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1.
Sinker Butte is the erosional remnant of a very large basaltic tuff cone of middle Pleistocene age located at the southern edge of the western Snake River Plain. Phreatomagmatic tephras are exposed in complete sections up to 100 m thick in the walls of the Snake River Canyon, creating an unusual opportunity to study the deposits produced by this volcano through its entire sequence of explosive eruptions. The main objectives of the study were to determine the overall evolution of the Sinker Butte volcano while focusing particularly on the tephras produced by its phreatomagmatic eruptions. Toward this end, twenty-three detailed stratigraphic sections ranging from 20 to 100 m thick were examined and measured in canyon walls exposing tephras deposited around 180° of the circumference of the volcano.Three main rock units are recognized in canyon walls at Sinker Butte: a lower sequence composed of numerous thin basaltic lava flows, an intermediate sequence of phreatomagmatic tephras, and a capping sequence of welded basaltic spatter and more lava flows. We subdivide the phreatomagmatic deposits into two main parts, a series of reworked, mostly subaqueously deposited tephras and a more voluminous sequence of overlying subaerial surge and fall deposits. Most of the reworked deposits are gray in color and exhibit features such as channel scour and fill, planar-stratification, high and low angle cross-stratification, trough cross-stratification, and Bouma-turbidite sequences consistent with their being deposited in shallow standing water or in braided streams. The overlying subaerial deposits are commonly brown or orange in color due to palagonitization. They display a wide variety of bedding types and sedimentary structures consistent with deposition by base surges, wet to dry pyroclastic fall events, and water saturated debris flows.Proximal sections through the subaerial tephras exhibit large regressive cross-strata, planar bedding, and bomb sags suggesting deposition by wet base surges and tephra fallout. Medial and distal deposits consist of a thick sequence of well-bedded tephras; however, the cross-stratified base-surge deposits are thinner and interbedded within the fallout deposits. The average wavelength and amplitude of the cross strata continue to decrease with distance from the vent. These bedded surge and fall deposits grade upward into dominantly fall deposits containing 75–95% juvenile vesiculated clasts and localized layers of welded spatter, indicating a greatly reduced water-melt ratio. Overlying these “dryer” deposits are massive tuff breccias that were probably deposited as water saturated debris flows (lahars). The first appearance of rounded river gravels in these massive tuff breccias indicates downward coring of the diatreme and entrainment of country rock from lower in the stratigraphic section. The “wetter” nature of these deposits suggests a renewed source of external water. The massive deposits grade upward into wet fallout tephras and the phreatomagmatic sequence ends with a dry scoria fall deposit overlain by welded spatter and lava flows.Field observations and two new 40Ar–39Ar incremental heating dates suggest the succession of lavas and tephra deposits exposed in this part of the Snake River canyon may all have been erupted from a closely related complex of vents at Sinker Butte. We propose that initial eruptions of lava flows built a small shield edifice that dammed or disrupted the flow of the ancestral Snake River. The shift from effusive to explosive eruptions occurred when the surface water or rising ground water gained access to the vent. As the river cut a new channel around the lava dam, water levels dropped and the volcano returned to an effusive style of eruption.  相似文献
2.
Following its plinian eruption on 18 May 1980, Mount St Helens (Washington State, USA) entered a period of intermittent lava-dome extrusion until 1986. Renewed extrusion was frequently preceded by accelerating rates of seismicity, with more precursory seismicity observed prior to eruptions later in the sequence. Here the failure forecasting method (FFM) is used to investigate changes in the observed rate of volcano–tectonic (VT) seismicity. The analysis indicates that: (1) all VT crises resulted in an eruption within 3 weeks (usually less than 10 days), (2) the majority of eruptions had VT precursors, and (3) patterns of precursory seismicity showed fluctuations about the ideal model trend. Thus, although these seismic events could be used to warn of an impending eruption, specific forecasts were subject to an uncertainty of weeks or more. It is proposed that: (1) increased seismicity prior to later eruptions is a result of a larger and more solidified dome acting as a greater impediment to magma ascent; (2) the consistency of seismic swarms resulting in an eruption indicates that stresses high enough to initiate fracturing in the country rock and lava dome carapace were only achieved once the approach to an eruption had already begun; and (3) discrepancies between models of accelerating rock fracture and the observed seismicity may arise due to a significant amount of the rocks deforming through ductile mechanisms rather than seismogenic fracture.  相似文献
3.
