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1.
吞噬微囊藻的鞭毛虫的培养   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0       下载免费PDF全文
从一个有水华发生的池塘里采集分离到一种能吞噬微囊藻的动基体目鞭毛虫(Kinetoplastida),存光学显微镜及激光共聚焦显微镜下观察了该鞭毛虫的形态特征,初步探讨了它的培养方法.该鞭毛虫以集胞藻、微囊藻、鱼腥藻、小球藻以及蛋黄、奶粉、大肠杆菌和酵母为食物进行培养,结果集胞藻、微囊藻、奶粉、蛋黄、及酵母都是该鞭毛虫很好的食物.该鞭毛虫易于培养,繁殖迅速,培养成本低廉,有应用于生态环境中控制微囊藻水华的可能.  相似文献   
2.
In a survey in Greece from 1987 to 2000 hepatotoxic cyanobacterial blooms were observed in 9 out of 33 freshwaters. Microcystins (MCYSTs) were detected by HPLC in 7 of these lakes, and the total MCYST concentration per scum dry weight ranged from 50.3 to 1638 ± 464 μg g—1. Cyanobacterial genera (Microcystis, Anabaena, Anabaenopsis, Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis) with known toxin producing taxa were present in 31 freshwaters. From our data and a review of the literature, it would appear that Mediterranean countries are more likely 1) to have toxic cyanobacterial blooms consisting of Microcystis spp. and 2) to have higher intracellular MCYST concentrations. A case study in Lake Kastoria is used to highlight seasonal patterns of cyanobacterial and MCYST‐LR occurrence and to assess cyanotoxin risk. Cyanobacterial biovolume was high (> 11 μL L—1) throughout the year and was in excess of Guidance Level 2 (10 μL L—1) proposed by WHO for recreational waters and Alert Level 2 for drinking water. Further, surface water samples from April to November exceeded Guidance Level 3, with the potential for acute cyanobacterial poisoning. Intracellular MCYST‐LR concentrations (max 3186 μg L—1) exceeded the WHO guideline for drinking water (1 μg L—1) from September to November with a high risk of adverse health effects. Preliminary evidence indicates that in 3 lakes microcystins are accumulated in some aquatic organisms. Generally, a high risk level can be deduced from the data for the Mediterranean region.  相似文献   
3.
Isolates of Microcystis blooms collected from Dianchi Lake of South-western China in different seasons were tested by mouse bioassays. The LD50 of the vcdcrocystis isolates corre-sponding M. wesenbergii, M.viridis and M. aeruginosa were 221 mg · kg -1, 188 mg · kg -1, and 198 mg · kg -1 respectively. The cells of the three samples contained hepatotoxins or microcystins. The HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography) analysis showed that all the three Microcystis species contained microcystin LR. In addition, M. wesenbergii contained microcystin RR, M. viridis contained microcystinYR, M. aeruginosa contained both microcystin RR and YR. The results suggested that in different seasons the toxins which were produced by the dominating Microcystis species were fluctuent with regard to the composition and content of the toxins and consen-quently were obvious factors that aroused the water quality to decrease and change.  相似文献   
4.
Laboratory experiments on the New Zealand freshwater mussel Echyridella menziesii were used to investigate the short-term effects (7–8 days) of food type on rates of biodeposition and benthic substrate respiration. Post-feeding biodeposition rates ranged from 0.34 to 1.52?mg?g?1?h?1 (mean?=?0.50?mg g?1?h?1) and were unaffected by the addition of toxin-producing Microcystis. Addition of suspended sediment (30?mg?L?1) visibly altered substrate composition, and increased total and inorganic biodeposit production rates by 24–33% compared to mussels fed commercial phytoplankton stock. Biodeposition rates of mussels in lake bed substrates were 38% higher than those in silica sand for identical feeding regimes, suggesting that a significant proportion of material produced in this experiment could have been derived from feeding on organic matter in the lake bed sediments. Respiration rates were higher in treatments with Microcystis but were unaffected by the presence of mussels. This laboratory study suggests that biodeposition by E. menziesii is resilient to short-term exposure to Microcystis, and highlights the ability of mussels to alter benthic substrate composition by incorporating suspended sediment into substrates.  相似文献   
5.
万能  汤俊  李林  郑凌凌  宋立荣 《湖泊科学》2009,21(6):806-812
滇池北部福保湾主要承接上游昆明市的生活污水及周边工业污水,其污染程度极为严重.本研究在福保湖湾内设置4个采样点,分别采集了不同区域的沉积物,首次模拟研究了微囊藻(Microcystis)在不同沉积物环境中复苏能力差异,结果表明微囊藻在模拟实验中的复苏能力表现出对不同底质的不同适应性,入口湖区的沉积物对微囊藻的复苏有极强的抑制作用.藻类复苏后达到的最大生物量(以叶绿素a计)分别为东岸对照区的4.7%,西岸对照区的6.6%及吹填区的11.9%,其中微囊藻生物量也远低于其它各样点,占东岸对照、吹填区及西岸对照的比例分别为5.2%、10.3%和19.4%.以上研究暗示了河口处沉积物不适合微囊藻的复苏.福保湾藻类水华的种源贡献应该主要依靠外源性输入,即湖流场和风向所导致的藻类水平迁移贡献远远大于底泥复苏至水体的垂直迁移.  相似文献   
6.
