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1.
 分析了天然气水合物分解引起海底斜坡不稳定性的原因,探讨了水合物分解引起沉积物层孔隙压力变化规律.以南海北部神狐海域水合物样品钻获区为研究对象,应用极限平衡法探讨了海底无限斜坡的稳定性问题,计算了设定的不同滑动面的安全系数,建立了目标不稳定区相关参数条件下的水合物分解与海底斜坡不稳定的模式图,模拟计算了不同程度的水合物分解对海底斜坡失稳的影响作用.结果表明:在假设条件下,南海神狐海域当水深为1200 m,沉积物层厚度为200 m,对于20°的较大坡角,沉积物层中5%水合物分解将引起海底斜坡失稳;斜坡坡角为5°时,沉积物层中15%水合物分解后,将会引起海底斜坡失稳;当斜坡坡角为3°或更小时,沉积物层中25%水合物分解后,将会引起海底斜坡失稳.  相似文献
2.
汶川8.0级地震北川县城区灾害调查与分析   总被引:6,自引:5,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
2008年5月12日发生了汶川8.0级特大地震,震后作者深入地震重灾区开展了震害现场调查工作。利用现场调查得到的第一手资料,分析了极震区北川县城区的震害现象,发现山坡和河岸滑坡、断层地表破裂以及柔底层结构底层破坏所导致的结构严重破坏和倒塌是城区的主要震害现象,同时看到仍然有一些砌体结构建筑震害较轻,处于轻微或中等破坏,甚至基本完好状态。这些震害现象展示了山区地震灾害的基本特征和复杂性。  相似文献
3.
汶川8.0级地震滑坡、崩塌机制   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
本文总结了汶川8.0级地震引起的滑坡、崩塌的破坏特征,分析了地震地质灾害的外因和内因。鉴于本次地震导致的大量人员伤亡和巨大的财产损失,在进行城镇灾后重建工作或类似山区城镇规划时,强烈建议进行地震地质灾害评估工作。  相似文献
4.
许冲  徐锡伟 《地球物理学报》2012,55(9):2994-3005
 基于统计学习理论与地理信息系统(GIS)技术的地震滑坡灾害空间预测是一个重要的研究方向,其可以对相似地震条件下地震滑坡的发生区域进行预测.2010年4月14日07时49分(北京时间),青海省玉树县发生了Mw6.9级大地震,作者基于高分辨率遥感影像解译与现场调查验证的方法,圈定了2036处本次地震诱发滑坡,这些滑坡大概分布在一个面积为1455.3 km2的矩形区域内.本文以该矩形区域为研究区,以GIS与支持向量机(SVM)模型为基础,开展基于不同核函数的地震滑坡空间预测模型研究.应用GIS技术建立玉树地震滑坡灾害及相关滑坡影响因子空间数据库,选择高程、坡度、坡向、斜坡曲率、坡位、水系、地层岩性、断裂、公路、归一化植被指数(NDVI)、同震地表破裂、地震动峰值加速度(PGA)共12个因子作为地震滑坡预测因子.以SVM模型为基础,基于线性核函数、多项式核函数、径向基核函数、S形核函数等4类核函数开展地震滑坡空间预测研究,分别建立了玉树地震滑坡危险性指数图、危险性分级图、预测结果图.4类核函数对应的模型正确率分别为79.87%,83.45%,84.16%,64.62%.基于不同的训练样本开展模型训练与讨论工作,表明径向基核函数是最适用于该地区的地震滑坡空间预测模型.本文为地震滑坡空间预测模型中核函数的科学选择提供了依据,也为地震区的滑坡防灾减灾工作提供了参考.  相似文献
5.
宁夏西吉县境地震滑坡的地貌特征及其减灾开发对策探讨   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:1  
宁夏西吉县滥泥河流域在1920年海原8.5级大震时形成大量黄土滑坡及堰塞湖。本文阐述了西吉县境地震滑坡地貌的基本特征和当地人民对滑坡地貌的开发利用现状,分析了地震滑坡地貌所产生的环境灾害隐患,并针对该地区因地制宜开发利用滑坡地貌的减灾对策进行了探讨。  相似文献
6.