The ca. 8800 14C yrs BP Sulphur Creek lava flowed eastward 12 km from the Schriebers Meadow cinder cone into the Baker River valley, on the southeast flank of Mount Baker volcano. The compositionally-zoned basaltic to basaltic andesite lava entered, crossed and partially filled the 2-km-wide and > 100-m-deep early Holocene remnant of Glacial Lake Baker. The valley is now submerged beneath a reservoir, but seasonal drawdown permits study of the distal entrant lava. As a lava volume that may have been as much as 180 × 106 m3 entered the lake, the flow invaded the lacustrine sequence and extended to the opposite (east) side of the drowned Baker River valley. The volume and mobility of the lava can be attributed to a high flux rate, a prolonged eruption, or both. Basalt exposed below the former level of the remnant glacial lake is glassy or microcrystalline and sparsely vesicular, with pervasive hackly or blocky fractures. Together with pseudopillow fractures, these features reflect fracturing normal to penetrative thermal fronts and quenching by water. A fine-grained hyaloclastite facies was probably formed during quench fragmentation or isolated magma-water explosions. Although the structures closely resemble those developed in lava-ice contact environments, establishing the depositional environment for lava exhibiting similar intense fracturing should be confirmed by geologic evidence rather than by internal structure alone. The lava also invaded the lacustrine sequence, forming varieties of peperite, including sills that are conformable within the invaded strata and resemble volcaniclastic breccias. The peperite is generally fragmental and clast- or matrix-supported; fine-grained and rounded fluidal margins occur locally. The lava formed a thickened subaqueous plug that, as the lake drained in the mid-Holocene, was exposed to erosion. The Baker River then cut a 52-m-deep gorge through the shattered, highly erodible basalt.  相似文献
4.
A series of experiments was conducted to test concepts of porous flow degassing of rhyolitic magma during ascent and of the subsequent collapse of vesicles in degassed magma to form obsidian. Dense, synthetically hydrated, natural glasses were pressurized under water-saturated conditions and then decompressed to achieve a range of porosities in the presence of a tracer vapor, D2O. Rapid isotopic exchange indicative of vapor transport rather than of simple diffusion occurred at a porosity >60 vol.%, in accord with earlier gas permeability measurements on cold natural samples. In another series of experiments, natural and synthetic pumices, vesiculated by degassing to atmospheric pressure, rapidly collapsed to dense glass on repressurization to the modest pressures prevailing in lava flows. No relict bubble textures remained. These results support the hypothesis that effusive eruptions result from the syneruptive escape of gas from permeable magmatic foam, and that a process analogous to welding yields dense lavas when such foams are extruded.  相似文献
5.
 The Badlands rhyolite, on the Owyhee Plateau of southwestern Idaho, can be demonstrated to be a large lava flow on the basis of its geometry of large and small flow lobes, its well-exposed near-vent features, and its response to pre-existing topography. However, samples of the dense upper vitrophyre of the unit reveal a range of annealed fragmental textures, including material which closely resembles the compressed, welded glass shards which are characteristic of ignimbrites. Formation of these tuff-like textures involved processes probably common to emplacement of most silicic lava flow units. Decompression upon extrusion causes inflation of pumice at the surface of the lava flow; some of this pumice is subsequently comminuted, producing loose bubble-wall shards, bits of pumice, chips of dense glass, and fragments of phenocrysts. This debris sifts down around loose blocks and into open fractures deeper in the flow, where it can be reheated, compressed, and annealed to varying degrees. The end result is a dense vitrophyre layer (beneath the true upper, non-welded carapace breccia) which can be extremely texturally heterogeneous, with areas of flow-foliated lava occurring very near lava which in many aspects looks like welded ignimbrite, complete with flattened pumices. Identical textures in other silicic units have been cited by previous workers as evidence that those units erupted as pyroclastic flows which then underwent sufficient rheomorphism to create a flow-foliated rock which otherwise appears to be lava. The textures described herein indicate that lava flows can come to mimic rheomorphic ignimbrites, at least at scales ranging from thin sections to outcrops. Voluminous silicic units with scattered fragmental textures, but with otherwise lava-like features, are probably true effusive lava flows. Received: January 30, 1995 / Accepted: January 22, 1996  相似文献
6.
