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A suite of (Mn1-x Fe x )Nb2O6 (x=0, 0.05, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1) columbite samples has been prepared by solid-state reaction from oxides. X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic investigations have been carried out in order to gain different perspectives on how the solid solution adapts at different length scales to cation mixing. X-ray powder diffraction and powder absorption IR spectroscopy data are presented. The powder diffraction data show that there is no significant excess volume of mixing on the Fe–Mn columbite join. All the unit-cell parameters decrease linearly as a function of increasing Fe content. Substitution of Fe2+ for the larger Mn2+ cation causes a decrease in the volume of the A polyhedron, which also becomes more regular with respect to both bond-length and edge-length distortion parameters. No significant variation of the B site has been observed. Wavenumber shifts of the IR peaks nearly all vary linearly with composition, consistent with linear variations of the lattice parameters. Line broadening has been quantified by autocorrelation analysis of the IR spectra. This is interpreted as suggesting that there is some element of local strain or positional disorder at the length scale of second or third nearest neighbours around sites occupied by Fe.  相似文献   
粘滑失稳及其物理场时空分布的实验研究   总被引:9,自引:3,他引:6       下载免费PDF全文
邓志辉  马胜利 《地震地质》1995,17(4):305-310
摩擦滑动的物理场实验研究表明:(1)能量空间分布的差异是失稳的重要条件,单发型大事件常发生于高能量向低能量的突变带或高能量背景区内的相对低能量区;(2)单发型大事件的孕育过程常常经历若干个能量输入输出循环,产生多个前兆阶段,并在失稳前源区常有一个弱化过程。小震或群发型事件失稳前常常只有一个能量积累与强化的过程,失稳前兆阶段性反映较差;(3)粘滑失稳时断层的位错与声发射的大小未见明显关系  相似文献   
The Yunmeng Shan metamorphic core complex (MCC) is composed of the lower plate, the upper plate and the detachment zone. The detachment zone consists of ductile shear zone (mylonite zone), chloritized microbreccias zone and the brittle fault plane. The ductile shear zone contains mylonitic rocks, protomylonites, and mylonites. Finite strain measurements of feldspar porphyroclasts from those rocks using the Rf/φ method show that the strain intensities increase from mylonitic rocks (Es=0.66–0.72) to protomylonites (Es=0.66–0.83), and to mylonites (Es=0.71–1.2). The strain type is close to flatten strain. Kinematic vorticity estimated by Polar Mohr diagrams suggest that foliations and lineation of mylonite (0.47相似文献   
华北地区水平形变场动态变化分析   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
为从整体上把握区域应变场的时-空变化态势并更加真实地描述区域运动场,本文在区域整体无旋转基准的基础上,从连续变化的角度出发,利用多核函数进行滤波与解析,对中国地壳运动观测网络在华北地区最近10年的GPS复测资料(1999年、2001年、2004年、2007年和2009年)进行了处理,结合各时段的形变结果分析形变场的动态变化。结果表明:①位于张—渤断裂带的京津及周围地区是一个与邻近地区运动不相同的差异运动地区,也是一个左旋运动相对亏损的部位,而且持续时间较长;②山西断陷带北段为左旋压性活动,南段为右旋压性活动,与地质上右旋拉张活动不完全吻合;③郯—庐断裂带的活动在空间上为左旋、右旋交替活动,并非完全是右旋活动,就断层的拉张性而言,该带为北压南张;④太原—石家庄—济南—临沂以南的地区是当前形变的突出条带。  相似文献   
A strategy to predict strain across geological structures, based on previous techniques, is modified and evaluated, and a practical application is shown. The technique, which employs cross-section restoration combined with kinematic forward modelling, consists of restoring a section, placing circular strain markers on different domains of the restoration, and forward modelling the restored section with strain markers until the present-day stage is reached. The restoration algorithm employed must be also used to forward model the structure. The ellipses in the forward modelled section allow determining the strain state of the structure and may indirectly predict orientation and distribution of minor structures such as small-scale fractures. The forward model may be