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1.
瞬变电磁测深早期数据的修正   总被引:7,自引:7,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
通过时间-频率转换关系,TEM数据可以转换成平面波场测深数据,从而可以对TEM资料进行拟平面波场处理解释.在对瞬变电磁视电阻率数据向平面波场测深视电阻率数据转换时,发现由于瞬变电磁使用晚期计算公式及装置问题,使测深曲线早期数据发生畸变.文中建立了视电阻率曲线进入晚期所满足的关系式,从理论上给出不同情况下瞬变电磁测深视电阻率曲线进入晚期的临界点.以瞬变电磁、大地电磁、CSAMT为例,对大量的模型进行正演计算,对计算结果进行对比分析,建立不同地表电性结构、不同时间延迟情况下,瞬变电磁早期数据误差的校正量板.  相似文献
2.
Zircon U-Pb results of basalt from the Dashizhai Town in Inner Mongolia, NE China, shows that the basaltic lava was erupted at 439±3 Ma, much older than the “Permian basalts” as previously thought. These rocks show arc-type trace element patterns (i.e., Nb-Ta depletion and light REE and large ion lithophile element enrichment) and unradiogenic Sr and highly radiogenic Nd and Hf isotope compositions. They can be subdivided into two petrogenetic groups: Group 1 basalts have relatively high TiO2, MgO and compatible elements and low Sr and Th, characterized by mid-oceanic ridge basalt (MORB)-type Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i)=0.7028−0.7032, εNd(t)=+9.8−+11.2, εHf(t)=+16.1−+18.4). Group 2 has lower TiO2, MgO and compatible elements and higher Sr and Th, and relatively evolved Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions (87Sr/86Sr(i)=0.7037−0.7038, εNd(t)=+5.7−+7.3, εHf(t)=+12.6−+13.0). Both groups were interpreted as melts derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge formed during the subduction of Paleo-Asian Ocean. The mantle source for Group 1 was probably a highly isotopically depleted oceanic mantle modified by predominant slab fluids; whereas subducted sediments had an important contribution to the melting source for Group 2. The petrogenesis of the Dashizhai basalts provides clear evidence for early Paleozoic subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean, and the highly radiogenic Nd and Hf compositions in these rocks suggest that these lavas and their possible intrusive counterparts were one of the important components for Phanerozoic crustal growth. Our and previous studies on the “Dashizhai Formation” volcanic rocks yield an unrealistic eruption range of 440-270 Ma for different rock types, we thus advise to disassemble the previously defined “Dashizhai Formation” into multiple lithologic units and to reinterpret the spatial and temporal distributions of different volcano-sedimentary associations. Supported by National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2006CB403504)  相似文献
3.
 分析了天然气水合物分解引起海底斜坡不稳定性的原因,探讨了水合物分解引起沉积物层孔隙压力变化规律.以南海北部神狐海域水合物样品钻获区为研究对象,应用极限平衡法探讨了海底无限斜坡的稳定性问题,计算了设定的不同滑动面的安全系数,建立了目标不稳定区相关参数条件下的水合物分解与海底斜坡不稳定的模式图,模拟计算了不同程度的水合物分解对海底斜坡失稳的影响作用.结果表明:在假设条件下,南海神狐海域当水深为1200 m,沉积物层厚度为200 m,对于20°的较大坡角,沉积物层中5%水合物分解将引起海底斜坡失稳;斜坡坡角为5°时,沉积物层中15%水合物分解后,将会引起海底斜坡失稳;当斜坡坡角为3°或更小时,沉积物层中25%水合物分解后,将会引起海底斜坡失稳.  相似文献
4.
汶川8.0级地震北川县城区灾害调查与分析   总被引:6,自引:5,他引:1       下载免费PDF全文
2008年5月12日发生了汶川8.0级特大地震,震后作者深入地震重灾区开展了震害现场调查工作。利用现场调查得到的第一手资料,分析了极震区北川县城区的震害现象,发现山坡和河岸滑坡、断层地表破裂以及柔底层结构底层破坏所导致的结构严重破坏和倒塌是城区的主要震害现象,同时看到仍然有一些砌体结构建筑震害较轻,处于轻微或中等破坏,甚至基本完好状态。这些震害现象展示了山区地震灾害的基本特征和复杂性。  相似文献
5.