尼勒克地震滑坡的统计分析及初步研究   总被引:3,自引:3,他引:6  
尹光华  李军  张勇  杨章 《内陆地震》2001,15(1):56-63
利用野外考察资料,对1812年新疆尼勒克地震的滑坡进行了统计分析和研究,认为尼勒克地震是一个典型的倾滑型地震,产生的地表破坏主要是地震滑坡,而且滑坡规模大,数量多,分布集中,其规模和分布密度与烈度成正比,有由震中向外变小、变稀的特点。  相似文献
7.
Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic evolution of the Longmenshan fault belt   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
The giant earthquake (M s=8.0) in Wenchuan on May 12, 2008 was triggered by oblique convergence between the Tibetan Plateau and the South China along the Longmenshan fault belt. The Longmenshan fault belt marks an important component of the tectonic and geomorphological boundary between the eastern and western part of China and has a protracted tectonic history. It was first formed as an intracontinental transfer fault, patitioning the differential deformation between the Pacific and Tethys tectonic domains, initiated in late Paleozoic-early Mesozoic time, then served as the eastern boundary of the Tibetan Plateau to accommodate the growth of the plateau in Cenozoic. Its current geological and geomorphological frameworks are the result of superimposition of these two tectonic events. In Late Triassic, the Longmenshan underwent left-slip oblique NW-SE shortening due to the clockwise rotation of the Yangtze Block, which led to the flexural subsidence of the Sichuan foreland basin, but after that, the subsidence of the Sichuan Basin seems no longer controlled by the tectonic activity of the Longmenshan fault belt. The Meosozoic tectonic evolution of the Songpan-Ganzi fold belt differs significantly compared with that of the Yangtze Platform, featured by intensive northeast and southwest shortening and resulted in the close of the Paleo-Tethys. Aerial photos taken immediately after main shock of the giant May 12, 2008 earthquake have documented extensive rock fall and landslides that represent one of the most destructive aspects of the earthquake. Both rock avalanches and landslides delivered a huge volume of debris into the middle part of the Minjiang River, and formed many dammed lakes. Breaching of these natural dams can be catastrophic, as occurred in the Diexi area along the upstream of the Minjiang River in the year of 1933 that led to devastating floodings. The resultant flood following the breaching of these dams flowed through and out of the Longmenshan belt into the Chengdu Plain, bringing a huge volume of sediments. The oldest alluvial deposits within the Chengdu Plain are estimated to be Late Miocene (8–13 Ma). We suggest that the flooding that transported the course-grained sediments into the Chengdu Plain occurred in late Cenozoic, resulted from both the climate and the historical earthquakes similar to the May 12 earthquake. Estimated age of the sediments related to earthquakes and coeval shortening across the Chengdu Plain indicate that the eastern margin of the plateau became seismically and tectonically active in Late Miocene. Supported by Knowledge Innovation Project of Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KZCX2-YW-12), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 40672151, 40721003, 40472121 and 40830314) and PetroChina Company Limited  相似文献
8.
中国西南地区地震滑坡的基本特征   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:23  
本文总结了中国云南、川西地区1970年以来M≥6.7级强震的滑坡资料,归纳了该区地震诱发滑坡的地质地貌特征。认为把地震滑坡按其运动方式而划分为推移式滑坡、牵引式滑坡、溜滑性滑坡和崩塌性滑坡这四种类型有利于对地震滑坡灾害的评估。统计结果表明,大部分滑坡体的体积小于50000m ̄3,滑坡体的厚度以0.5-5m为主,因而西南地区的地震滑坡以浅层小型滑坡为主;滑坡均发生于第四系堆积层中,其中又以残积层中最为发育;这些滑坡主要沿四种结构软弱面发生;边坡的坡度对滑坡亦有一定的控制作用,一般来说,滑坡主要发生在坡度为30°-50°的斜坡上,其中最有利的坡度为35一40;地震滑坡的分布面积则主要取决于震级的大小,虽然它们之间没有明显的相关关系,但随震级的加大,地震滑坡的最大震中距和最大分布面积大致是增加的。一般来说,产生新的滑坡所需的最小地震烈度为7度,而诱发老滑坡所需的最小烈度则为6度,二者相差约1度左右。此外,滑坡的分布在很大程度上受地震断层的控制,其分布主方向和地震断层的方向大致相同。最后,本文在归纳了西南地区地震滑坡灾害特点的基础上,提出了在西南地区进行地震滑坡灾害评价的若干要点。  相似文献
9.
