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在西部泥石流多发区,交通线路经常需要穿越泥石流沟,设置在泥石流沟床中的桥墩容易遭受泥石流大块石的冲击,为此,常常在其前端设置泥石流防撞墩,以达到保护桥墩的目的。防撞墩设计的关键参数是泥石流大块石的冲击力。目前,有关泥石流冲击力的计算方法都比较粗糙,计算结果与实际情况不符。本文以Thornton理想弹塑性接触模型为基础,并考虑防撞墩的弯矩变形特性,根据能量守恒定律,推导了泥石流大块石冲击力的计算公式。结果表明,考虑结构弹塑性特性后,泥石流大块石冲击力大大降低,远小于按弹性冲击理论所确定的冲击力,计算结果更符合实际情况。  相似文献
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面向工程应用,基于船艏正撞刚性墙的有限元碰撞计算,提出了撞击力—船艏撞深关系的基本简化公式,以应用于船撞桥的质量-弹簧体系简化动力分析模型的有限元计算。使用LS-DYNA软件,通过3000~50000 DWT(dead weight tonnage,载重吨)范围内4艘典型船舶的有限元碰撞分析,得到了船舶在1.0~5.0 m/s冲击速度范围内,与刚性墙面正撞的撞击力—撞深样本曲线。根据对样本曲线的观察,提出了一种基本的撞击力—撞深关系的简化数学公式,并统计得到了公式中各参数的表达式。船桥碰撞实际工况的有限元计算对比表明,提出的简化公式可以满足船桥碰撞简化动力分析的需要。  相似文献
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受汶川地震影响,四川等地泥石流治理更为迫切。泥石流的暴发具有突发性,在防治工程中,相比实体坝而言,格栅坝是一种节省材料、稳定性更高的拦挡结构,使用范围越来越广,但是目前尚无成熟的格栅坝设计方法。本文参考梳齿坝的已有理论确定了支墩间距的计算方法,并结合已有实验资料提出了格栅坝格栅间距的计算公式,改变了以往不同坝体乃至同一坝内各横梁间距一致的计算方法。另外,因支墩间隔相对较小,以简支模式计算石块对横梁冲击力并不合适,本文基于固定梁模式重新推导了计算公式,其计算结果与简支梁模式比较,数值大了3倍。最后考虑坝体建成后的不同情况,提出了支墩、横梁及两侧翼墙的详细计算工况,并基于以上设计理论,对烂泥沟泥石流治理工程的部分格栅坝进行了具体设计。  相似文献
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为了保证安全,泥石流多发区的道路常采用桥梁的方式通过。位于泥石流区的桥梁的桥墩在泥石流暴发时受到泥石流的冲击,常会造成不同程度的损毁。泥石流冲击力是泥石流区桥墩受到的主要荷载,目前在计算泥石流冲击力时一般将其视为均质体,但是泥石流为固液两相流体,因此得到的计算结果误差较大。为了提高精确度,本文对泥石流冲击力计算公式进行了修正,先分别运用动力学中的弹性碰撞理论和牛顿第二定律对泥石流固相和液相的冲击力进行计算,然后将其进行叠加,得到总的泥石流冲击力。泥石流区桥墩破坏的模式主要有冲击破坏、倾覆破坏和滑动破坏3种形式。为了减小泥石流对桥墩的破坏能,可在桥墩受到泥石流冲击的部位设置消能层,通过算例发现,设置消能层后冲击力减小了26.94%。  相似文献
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To study the effect of a strong underwater shock wave on a concrete dam, this research aims to improve hammer impact methods in model tests. Six 1:200 scale models were designed and tested under distributed impact loads. A device was deployed for a direct measurement of the impact force at the upstream face of the dams. The model dam bases were anchored to prevent displacement. The experimental results indicate that the top part of the concrete dam is a weak zone, and the impact failure initiates with a fracture on the top of the dam. The peak value of impact stress increases when the second crack appears in the concrete dam from the upstream face to the downstream face. And, the level of the second crack in the dam body is lower as the peak value of impact stress increases. In this study, dynamic analysis was conducted by calculating the results to verify the effectiveness of a device to directly measure the impact force. This method may be used to approximately forecast the damage of concrete dam and may also be useful in other engineering applications.  相似文献
6.
为了限制动荷载作用下梁端的位移,经常要在梁端安装阻尼器,与伸缩缝在结构上形成并联装置。当桥面突然发生大规模的刹车,或在突加的地震、风荷载等荷载的冲击作用下,阻尼器是否会对伸缩缝起到保护作用就成为一个令人关心的问题。由一般多自由度体系动力方程出发,通过矩阵变换得到结构局部关于阻尼器单自由度方程。基于此单自由度方程,对阻尼器在结构中具有局部减震效果提出了理论上的论证,在此基础上就阻尼器在各种冲击荷载作用下对伸缩缝的保护作用进行了探讨。  相似文献
7.
Impact forces associated with major debris flows (Jiangjia Ravine, China, August 25, 2004) were recorded in real time by a system consisting of three strain sensors installed at different flow depths. This provides the first real‐time and long‐duration record of impact forces associated with debris flows. A comprehensive approach including low‐pass filtering and moving average methods were used to preprocess the recorded signals. The upper limit of impact frequency in the debris flows was estimated at 188∙66 Hz under the assumption that only coarse grains cause effective impact loadings. Thus, a low‐pass filter with a 200 Hz cut‐off frequency was needed to denoise the original data in order to extract the impact force. Then the moving average method was applied to separate long‐term and random components of the filtered data. These were interpreted as, respectively, the fluid pressure and grain impact loading. It was found that the peak grain impacts at different depths were non‐synchronous within the debris flows. The impact loadings were far greater than, and not proportional to the fluid pressures. Analysis of the impact force of 38 debris flow surges gives an empirical value for the ratio of the hydrodynamic pressure to the momentum flow density, i.e. the product of debris‐flow density and mean velocity square, which provides a very valuable basis for understanding debris flow dynamics and designing debris flow management systems. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献
8.
The impact force on retaining structure, which is caused by granular flow comprised of dry particles originated from shallow landslide failure, still lacks systematic studies. In order to support the potential design requirement of structure used to resist this kind of impact, a series of dry granular impact experiments are conducted on one rigid barrier model. According to parametric analysis results, one nonlinear regression model is proposed to correlate total normal impact force at critical time (Fcr) with its influential parameters. Further, we complete a systematic statistics analysis and obtain a subsequent optimum regression equation based on the proposed model. According to experience and dimension balance, the equation is modified and finally transformed into one non-dimensional equation, which shows good agreement between predicted and observed results.  相似文献
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