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1.
文章通过钦州湾现场调查资料,分别利用单因子污染指数法和富营养化指数法对湾内水质的污染状况和富营养化水平进行评价,并分析讨论不同的富营养化水平条件下浮游植物叶绿素a的响应。结果显示,钦州湾的污染状况和富营养化程度从湾顶至湾外呈现由重至轻的梯度变化,并出现两个“极端区域”:茅尾海化学需氧量(COD)和营养盐的污染指数劣于三类海水水质标准并重度富营养化;外湾污染指数符合一类海水水质标准并贫营养化。分析表明,茅尾海的重度富营养化是由河流输入、相对封闭的地形以及过度的牡蛎养殖造成,而外湾的贫营养化则主要归因于较少的水产养殖和陆源污水排放以及大量的浮游植物对磷酸盐的消耗。叶绿素a在这两个区域均呈现低值,茅尾海内主要是由于贝类滤食大粒径浮游植物和真光层深度下降引起,而外湾则是氮磷比(N/P)失衡,浮游植物生长受磷限制导致。另外,核电站温排水有可能是导致叶绿素a较高的原因。减少茅尾海内的养殖规模,种植红树林,集中污水于外湾排放,加强温排水口的水质监控是保证钦州湾海洋生态环境可持续发展的手段。  相似文献   
2.
旅游业为海岛带来可观经济效益的同时, 人类活动也导致水体生态环境恶化, 如水体富营养化加剧、赤潮频发等。文章通过对珠江口东南部典型海岛——庙湾岛和外伶仃岛周边水域丰水期和枯水期现场环境数据与浮游植物分布特征的对比研究, 分析珠江径流等自然因素以及人类活动对河口天然海岛周边水体生态的潜在影响。枯水期外伶仃岛和庙湾岛周边水域海水分别镜检鉴定出76种和74种浮游植物, 两个海岛浮游植物平均细胞密度分别为2.62×104个·L-1和2.08×104个·L-1; 丰水期则分别鉴定出38种和47种浮游植物, 平均细胞密度分别为52.91×104个·L-1和170.57× 104个·L-1。在外伶仃岛和庙湾岛, 丰水期中肋骨条藻(Skeletonema coatatum)均为绝对优势种, 而枯水期两个岛的最主要优势种分别为窄隙角毛藻(Chaetoceros affinis)和新月筒柱藻(Cylindrotheca closterium), 物种多样性指数均明显高于丰水期。两个海岛微型浮游植物相对于其他两个粒级常占据优势地位, 但在丰水期, 小型浮游植物贡献明显上升, 其中外伶仃岛相对于枯水期由16.32%升至26.75%, 庙湾岛则由12.12%升高至24.78%。两个海岛在丰水期和枯水期均仅检出聚球藻(Synechococcus, Syn)和真核微微型藻类(eukaryotic, Euk)两大微微型浮游植物类群, 两者细胞密度分别为~107个·L-1及~108个·L-1量级。与环境因子的对比分析表明, 两个海岛浮游植物的区域分布与季节变化受多种因素影响, 其季节性差异主要受径流影响强度、影响范围以及相应的盐度、营养盐等环境因素的季节变化所调控。丰水期岛屿屏蔽效应对浮游植物丰度的区域分布特征有显著影响, 无论小型浮游植物还是微微型浮游植物均发现存在迎流面出现丰度高值分布的现象, 但对群落结构的分布影响不明显; 在枯水期, 水体环境很可能主要受人类活动与水体垂直混合扰动的综合影响, 总体上浮游植物分布的区域差异较小。  相似文献   
3.
Algal assemblages have been widely used as an ecological indicator of aquatic ecosystem health conditions because of their specific sensitivity to a wide variety of environmental conditions. In turbid rivers, as in other aquatic systems, phytoplankton structure plays an important role in structuring aquatic food webs. Worldwide, phytoplankton is less studied in turbid, large tropical rivers compared to temperate river systems. The present study aimed to describe the phytoplankton diversity and abundance in a turbid tropical river (the Red River, northern part of Vietnam from 20°00 to 25°30 North; from 100°00 to 107°10 East) and to determine the importance of a series of environmental variables in controlling the phytoplankton community composition. Phytoplankton community was composed of 169 phytoplankton taxa from six algal groups including Bacillariophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Euglenophyceae, Dinophyceae and Cyanobacteria. Community composition varied both spatially and with season. Sixteen measurement environmental variables were used as input variables for a three-layer backpropagation neural network that was developed to predict the phytoplankton abundance. Phytoplankton abundance was successfully predicted using the tagsig transfer function and the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm. The network was trained to provide a good overall linear fit to the total data set with a slope (R) and mean square error (MSE) of 0.808 and 0.0107, respectively. The sensitivity analysis and neutral interpretation diagram revealed that total phosphorus (TP), flow discharge, water temperature and P-PO43− were the significant variables. The results showed that the developed ANN model was able to simulate phytoplankton abundance in the Red River. These findings can help for gaining insight into and the relationship between phytoplankton and environmental factors in this complex, turbid, tropical river.  相似文献   
4.
