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1.
The 33 086 ha mixed land use Fall Creek watershed in upstate New York is part of the Great Lakes drainage system. Results from more than 3500 water samples are available in a data set that compiles flow data and measurements of various water quality analytes collected between 1972 and 1995 in all seasons and under all flow regimes in Fall Creek and its tributaries. Data is freely accessible at https://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/8148 and includes measurements of suspended solids, pH, alkalinity, calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, chloride, nitrate nitrogen (NO3-N), sulphate sulphur (SO4-S), phosphorus (P) fractions molybdate reactive P (MRP) and total dissolved P (TDP), percent P in sediment, and ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N). Methods, sub-watershed areas, and coordinates for sampling sites are also included. The work represented in this data set has made important scientific contributions to understanding of hydrological and biogeochemical processes that influence loading in mixed use watersheds and that have an impact on algal productivity in receiving water bodies. In addition, the work has been foundational for important regulatory and management decisions in the region.  相似文献   
2.
生态水文学是20世纪90年代兴起的一门研究生态过程和生态格局水文机制的新学科。湖泊湿地作为中国5大类天然湿地类型之一,湖泊湿地生态水文学的研究业已成为生态水文学的研究的一个重要对象和分支,其核心在于研究湖泊湿地生态系统中多时空尺度的水文与生物格局、过程的耦合特征及其相互作用。论文首先概述了湖泊湿地生态水文学的研究进展,包括其基本理论,内涵、外延及其主要研究内容;凝练了湖泊湿地生态水文学研究的方法体系、思路及框架;针对目前湖泊湿地生态水文学研究中存在的问题及薄弱环节,提出了湖泊湿地生态水文学未来研究的发展趋势和亟需加强研究的重点方向。在此基础上,以长江中游的典型通江湖泊湿地——鄱阳湖湿地为例,通过开展的湖泊湿地生态水文过程与模拟研究的典型案例,阐述了鄱阳湖湖泊湿地生态水文过程的变化及其植被响应研究的最新进展和研究成果。论文对于构建涵盖湖泊湿地水资源、湖泊湿地生态景观格局与流域管理、湖泊湿地生物多样性保育以及湿地资源可持续利用与生态管理等方向在内的战略研究体系,完善湿地生态水文研究与流域生态与管理的技术支撑体系具有重要的指导意义和实践价值。  相似文献   
3.
高寒区植被变化一直是气候和生态学领域关注的热点问题。本研究基于MODIS NDVI数据计算的植被覆盖度数据和高分辨率气象数据,分析了青海湖流域2001-2017年植被覆盖度分布格局及动态变化,探讨了其对气候变化、人类活动和冻土退化的响应。结果表明:① 近十几年青海湖流域植被覆盖度整体表现为增加趋势,不同植被类型增幅存在差异性,草地增幅最大,达到6.1%/10a,其它植被类型增幅在2%~3%/10a之间;② 流域局部地区仍存在植被退化现象,研究期植被退化面积表现为先增加后减小的变化趋势。2006-2011年重度退化区集中在青海湖东岸,2011-2017年重度退化区集中在流域的西北部,这些区域是青海湖流域荒漠分布区,植被覆盖度较低,是今后生态恢复需重点关注的区域;③ 气候变化是流域植被覆盖度变化的主导因素,气候变化对青海湖流域主要植被类型覆盖度变化的贡献率为84.21%,对草原、草甸和灌丛植被覆盖度变化的贡献率分别为81.84%、87.47%和75.96%;④ 人类活动对流域主要植被类型覆盖度变化的贡献率为15.79%,对草原、草甸和灌丛植被覆盖度变化的贡献率分别为18.16%、12.53%和24.04%,环青海湖地区人类活动对植被恢复有促进效应,在青海湖流域北部部分地区人类活动的破坏力度仍大于建设力度;⑤ 冻土退化对青海湖流域草甸和灌丛植被覆盖度变化影响很小,主要影响草原植被覆盖度变化,冻土退化造成草原植被覆盖度增长速率减小了1.2%/10a。  相似文献   
4.