frozen at different time steps (different growth stages) allowing prediction of both spatial and temporal variation of strain. The method is evaluated through its application to two stages of a clay experiment, that includes strain markers, and its geometry and deformation history are well documented, providing a strong control on the results. To demonstrate the method's potential, it is successfully applied to a depth-converted seismic profile in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia. This allowed us to gain insight into the deformation undergone by rollover anticlines over listric normal faults.  相似文献   
2003年11月13日岷县Ms5 2级地震前,武都应变、倾斜资料均出现了明显的前兆短临异常变化。应变在震前2个多月出现了加速变化,震前20多天受力状态发生变化;倾斜资料在震前3个多月出现NW方向的加速倾斜变化,震前数天模拟曲线、数字化资料都出现了明显的固体潮汐畸变。  相似文献   
In 1998 we installed five creepmeters across the Chihshang Fault, the active plate suture in eastern Taiwan. Daily creepmeter data indicated decreasing creeping rate from 1999 to 2003, suggesting increasing seismic hazard. The fault was ruptured by the Chengkung earthquake (Mw=6.6) on 10 December 2003. Through extrapolation of our earlier creep data of 1986–1991 and 1992–1997, we evaluate the minimum deficit in aseismic creep shortening as 106 or 46 mm (respectively) before this earthquake. The near-surface co-seismic shortening was limited, but the total shortening resulting from the earthquake, including post-seismic creep, was about 97 mm. This suggests that near the surface most of the detectable deficit has been absorbed by this earthquake and subsequent creep. We thus point out that creepmeter installation and monitoring bring a powerful tool in seismic hazard mitigation. To cite this article: J.-C. Lee et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).  相似文献   

The multiply deformed Upper Austro-Alpine nappe pile of the Graz area is built up of low-grade metamorphosed Paleozoic rocks which are discordantly overlain by sediments of Santonian (Late Cretaceous) age (“Gosau” formation). Slices of Permo-Mesozoic rocks are absent. Analyses of structures, microfabrics, strain and shear directions were used to decipher the kinematic history; geochronological investigations to date the age of thrusting. K/Ar and Rb/Sr ages of synkinematically grown mica suggest an eo-Alpine (Early Cretaceous) age for the major deformation D1. D1 is characterized by non-coaxial rock flow which caused SW- to W directed nappe imbrication. Incremental strain measurements indicate the progressive superposition of D2 over Dl. In the higher nappe (Rannach Nappe) nappe imbrication continued during D2 changing the direction of nappe transport from SW to NW. Enhanced flattening strain in the deeper nappe (Schöckel Nappe) led to recumbent folds in all scales during D2. This study emphasized two interpretations : (1) The Alpine deformation in the Upper Austro-Alpine nappe pile of the Paleozoic of Graz started in the Earliest Cretaceous (about 125 Ma.). (2) The emplacement of nappes followed a curved translation path in the studied area.  相似文献   
马兰黄土的应力-应变本构方程   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
依据马兰黄土的室内CU试验,运用土力学的相关理论,建议性地提出了马兰黄土的应力-应变本构方程。通过对不同围压下的试验结果(应变小于15%)与理论模型的拟合发现,二者吻合较好。另外,与以往的模型相比,本文的模型参数a和b只需通过一次常规三轴试验即可全部求得,具有参数少、容易确定的优点。  相似文献   
本文依据现有的实验结果初步研究脆性材料在破坏孕育过程中发生的强破裂的前兆特征.以应变(形变)突变、破裂弹性波限幅等物理变化特征确定强破裂;研究总结了不同试样、两种加载方式的破坏试验中的多个强破裂的前兆特征变化:一类为包括定点和场的应变变化特征,另一类为包括声发射率(破裂频度)、b值、波谱及微破裂时空分布等的声发射变化.此外,还有突发电磁扰动和应变扰动.然而,所有这些前兆特征变化并非在所有材料试样、所有强破裂之前同时都出现,也不是所有测点、任何方位都能观测到.同时指出,至今未见到对一次破坏实验中的系列强破裂(至少3~5个)前兆特征的系统对比研究,这正显示了这类研究的艰难,深入开展强破裂前兆研究对地震预测可能有重要意义.  相似文献   
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