汶川8.0级地震滑坡、崩塌机制   总被引:6,自引:0,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
本文总结了汶川8.0级地震引起的滑坡、崩塌的破坏特征,分析了地震地质灾害的外因和内因。鉴于本次地震导致的大量人员伤亡和巨大的财产损失,在进行城镇灾后重建工作或类似山区城镇规划时,强烈建议进行地震地质灾害评估工作。  相似文献
6.
Early Yanshanian magmatic suites predominate absolutely in the Nanling granite belt.They consist mainly of monzogranite and K-feldspar granite.There occur associations of early Yanshanian A-type granitoids(176 Ma-178 Ma) and bimodal volcanic rocks(158 Ma-179 Ma) in southern Jiangxi and southwestern Fujian in the eastern sector of the granite belt and early Yanshanian basalts(177 Ma-178 Ma) in southern Hunan in the central sector of the belt.Both the acid end-member rhyolite in the bimodal volcanic rock association and A-type granitoids in southern Jiangxi have the geochemical characteristics of intraplate granitic rocks and the basic end-member basalt of the association is intraplate tholeiite,while the basaltic rocks in southern Hunan include not only intraplate tholeiite but also intraplate alkali basalt.Therefore the early Yanshanian magmatic suites in the Nanling region are undoubtedly typical post-orogenic rock associations.Post-orogenic suites mark the end of a post-collision or late orogenic event and the initiation of Pangaea break-up,indicating that a new orogenic Wilson cycle is about to start.Therefore it may be considered that the early Yanshanian geodynamic settings in the Nanling region should be related to post-orogenic continental break-up after the Indosinian orogeny and the break-up did not begin in the Cretaceous.  相似文献
7.
贵州红枫湖沉积物磷赋存形态及沉积历史   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:34  
采集了云贵高原深水湖泊红枫湖现代沉积物未受扰动的柱状样品,通过分析不同形态沉积磷在沉积剖面上的分布特征,并结合沉积物样品柱的210Pb、137Cs年代学研究结果,揭示了红枫湖现代沉积过程中不同形态沉积磷的早期成岩改造的时间变化序列,以及沉积磷外源输入负荷的历史变化.采用Ruttenberg法分析沉积磷的地球化学赋存形态,研究表明,红枫湖沉积物中有机磷和铁结合态磷是沉积磷的主要赋存形态,分别占沉积全磷的60%和28%.沉积磷在垂直剖面上的分布特征显示,红枫湖现代沉积过程中,沉积磷在最终埋藏前可能发生非常剧烈的形态转化和再迁移,尤其是有机磷和铁结合态磷的成岩改造可能是湖泊系统磷循环质量平衡的重要方面.年代学数据同时表明,近年的人为活动导致湖泊系统(包括沉积物)磷负荷的显著增加.  相似文献
8.
We report here geochemical data, U-Pb zircon ages, and Hf isotopes for the high-Mg diorites (HMDs), Nb-enriched basaltic porphyrys (NEBPs) and plagiogranites (PLAGs) in the Pingshui segment of the Jiangshan-Shaoxing suture zone. The HMDs are characterized by high Mg# (>60), high Na and LREE contents, depletion of HREE and HFSE, and pronounced positive εNd(t) values of 7.0 to 7.7, similar to some adakitic high-Mg andesites. The NEBPs are relatively Na-rich (Na2O/K2O>6) and display high abundances of P2O5 (∼1.00%), TiO2 (∼3.08%) and HFSE (e.g., Nb=9.53–10.27 ppm). Their Nd isotopic compositions (εNd(t)=6.8–8.0) are comparable to those of the HMDs. The PLAGs are metaluminous (A/CNK=0.84–0.89) and sodic (Na2O/K2O>10). Their depletion in HFSE (e.g., Nb, Ta) is consistent with “SSZ-type” plagiogranite. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating yields an age of 932±7 Ma for the HMD, 916±6 Ma for the NEBP, and 902±5 Ma for the PLAG, respectively, indicating that they were products of early Neoproterozoic magmatism. The PLAGs exhibit relatively high zircon Hf isotopes and positive εHf(t) values of 11.0 to 16.2, consistent with their Nd isotopic data (εNd(t)=7.5–8.4). Such features are similar to those of oceanic plagiogranites in ophiolites and distinct from those of crust-derived granites. The PLAGs were most likely derived from partial melting of subducted oceanic crust in an active continental margin. Considering these results in the context of the regional geology, we suggest that a slab window in the subducting oceanic crust between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block was possibly the principal cause for the unique arc magmatism in the area. The upwelling asthenosphere below the slab window may have provided significant thermodynamic conditions. Supported by China Geological Survey (Grant No. 1212010610611) and the Ministry of Land and Resources (Grant No. 200811015)  相似文献
9.