文章根据2016-2017年夏季的调查资料,对2016-2017年夏季舟山近岸海域富营养化状态及浮游植物进行分析。结果表明:2016-2017年夏季舟山近岸海域富营养化程度较高,且由近岸至外海递减;浮游植物群落主要由硅藻和甲藻组成,其密度、多样性指数均由近岸至外海递增;受其他因素影响,富营养化程度与浮游植物多样性关系的规律性不显著。  相似文献   
5.
浮游生物主要由浮游植物和浮游动物组成,是湖泊生态系统的重要组分. 嵌套性结构及物种间的互作关系对群落的分布格局、功能乃至稳定性都具有重要意义,然而到目前为止,我们对此仍知之甚少. 为此,本研究以东太湖为研究区域,在2019—2020年期间进行了春、夏、秋、冬季的观测调查,根据浮游生物群落的组成和多样性特征,结合群落分布矩阵和二分网模型研究浮游生物的嵌套性格局及其互作关系,并探讨其驱动机制. 结果显示:(1)在时间上,春、秋、冬季水体的理化特征较为相似,但与夏季的水质差异显著. 在空间上,西南部区域的综合污染指数显著高于东北部;(2)环境异质性使得浮游植物呈现出明显的嵌套性分布,即秋、冬季群落是春、夏季群落的子集. 然而,浮游动物并未呈现该分布特征;(3)浮游生物的互作关系具有明显的季节特征:冬季的互作网络组成最简单,物种竞争最激烈,物种的特异性关系、物种脆弱性和一般性最小,说明浮游生物群落的稳定性在冬季最弱. 综上所述,水环境的时空差异性造成的生态位分离可能是造成浮游生物嵌套性及其互作网络季节性变化的主要机制.  相似文献   
6.
城市湖泊富营养化问题日趋严峻,以往对水华的研究多集中于大型自然淡水湖库,而对小型城市浅水湖泊的水华动态相对较少.以宁波月湖为研究对象,探讨水华暴发期间浮游植物变化特征及与影响因子之间的关系,以期判别影响城市湖泊水华的主控因子.月湖水华期间营养盐水平处于中富营养至极端富营养之间,此次共检出浮游植物8门61属,藻种组成以绿藻门(51.79%)和硅藻门(21.43%)为主,各点位浮游植物生长主要受水温、光照驱动,经历了隐藻门→硅藻门→绿藻门→蓝藻门的演替.水华种为雷氏衣藻(Chlamydomonas reinhardtii),总藻密度最高达到1.55×108 cells/L,水华暴发后各点位衣藻属比例升高(最高达到81.10%),群落结构呈现单一化特征.通过Pearson相关性分析和RDA分析发现衣藻属生长与水温、pH、总磷浓度均呈显著正相关,春季气温回升、天气持续晴好,城市浅水湖泊高营养盐负荷、水体流动性差等特点为带鞭毛的衣藻属提供了适宜的生存条件,在环境条件均适宜的情况下拥有最大生长潜力的衣藻属在营养盐、光照等竞争中生长速率明显优于其他藻种,从而发生绿藻水华.  相似文献   
7.
To test the hypothesis of longitudinal variations in phytoplankton compositions from a eutrophic lake to its river downstream and determine the length of the transition zone, we applied functional groups as well as taxonomical methods to this coupled aquatic system, which is composed of the Dianchi Lake upstream and the Tanglang River downstream, by sampling at 9 stations during Microcystis blooms in the Dianchi Lake in 2013. The longitudinal variations in phytoplankton compositions from lacustrine species to fluvial species were reflected by: (1) the shift from Microcystis to Chlorococcales green algae and centric diatoms; (2) the shift from the dominance of codon M to the coexistence of a variety of coda without one outstanding codon; and (3) except for codon M, the shift from lacustrine coda (H1, LO, T) towards coda that are adapted to both lacustrine and fluvial circumstances (MP, X1, X2). The prominent difference of phytoplankton compositions between the Dianchi Lake and the lower reaches of the Tanglang River revealed that there was a transition zone in between. The upper and middle reaches of the Tanglang River with a length of approximately 26.4 km were considered the transition zone because: (1) the dominant lentic codon M in the Dianchi Lake disappeared at the lower reaches of the river; (2) the amount of codon P that is sensitive to stratification rose at the beginning of the river; and (3) the codon T, which is well adapted to the persistently mixed layer or epilimnia of lakes, lost a large number of biomass at the upper and middle reaches of the Tanglang River. In this study, we found that the eutrophic lake had a significant influence on the river downstream. In addition, we found that functional groups were sensitive to the changes of external aquatic conditions and helpful in determining the length of the transition zone.  相似文献   
8.