 The 3.9- to 2.9-Ma Waianae Volcano is the older of two volcanoes making up the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Exposed on the volcanic edifice are tholeiitic shield lavas overlain by transitional and alkalic postshield lavas. The postshield "alkalic cap" consists of aphyric hawaiite of the Palehua Member of the Waianae Volcanics, overlain unconformably by a small volume of alkalic basalt of the Kolekole Volcanics. Kolekole Volcanics mantle erosional topography, including the uppermost slopes of the great Lualualei Valley on the lee side of the Waianae Range. Twenty new K–Ar dates, combined with magnetic polarity data and geologic relationships, constrain the ages of lavas of the Palehua member to 3.06–2.98 Ma and lavas of the Kolekole Volcanics to 2.97–2.90 Ma. The geochemical data and the nearly contemporaneous ages suggest that the Kolekole Volcanics do not represent a completely independent or separate volcanic event from earlier postshield activity; thus, the Kolekole Volcanics are reduced in rank, becoming the Kolekole Member of the Waianae Volcanics. Magmas of the Palehua and Kolekole Members have similar incompatible element ratios, and both suites show evidence for early crystallization of clinopyroxene consistent with evolution at high pressures below the edifice. However, lavas of the Kolekole Member are less fractionated and appear to have evolved at greater depths than the earlier Palehua hawaiites. Postshield primary magma compositions of the Palehua and Kolekole Members are consistent with formation by partial melting of mantle material of less than 5–10% relative to Waianae shield lavas. Within the section of Palehua Member lavas, an increase with respect to time of highly incompatible to moderately incompatible element ratios is consistent with a further decrease in partial melting by approximately 1–2%. This trend is reversed with the onset of eruption of Kolekole Member lavas, where an increase in extent of partial melting is indicated. The relatively short time interval between the eruption of Palehua and Kolekole Member lavas appears to date the initial formation of Lualualei Valley, which was accompanied by a marked change in magmatic conditions. We speculate that the mass-wasting event separating lavas of the Palehua and Kolekole Members may be related to the formation of a large submarine landslide west and southwest of Waianae Volcano. Enhanced decompression melting associated with removal of the equivalent volume of this landslide deposit from the edifice is more than sufficient to produce the modeled increase of 1–2% in extent of melting between the youngest Palehua magmas and the posterosional magmas of the Kolekole Member. The association between magmatic change and a giant landsliding event suggests that there may be a general relationship between large mass-wasting events and subsequent magmatism in Hawaiian volcano evolution. Received: 1 September 1996 / Accepted: 26 November 1996  相似文献
10.
Seismically reactivated Hattian slide in Kashmir, Northern Pakistan   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The Pakistan 2005 earthquake, of magnitude 7.6, caused severe damage on landscape and infrastructure, in addition to numerous casualties. The event reactivated Hattian Slide, creating a rock avalanche in a location where earlier mass movements had happened already, as indicated by satellite imagery and ground investigation. The slide originated on Dana Hill, in the upper catchment area of Hattian on Karli Stream, a tributary of Jhelum River, Pakistan, and buried the hamlet Dandbeh and several farms nearby. A natural dam accumulated, impounding two lakes, the larger one threatening parts of downstream Hattian Village with flooding. An access road and artificial spillways needed to be constructed in very short time to minimize the flooding risk. As shown by this example, when pointing out the risk of large-scale damage to population and infrastructure by way of hazard indication maps of seismically active regions, and preparing for alleviation of that risk, it is advisable to consider the complete Holocene history of the slopes involved.  相似文献
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