许冲  徐锡伟 《地球物理学报》2012,55(9):2994-3005
 基于统计学习理论与地理信息系统(GIS)技术的地震滑坡灾害空间预测是一个重要的研究方向,其可以对相似地震条件下地震滑坡的发生区域进行预测.2010年4月14日07时49分(北京时间),青海省玉树县发生了Mw6.9级大地震,作者基于高分辨率遥感影像解译与现场调查验证的方法,圈定了2036处本次地震诱发滑坡,这些滑坡大概分布在一个面积为1455.3 km2的矩形区域内.本文以该矩形区域为研究区,以GIS与支持向量机(SVM)模型为基础,开展基于不同核函数的地震滑坡空间预测模型研究.应用GIS技术建立玉树地震滑坡灾害及相关滑坡影响因子空间数据库,选择高程、坡度、坡向、斜坡曲率、坡位、水系、地层岩性、断裂、公路、归一化植被指数(NDVI)、同震地表破裂、地震动峰值加速度(PGA)共12个因子作为地震滑坡预测因子.以SVM模型为基础,基于线性核函数、多项式核函数、径向基核函数、S形核函数等4类核函数开展地震滑坡空间预测研究,分别建立了玉树地震滑坡危险性指数图、危险性分级图、预测结果图.4类核函数对应的模型正确率分别为79.87%,83.45%,84.16%,64.62%.基于不同的训练样本开展模型训练与讨论工作,表明径向基核函数是最适用于该地区的地震滑坡空间预测模型.本文为地震滑坡空间预测模型中核函数的科学选择提供了依据,也为地震区的滑坡防灾减灾工作提供了参考.  相似文献
10.
During the geological survey of the metamorphic rocks in Xingning-Wuhua region on the western side of Wuyi Mountain, South China, we discovered the Neoproterozoic rhyolite and rhyolitic greywacke for the first time that outcrop in the Proterozoic metamorphic rocks near Jingnan Town of Xingning County, eastern Guangdong Province. A systematic research on petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of rhyolitic rocks was conducted to understand their tectonic setting and formation age. The Jingnan rhyolite is interbedded with a coeval greywacke, with a total thickness of 60 m; both rhyolite and greywacke display a similar folding and metamorphic pattern. Meta-rhyolite consists of groundmass and phenocrystals including sanidine, orthoclase, and quartz with distinct undulose extinction; the groundmass has been recrystallized into fine-grain feldspar, quartz and sericite aggregation. Meta-greywacke is composed of crystallinoclastic grains (sanidine, orthoclase, quartz and oligoclase) and clay groundmass. Zircon grains used for the SHRIMP U-Pb analysis are light brown-colored and euhedral or subeuhedral. Dating data suggest two age groups; eight grains of magmatype zircon with an idiomorphic form yield an age of 972±8 Ma, and the other seven weakly corroded grains of zircon with euhedral to subeuhedral shape construct an average age of 1097±11 Ma, which were captured from older rocks by an uplifting magma, implying that a late Mesoproterozoic basement exists in the Nanling region. In addition, one Paleoproterozoic age, 2035±11 Ma, is obtained from a rounded detrital zircon, indicating that a Paleoproterozoic thermal event took place in the South China. Geochemically, the Jingnan rhyolitic rocks are characterized by high K2O content, intermediate Al2O3 content, with the ACNK value 0.98―1.11, and belonging to high-K alkaline series. They are rich in ΣREE, Rb, Th and Ce, depleted in Ba, Sr, Eu, Ti, P and Nb-Ta, and with moderate negative Eu and Sr anomalies. These features indicate that the Jingnan volcanic rocks have an affinity of continental arc that is similar to those of acid volcanic rocks in the SE-China Coastal Region, in other words, a Neoproterozoic tectonomagma event might have taken place in the western Wuyi region, leading to an eruption of high-K calc-alkaline granitic magma.  相似文献
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