfer model. Our analyses are grounded on a set of two experiments associated with soils characterized by diverse particle size distributions. Our study is motivated by the observation that Cr(VI) is receiving much attention for the assessment of environmental risks due to its high solubility, mobility, and toxicological significance. Adsorption of Cr(VI) is considered to be at equilibrium in the mixing layer under our experimental conditions. Four adsorption models, that is, the Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin, and linear models, constitute our set of alternative (competing) mathematical formulations. Experimental results reveal that the soil samples characterized by the finest grain sizes are associated with the highest release of Cr(VI) to runoff. We compare the relative abilities of the four models to interpret experimental results through maximum likelihood model calibration and four model identification criteria (i.e., the Akaike information criteria [AIC and AICC] and the Bayesian and Kashyap information criteria). Our study results enable us to rank the tested models on the basis of a set of posterior weights assigned to each of them. A classical variance‐based global sensitivity analysis is then performed to assess the relative importance of the uncertain parameters associated with each of the models considered, within subregions of the parameter space. In this context, the modelling strategy resulting from coupling the Langmuir isotherm with a two‐layer solute transfer model is then evaluated as the most skilful for the overall interpretation of both sets of experiments. Our results document that (a) the depth of the mixing layer is the most influential factor for all models tested, with the exception of the Freundlich isotherm, and (b) the total sensitivity of the adsorption parameters varies in time, with a trend to increase as time progresses for all of the models. These results suggest that adsorption has a significant effect on the uncertainty associated with the release of Cr(VI) from the soil to the surface runoff component.  相似文献   
4.
This study evaluated the spatial variability of streambed vertical hydraulic conductivity (Kv) in different stream morphologies in the Frenchman Creek Watershed, Western Nebraska, using different variogram models. Streambed Kv values were determined in situ using permeameter tests at 10 sites in Frenchman, Stinking Water and Spring Creeks during the dry season at baseflow conditions. Measurements were taken both in straight and meandering stream channels during a 5 day period at similar flow conditions. Each test site comprised of at least three transects and each transect comprised of at least three Kv measurements. Linear, Gaussian, exponential and spherical variogram models were used with Kriging gridding method for the 10 sites. As a goodness-of-fit statistic for the variogram models, cross-validation results showed differences in the median absolute deviation and the standard deviation of the cross-validation residuals. Results show that using the geometric means of the 10 sites for gridding performs better than using either all the Kv values from the 93 permeameter tests or 10 Kv values from the middle transects and centre permeameters. Incorporating both the spatial variability and the uncertainty involved in the measurement at a reach segment can yield more accurate grid results that can be useful in calibrating Kv at watershed or sub-watershed scales in distributed hydrological models.  相似文献   
5.
用 1 5个随机引物对建鲤基因组DNA进行RAPD分析 ,结果显示 ,建鲤群体内的遗传相似系数为 0 91 81± 0 0 73 8,多态位点比例为 0 41 67,平均杂合度为 0 1 884。表明建鲤种质较纯 ,群体内的遗传变异程度较小。建鲤优良性状产生的分子学基础是等位基因的杂合程度较高  相似文献   
6.
对青藏东北缘现今块体划分、运动及变形的初步研究   总被引:19,自引:9,他引:10  
利用2维非连续变形分析方法(DDA),以位移代替围压作为边界约束力,研究青藏东北缘现今块体划分及其运动变形。根据该地区地质构造及地震活动,以GPS点测量位移作为模拟结果约束点,得出了较合理的块体划分模型和随时间演化的主应变分布图,并把应变高值区与近几年来发生的5级以上地震作对比,得出了研究区内地震危险性可能较大的区域。另外,对模拟的甘青块体与阿拉善块体的边缘带断裂左旋运动做了大概计算。  相似文献   
7.
初轨计算中的病态分析   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
吴连大  贾沛璋 《天文学报》1997,38(3):288-296
本文对现有初轨计算方法进行病态性分析与误差分析;研究结果表明:病态对现有初轨算法的影响,主要来源于法方程系数中包含观测误差.系数行列式愈大,定轨精度的损失愈多,当■被随机误差项△μ淹盖时,现有初轨算法将失效.此外,仿真结果还显示:■与△μ的大小还极大地依赖观测弧段的空间位置,当观测弧段包含近站点作为中点时,■最大,而■小,此时定轨精度较高;当观测弧段位于近站点的某一侧时,■小,而■大,此时定轨精度较低,观测弧段愈偏离近站点,病态影响愈大;因而在观测时,应尽量使观测弧段与近站点对称(此时μ值较大),这是提高短弧定轨的一种有效途径.  相似文献   
8.
中国1∶100万景观生态制图设计   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
中国1∶100万景观生态图系借鉴国内外传统景观制图方法和制图规范,在遥感、地理信息系统先进技术的支持下,设计研制其制图方法、制图内容、样图和技术流程,同时提出初步的景观分类系统,为今后编制中国1∶100万景观生态图奠定基础。  相似文献   
9.
1IN T R O D U C T IO N The western China isfacinggrowing problems of eco- logicaland economic development. The disparitiebse- tween the socio-economy of the western and eastern China were enlarging, and the major ecologicalprob- lems stilelvolve as past(H…  相似文献   
10.
本文以成矿地质模型为依据,对观驾山—黑山岛一带的化探、物探、遥感及地质等信息变量进行了详细的分析,选取了10个信息变量24个标志状态;在此基础上,运用信息量法对研究区内458个单元的信息量值进行计算,并由此确定了研究范围内的成矿远景区。事实表明,研究区信息量成矿预测是非常有效的  相似文献   
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