 The 3.9- to 2.9-Ma Waianae Volcano is the older of two volcanoes making up the island of Oahu, Hawaii. Exposed on the volcanic edifice are tholeiitic shield lavas overlain by transitional and alkalic postshield lavas. The postshield "alkalic cap" consists of aphyric hawaiite of the Palehua Member of the Waianae Volcanics, overlain unconformably by a small volume of alkalic basalt of the Kolekole Volcanics. Kolekole Volcanics mantle erosional topography, including the uppermost slopes of the great Lualualei Valley on the lee side of the Waianae Range. Twenty new K–Ar dates, combined with magnetic polarity data and geologic relationships, constrain the ages of lavas of the Palehua member to 3.06–2.98 Ma and lavas of the Kolekole Volcanics to 2.97–2.90 Ma. The geochemical data and the nearly contemporaneous ages suggest that the Kolekole Volcanics do not represent a completely independent or separate volcanic event from earlier postshield activity; thus, the Kolekole Volcanics are reduced in rank, becoming the Kolekole Member of the Waianae Volcanics. Magmas of the Palehua and Kolekole Members have similar incompatible element ratios, and both suites show evidence for early crystallization of clinopyroxene consistent with evolution at high pressures below the edifice. However, lavas of the Kolekole Member are less fractionated and appear to have evolved at greater depths than the earlier Palehua hawaiites. Postshield primary magma compositions of the Palehua and Kolekole Members are consistent with formation by partial melting of mantle material of less than 5–10% relative to Waianae shield lavas. Within the section of Palehua Member lavas, an increase with respect to time of highly incompatible to moderately incompatible element ratios is consistent with a further decrease in partial melting by approximately 1–2%. This trend is reversed with the onset of eruption of Kolekole Member lavas, where an increase in extent of partial melting is indicated. The relatively short time interval between the eruption of Palehua and Kolekole Member lavas appears to date the initial formation of Lualualei Valley, which was accompanied by a marked change in magmatic conditions. We speculate that the mass-wasting event separating lavas of the Palehua and Kolekole Members may be related to the formation of a large submarine landslide west and southwest of Waianae Volcano. Enhanced decompression melting associated with removal of the equivalent volume of this landslide deposit from the edifice is more than sufficient to produce the modeled increase of 1–2% in extent of melting between the youngest Palehua magmas and the posterosional magmas of the Kolekole Member. The association between magmatic change and a giant landsliding event suggests that there may be a general relationship between large mass-wasting events and subsequent magmatism in Hawaiian volcano evolution. Received: 1 September 1996 / Accepted: 26 November 1996  相似文献
7.
Between 1971 and 2001, the Southeast Crater was the most productive of the four summit craters of Mount Etna, with activity that can be compared, on a global scale, to the opening phases of the Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō-Kūpaianaha eruption of Kīlauea volcano, Hawai‘i. The period of highest eruptive rate was between 1996 and 2001, when near-continuous activity occurred in five phases. These were characterized by a wide range of eruptive styles and intensities from quiet, non-explosive lava emission to brief, violent lava-fountaining episodes. Much of the cone growth occurred during these fountaining episodes, totaling 105 events. Many showed complex dynamics such as different eruptive styles at multiple vents, and resulted in the growth of minor edifices on the flanks of the Southeast Crater cone. Small pyroclastic flows were produced during some of the eruptive episodes, when oblique tephra jets showered the steep flanks of the cone with hot bombs and scoriae. Fluctuations in the eruptive style and eruption rates were controlled by a complex interplay between changes in the conduit geometry (including the growth of a shallow magma reservoir under the Southeast Crater), magma supply rates, and flank instability. During this period, volume calculations were made with the aid of GIS and image analysis of video footage obtained by a monitoring telecamera. Between 1996 and 2001, the bulk volume of the cone increased by ~36×106 m3, giving a total (1971–2001) volume of ~72×106 m3. At the same time, the cone gained ~105 m in height, reaching an elevation of about 3,300 m. The total DRE volume of the 1996–2001 products was ~90×106m3. This mostly comprised lava flows (72×106 m3) erupted at the summit and onto the flanks of the cone. These values indicate that the productivity of the Southeast Crater increased fourfold during 1996–2001 with respect to the previous 25 years, coinciding with a general increase in the eruptive output rates and eruption intensity at Etna. This phase of intense summit activity has been followed, since the summer of 2001, by a period of increased structural instability of the volcano, marked by a series of important flank eruptions.  相似文献
8.
Cooling lava commonly develop polygonal joints that form equant hexagonal columns. Such fractures are formed by thermal contraction resulting in an isotropic tensional stress regime. However, certain linear cooling fracture patterns observed at some lava–ice contacts do not appear to fit the model for formation of cooling fractures and columns because of their preferred orientations. These fracture types include sheet-like (ladder-like rectangular fracture pattern), intermediate (pseudo-aligned individual column-bounding fractures), and pseudopillow (straight to arcuate fractures with perpendicular secondary fractures caused by water infiltration) fractures that form the edges of multiple columns along a single linear fracture. Despite the relatively common occurrence of these types of fractures at lava–ice contacts, their significance and mode of formation have not been fully explored. This study investigates the stress regimes responsible for producing these unique fractures and their significance for interpreting cooling histories at lava–ice contacts.Data was collected at Kokostick Butte dacite flow at South Sister, OR, and Mazama Ridge andesite flow at Mount Rainier, WA. Both of these lava flows have been interpreted as being emplaced into contact with ice and linear fracture types have been observed on their ice-contacted margins. Two different mechanisms are proposed for the formation of linear fracture networks. One possible mechanism for the formation of linear fracture patterns is marginal bulging. Melting of confining ice walls will create voids into which flowing lava can deform resulting in margin-parallel tension causing margin-perpendicular fractures. If viewed from the ice-wall, these fractures would be steeply dipping, linear fractures. Another possible mechanism for the formation of linear fracture types is gravitational settling. Pure shear during compression and settling can result in a tensional environment with similar consequences as marginal inflation. In addition to this, horizontally propagating cooling fractures will be directly influenced by viscous strain caused by the settling of the flow. This would cause preferential opening of fractures horizontally, resulting in vertically oriented fractures.It is important to note that the proposed model for the formation of linear fractures is dependent on contact with and confinement by glacial ice. The influence of flow or movement on cooling fracture patterns has not been extensively discussed in previous modeling of cooling fractures. Rapid cooling of lava by the interaction with water and ice will increase the ability to the capture and preserve perturbations in the stress regime.  相似文献
9.