浮游植物水华作为近海重要的生物过程,其动态变化对生态系统内的能童传递、生产力水平和各生源要素的循环等均有重要影响.随着气候变化对生态系统影响研究的深入,浮游植物水华生物气候学研究已成为当前生物海洋学研究的热点.综述了浮游植物水华的研究历史、研究方法及其发生发展的动力学机制,重点评述了气候变化对浮游植物水华动态的影响及国...  相似文献   
9.
Phytoplankton composition and biomass across the southern Indian Ocean   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Phytoplankton composition and biomass was investigated across the southern Indian Ocean. Phytoplankton composition was determined from pigment analysis with subsequent calculations of group contributions to total chlorophyll a (Chl a) using CHEMTAX and, in addition, by examination in the microscope. The different plankton communities detected reflected the different water masses along a transect from Cape Town, South Africa, to Broome, Australia. The first station was influenced by the Agulhas Current with a very deep mixed surface layer. Based on pigment analysis this station was dominated by haptophytes, pelagophytes, cyanobacteria, and prasinophytes. Sub-Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean were encountered at the next station, where new nutrients were intruded to the surface layer and the total Chl a concentration reached high concentrations of 1.7 ??g Chl a L−1 with increased proportions of diatoms and dinoflagellates. The third station was also influenced by Southern Ocean waters, but located in a transition area on the boundary to subtropical water. Prochlorophytes appeared in the samples and Chl a was low, i.e., 0.3 ??g L−1 in the surface with prevalence of haptophytes, pelagophytes, and cyanobacteria. The next two stations were located in the subtropical gyre with little mixing and general oligotrophic conditions where prochlorophytes, haptophytes and pelagophytes dominated. The last two stations were located in tropical waters influenced by down-welling of the Leeuwin Current and particularly prochlorophytes dominated at these two stations, but also pelagophytes, haptophytes and cyanobacteria were abundant. Haptophytes Type 6 (sensuZapata et al., 2004), most likely Emiliania huxleyi, and pelagophytes were the dominating eucaryotes in the southern Indian Ocean. Prochlorophytes dominated in the subtrophic and oligotrophic eastern Indian Ocean where Chl a was low, i.e., 0.043-0.086 ??g total Chl a L−1 in the surface, and up to 0.4 ??g Chl a L−1 at deep Chl a maximum. From the pigment analyses it was found that the dinoflagellates of unknown trophy enumerated in the microscope at the oligotrophic stations were possibly heterotrophic or mixotrophic. Presence of zeaxanthin containing heterotrophic bacteria may have increased the abundance of cyanobacteria determined by CHEMTAX.  相似文献   
10.
This study focuses on the comparison of oceanic and coastal cold-core eddies with inner-shelf and East Australian Current (EAC) waters at the time of the spring bloom (October 2008). The surface water was biologically characterised by the phytoplankton biomass, composition, photo-physiology, carbon fixation and by nutrient-enrichment experiments. Marked differences in phytoplankton biomass and composition were observed. Contrasted biomarker composition suggests that biomarkers could be used to track water masses in this area. Divinyl chlorophyll a, a biomarker for tropical Prochlorophytes, was found only in the EAC. Zeaxanthin a biomarker for Cyanophytes, was found only within the oceanic eddy and in the EAC, whereas chlorophyll b (Chlorophytes) was only present in the coastal eddy and at the front between the inner-shelf and EAC waters.This study showed that cold-core eddies can affect phytoplankton, biomass, biodiversity and productivity. Inside the oceanic eddy, greater phytoplankton biomass and a more complex phytoplankton community were observed relative to adjacent water masses (including the EAC). In fact, phytoplankton communities inside the oceanic eddy more closely resembled the community observed in the inner-shelf waters. At a light level close to half-saturation, phytoplankton carbon fixation (gC d−1) in the oceanic eddy was 13-times greater than at the frontal zone between the eddy and the EAC and 3-times greater than in the inner-shelf water. Nutrient-enrichment experiments demonstrated that nitrogen was the major macronutrient limiting phytoplankton growth in water masses associated with the oceanic eddy. Although the effective quantum yield values demonstrate healthy phytoplankton communities, the phytoplankton community bloomed and shifted in response to nitrogen enrichments inside the oceanic eddy and in the frontal zone between this eddy and the EAC. An effect of Si enrichment was only observed at the frontal zone between the eddy and the EAC. No response to nutrient enrichment was observed in the inner-shelf water where ambient NOx, Si and PO4 concentrations were up to 14, 4 and 3-times greater than in the EAC and oceanic eddy. Although results from the nutrient-enrichment experiments suggest that nutrients can affect biomass and the composition of the phytoplankton community, the comparison of all sites sampled showed no direct relationship between phytoplankton biomass, nutrients and the depth of the mixed layer. This is probably due to the different timeframe between the rapidly changing physical and chemical oceanography in the separation zone of the EAC.  相似文献   
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