微囊藻和栅列藻吸收与散射特性的实验研究   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
利用分光光度计,分别检测不同浓度梯度的微囊藻和栅列藻的光束衰减系数、吸收系数等。根据线性加和关系计算出2种藻的散射系数。结果表明,400~650 nm光束衰减系数大致呈下降趋势,之后又逐渐上升.在675 nm附近出现由于浮游植物吸收而形成的峰值,微囊藻、栅列藻的c*(675)分别为(0.075±0.007)m~(-1)、(0.079±0.007)m~(-1)。微囊藻、栅列藻吸收系数、比吸收系数在440、675 nm存在明显的吸收峰值,PAR波段积分平均比吸收系数分别为0.0172、0.0178 m~2/(mgCh1a)。散射系数在440、675 nm一般出现谷值,而在550、700 nm一般为峰值。微囊藻、栅列藻PAR波段积分平均比散射系数分别为0.0686、0.0737 m~2/ (mgCh1a),比散射系数明显大于比吸收系数。另外,栅列藻比散射系数均要大于微囊藻.而其比吸收系数则差异不明显。微囊藻、栅列藻吸收系数与叶绿素a浓度存在非常好的线性关系,显示其不存在色素包裹效应。微囊藻、栅列藻平均Q*.值分别为1.13、1.19.均大于1.包襄因子的分析也证明不存在色素包裹效应。实验条件下得到比吸收系数、比散射系数可以用于计算浮游植物的吸收和散射系数。  相似文献   
7.
Colony morphology is important for Microcystis to sustain a competitive advantage in eutrophic lakes. The mechanism of colony formation in Microcystis is currently unclear. Extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) has been reported to play an important role in cell aggregate formation of some phytoplankton. Microcystis aeruginosa was cultivated under varied abiotic conditions, including different nutrient, light, and temperature conditions, to investigate their effects on EPS production and morphological change. The results show that nutrient concentration and light intensity have great effects on EPS production in M. aeruginosa. There was a considerable increase in EPS production after M. aeruginosa was cultivated in adjusted culture conditions similar to those present in the field (28.9mg C/L, 1.98mg N/L, 0.65mg P/L, light intensity:100 μmol/(m2s)). These results indicate that abiotic factors might be one of the triggers for colony formation in Microcystis.  相似文献   
8.
Rice straw is supposed to be an environment-friendly biomaterial for inhibiting the growth of harmful blooms of the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa. However, its potential mechanism is not well known. To explore this mechanism, the growth, cell viability (esterase activity, membrane potential, and membrane integrity), photosynthesis, and cell size ofM. aeruginosa were determined using flow cytometry and Phyto-PAM after exposure to rice straw extracts (RSE). The results show that doses from 2.0 to 10.0 g/L of RSE efficiently inhibited the alga for 15 days, while the physiologic and morphologic responses of the cyanobacteria were time-dependent. RSE interfered with the cell membrane potential, cell size, and in vivo chlorophyll-a fluorescence on the first day. After 7 days of exposure, RSE was transported into the cytosol, which disrupted enzyme activity and photosynthesis. The cyanobacteria then started to repair its physiology (enzyme activity, photosynthesis) and remained viable, suggesting that rice straw act as an algistatic agent.  相似文献   
9.
Laboratory studies on cyanobacteria‐zooplankton interactions have largely focused on the inadequacy of cyanobacteria as a food source. Some features of cyanobacteria can be regarded as anti‐herbivore defences. Large colonies of Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Microcystis cannot be handled by zooplankton, but do not interfere seriously with the filtering process. Small colonies and filaments, however, may cause severe inhibition of the feeding process by mechanical interference. This reduces zooplankton growth, reproduction, and survival. Copepods, rotifers, and Bosmina are less affected by mechanical disturbance than cladocerans. If ingested, some cyanobacteria may be poorly digested or may not provide essential nutrients. Some cyanobacteria are reported to be toxic to zooplankton. Several strains of Microcystis produce an endotoxin, but the amount of toxin produced differs among strains and with the condition of Microcystis. Zooplankton encountering toxic cells cease feeding. Some evidence of an extra‐cellular herbivore deterrent was found for Anabaena. Thus, cyanobacteria may either be individually protected or may create an environment that is unfavourable for efficient grazers (e.g., Daphnia).  相似文献   
10.
对太原市汾河景区采集到的微囊藻进行分离纯化,得到7株微囊藻藻株,运用ITS、PC-IGS和gyrB基因序列构建系统树来研究其分子多样性.结果表明,太原市汾河景区微囊藻具有一定的分子多样性.采用mcyA基因和ELISA检测两种方法,即全细胞PCR测定微囊藻毒素合成酶基因A(mcyA),对这些藻株的微囊藻毒素进行测定,检测的7株微囊藻中有6株含有mcyA基因,ELISA检测微囊藻细胞干粉产毒量在0.003-0.043mg/g之间,属于产低毒藻种.本文是首次报道太原市汾河景区微囊藻产毒素,也为汾河水环境保护提出了更高的要求.  相似文献   
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