Based on the δ13C and δ18O fluctuation of lacustrine carbonate, CaCO3 content and sporo-pollen data, a palaeoclimatic history of Bosten Lake during the Holocene has been outlined, several stages of climatic changes are divided, and the following result es are obtained: (1) Palaeoclimatic changes revealed by carbonate isotope around Bosten Lake are basically identical with that revealed by other geological records in Xinjiang. Environmental changes presented apparent Westlies Style model: during cold period, relative humidity increased, δ18O, δ13C and CaCO3 appeared low; but in warm periods, the dry regime aggravated. (2) The temperature reflected by δ18O exist evident features being increase in the late period during the Holocene. Together with the δ13C, pollen and CaCO3 analyses, several cold and warm phases which are of broad regional significance can be identified. The warm peaks occurred at about 11.0 ka B.P., 9.4 ka B.P., 7.5 ka B.P., 5.0 ka B.P., 3.0 ka B.P. and 2.0 ka B.P.; the cold peaks at 11.5 ka B.P., 10.5 ka B.P., 8.8 ka B.P., 5.5 ka B.P., 3.3 ka B.P., 2.2 ka B.P. and 1.5 ka B.P.. (3) Several climatic events with the nature of “abrupt climatic changes” are revealed in the periods of 11.0 ka B.P. −10.5 ka B.P., 9.4 ka B.P. −8.8 ka B.P., 5.5 ka B.P. −5.0 ka B.P. and 2.0 ka B.P. −1.5 ka B.P.. (4) The results show that carbonate isotopic record of lacustrine sediment in arid area is very sensitive to climatic changes, and may be play a very important role in understanding the features and mechanism of palaeoclimatic changes.  相似文献   
5.
The energy flow ofBranchiura sowerbyi was studied for the first time in China in a shallow macrophytic lake, Biandantang Lake, Hubei Province. The energy flow was calculated from the measurement of flesh production (12.5241kJ/m2a), egestion (517.7302kJ/m2a), metabolism (38.3273 kJ/m2a), and excretion (4.3798kJ/m2a). The net growth efficiency of the species is about 22.7%, which accords well with the generally reported value for oligochaetes. In addition, the relationship between starvation respiration (R, mgO2/ind·d), wet weight (Ww, mg) and temperature (T, °C) were also measured, with the regression function beingR=0.008Ww0.736 e0.050T. Project supported by NSFC (30270278, 3960019), the foundation of the government of Hubei Province (No. 2000J109), and the foundation of Ecological Station, CAS in the Institute of Hydrobiology.  相似文献   
6.
The energy budget ofBellamya earuginosa in a shallow algal lake, Houhu Lake (Wuhan, China) was investigated by the measurement of flesh production (32.8 kJ/(m2·a)), egestion (337.7 kJ/(m2·a)), metabolism (246.7 kJ/(m2·a)), and estimation of excretion (21.4kJ/(m2·a)). The net growth efficiency of the species is about 10.9%, which accords with the generally reported value for gastropods. In addition, the relationships between starvation respiration (R, mgO2/(Ind·d)), body weight (Wd, mg in dry wt) and temperature (T, °C) were also determined. The regression equationR=0.044Wd 0.537 e 0.061T was obtained by the least square method, The measured SDA of the species is 26.51% of its gross metabolism. Project No. 3960019 and 39430101 supported by NSFC and also a granted for the East Lake Ecological Experimental Station, CAS, Wuhan.  相似文献   
7.