An eruption along a 2.5 km-long rhyolitic dyke at Krafla volcano, northern Iceland during the last glacial period formed a ridge of obsidian (Hrafntinnuhryggur). The ridge rises up to 80 m above the surrounding land and is composed of a number of small-volume lava bodies with minor fragmental material. The total volume is < 0.05 km3. The lava bodies are flow- or dome-like in morphology and many display columnar-jointed sides typical of magma–ice interaction, quench-fragmented lower margins indicative of interaction with meltwater and pumiceous upper surfaces typical of subaerial obsidian flows. The fragmental material compromises poorly-sorted perlitic quench hyaloclastites and poorly-exposed pumiceous tuffs. Lava bodies on the western ridge flanks are columnar jointed and extensively hydrothermally altered. At the southern end of the ridge the feeder dyke is exposed at an elevation  95 m beneath the ridge crest and flares upwards into a lava body.Using the distribution of lithofacies, we interpret that the eruption melted through ice only 35–55 m thick, which is likely to have been dominated by firn. Hrafntinnuhryggur is therefore the first documented example of a rhyolitic fissure eruption beneath thin ice/firn. The eruption breached the ice, leading to subaerial but ice/firn-contact lava effusion, and only minor explosive activity occurred. The ridge appears to have been well-drained during the eruption, aided by the high permeability of the thin ice/firn, which appears not to have greatly affected the eruption mechanisms. We estimate that the eruption lasted between 2 and 20 months and would not have generated a significant jökulhlaup (< 70 m3 s− 1).  相似文献
10.
Glaciovolcanic deposits are critical for documenting the presence and thickness of terrestrial ice-sheets, and for testing hypotheses about inferred terrestrial ice volumes based on the marine record. Deposits formed by the coincidence of volcanism and ice at the Mount Edziza volcanic complex (MEVC) in northern British Columbia, Canada, preserve an important record for documenting local and possibly regional ice dynamics. Pillow Ridge, located at the northwestern end of the MEVC, formed by ice-confined, fissure-fed eruptions. It comprises predominantly pillow lavas and volcanic breccias of alkaline basalt composition, with subordinate finer-grained volcaniclastic deposits and dykes. The ridge is presently  4 km long,  1000 m in maximum width, and  600 m high. Fifteen syn- and post-eruptive lithofacies are recognized in excellent exposures along the glacially dissected western side of the ridge. We recognize five lithofacies associations: (1) poorly sorted tuff breccia and dykes, (2) proximal pillow lava, dykes and tuff breccia, (3) distal pillow lava, poorly sorted conglomerate and well-sorted volcanic sandstone, (4) interbedded tuff, lapilli tuff, and tuff breccia units, and (5) heterolithic volcanogenic conglomerate and sandstone. Given the abundance of pillow lavas and the lack of surrounding topographic barriers capable of impounding water, we agree with Souther [Souther, J.G., 1992. The late Cenozoic Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Geol. Soc. Can. Mem., vol. 420. 320 pp] that the bulk of the edifice formed while confined by ice, but have found evidence for a more complex and variable eruption history than that which he proposed. Preliminary estimates of water-ice depths derived from FTIR analyses of H2O give ranges of 300 to 680 m assuming 0 ppm CO2, and 857 to 1297 m assuming 25 ppm CO2. Variations in depth estimates among samples may indicate that water/ice depths changed during the evolution of the ridge, which is consistent with our interpretations for the origins of different lithofacies associations. Given that the age of the units are likely to be ca. 0.9 Ma [Souther, J.G., 1992. The late Cenozoic Mount Edziza volcanic complex. Geol. Soc. Can. Mem., vol. 420. 320 pp], Pillow Ridge may be the best documentation of a regional high stand of the Cordilleran Ice Sheet (CIS) in the middle Pleistocene, and an excellent example of the lithofacies and stratigraphic complexities produced by variations in water levels during a prolonged glaciovolcanic eruption.  相似文献
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