Continuous wavelet analyses of hourly time series of air temperature, stream discharge, and precipitation are used to compare the seasonal and inter‐annual variability in hydrological regimes of the two principal streams feeding Bow Lake, Banff National Park, Alberta: the glacial stream draining the Wapta Icefields, and the snowmelt‐fed Bow River. The goal is to understand how water sources and flow routing differ between the two catchments. Wavelet spectra and cross‐wavelet spectra were determined for air temperature and discharge from the two streams for summers (June–September) 1997–2000, and for rainfall and discharge for the summers of 1999 and 2000. The diurnal signal of the glacial runoff was orders of magnitude higher in 1998 than in other years, indicating that significant ice exposure and the development of channelized glacial drainage occurred as a result of the 1997–98 El Niño conditions. Early retreat of the snowpack in 1997 and 1998 led to a significant summer‐long input of melt runoff from a small area of ice cover in the Bow River catchment; but such inputs were not apparent in 1999 and 2000, when snow cover was more extensive. Rainfall had a stronger influence on runoff and followed quicker flow paths in the Bow River catchment than in the glacial catchment. Snowpack thickness and catchment size were the primary controls on the phase relationship between temperature and discharge at diurnal time scales. Wavelet analysis is a fast and effective means to characterize runoff, temperature, and precipitation regimes and their interrelationships and inter‐annual variability. The technique is effective at identifying inter‐annual and seasonal changes in the relative contributions of different water sources to runoff, and changes in the time required for routing of diurnal meltwater pulses through a catchment. However, it is less effective at identifying changes/differences in the type of the flow routing (e.g. overland flow versus through flow) between or within catchments. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
8.
大型敞流坳陷湖盆浅水三角洲与湖盆中心砂体的形成与分布   总被引:34,自引:0,他引:34  
大型敞流坳陷湖盆浅水三角洲及湖盆中心砂体已成为中国陆相盆地岩性油气藏最重要的勘探目标。通过对现代典型湖盆浅水三角洲的深入分析,结合我国中、新生代大型坳陷湖盆浅水三角洲及湖盆中心砂体的地质研究,取得以下主要进展与认识:①在分析浅水三角洲形成地质背景的基础上,按照供源体系、湖水深度及三角洲前缘倾斜坡度将湖盆三角洲分为9种成因结构类型;②建立了毯式浅水曲流河三角洲的沉积模式,指出末端分流河道及末端决口扇是浅水曲流河三角洲的典型微相类型;③分析了浅水三角洲砂体大面积分布的形成条件,指出敞流湖盆是湖盆中心浅水三角洲砂体发育的重要条件,敞流通道对湖盆中心砂体分布有重要控制作用;④湖盆中心发育河流、三角洲、湖流及密度底流砂体等牵引流成因砂体,也发育洪水浊积扇及滑塌浊积扇等重力流成因砂体;⑤大型浅水三角洲体系三级层序界面对岩性(成岩)圈闭的发育有重要控制作用,三角洲平原带层序界面上覆叠置砂体富集岩性油气藏,勘探潜力大。本文研究成果希对坳陷湖盆沉积学研究及岩性油气藏勘探能有推动作用。  相似文献   
9.
Lake Sapanca in NW Turkey is a fault originated freshwater basin fed by seasonally variable flows of 15 streams. Considerations of lake–river interaction, supported by statistical measures of 47 bottom samples, suggest that sediment transport and deposition within the lake is controlled by two types of human constructed structures in addition to natural factors: (1) the dykes constructed in the front of streams, which feed the lake by strong flows, to prevent the filling of lakebed by coarse-grained sediments; (2) the constructed regulator on the outflowing Çarksuyu stream results in a higher sedimentation rate of clay-sized material on the NE corner of the lake, which is extraordinary in the shelf environment.  相似文献   
10.
洞庭湖轮虫生态分布的研究   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
1985~1986年,对洞庭湖水体进行了8次轮虫样品的采集和分析。两年观察到轮虫108种,其中终年出现的种类有10种。轮虫总数O—512.8ind./L,全湖平均75.1ind./L。本文从湖区自然生态环境对轮虫种类、数量的影响进行研究,探讨了大型开放湖泊轮虫分布与若干生态因子的关系。认为泥沙含量、流速、营养盐多寡以及入湖水体轮虫种群状况是影响洞庭湖轮虫分布的主要因素。  相似文献   
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