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1.
Studying seismic wave propagation across rock masses and the induced ground motion is an important topic, which receives considerable attention in design and construction of underground cavern/tunnel constructions and mining activities. The current study investigates wave propagation across a rock mass with one fault and the induced ground motion using a recursive approach. The rocks beside the fault are assumed as viscoelastic media with seismic quality factors, Qp and Qs. Two kinds of interactions between stress waves and a discontinuity and between stress waves and a free surface are analyzed, respectively. As the result of the wave superposition, the mathematical expressions for induced ground vibration are deduced. The proposed approach is then compared with the existing analysis for special cases. Finally, parametric studies are carried out, which includes the influences of fault stiffness, incident angle, and frequency of incident waves on the peak particle velocities of the ground motions.  相似文献   
2.
Sapphirine–quartz granulites from the Cocachacra region of the Arequipa Massif in southern Peru record early Neoproterozoic ultrahigh‐temperature metamorphism. Phase equilibrium modelling and zircon petrochronology are used to quantify timing and pressure–temperature (P–T) conditions of metamorphism. Modelling of three magnetite‐bearing sapphirine–quartz samples indicates peak temperatures of >950°C at ~0.7 GPa and a clockwise P–T evolution. Elevated concentrations of Al in orthopyroxene are also consistent with ultrahigh‐temperature conditions. Neoblastic zircon records ages of c. 1.0–0.9 Ga that are interpreted to record protracted ultrahigh‐temperature metamorphism. Th/U ratios of zircon of up to 100 reflect U‐depleted whole‐rock compositions. Concentrations of heavy rare earth elements in zircon do not show systematic trends with U–Pb age but do correlate with variable whole‐rock compositions. Very large positive Ce anomalies in zircon from two samples probably relate to strongly oxidizing conditions during neoblastic zircon crystallization. Low concentrations of Ti‐in‐zircon (<10 ppm) are interpreted to result from reduced titania activities due to the strongly oxidized nature of the granulites and the sequestration of titanium‐rich minerals away from the reaction volume. Whole‐rock compositions and oxidation state have a strong influence on the trace element composition of metamorphic zircon, which has implications for interpreting the geological significance of ages retrieved from zircon in oxidized metamorphic rocks.  相似文献   
3.
本文回顾了自然和自然贡献情景模型发展的背景、历史和内容,概括总结了自然和自然贡献情景模型的发展进程以及联合国生物多样性与生态系统服务政府间科学—政策平台(IPBES)情景模型的概念框架,讨论了自然和自然贡献情景模型存在的问题和发展方向。为了在全球层面解决现有综合集成模型存在的问题,根据地球表层建模基本定理和生态环境曲面建模基本定理,提出了具有中国原创特点的自然与自然贡献情景模型概念框架。  相似文献   
4.
The vertical deformation rates (VDRs) and horizontal deformation rates (HDRs) of Shanghai VLBI station in China and Kashima and Kashima34 VLBI stations in Japan were re-analysed using the baseline length change rates from Shanghai to 13 global VLBI stations, and from Kashima to 27 stations and from Kashima34 to 12 stations, based on the NASA VLBI global solution glb1123 (Ma, 1999). The velocity vectors of the global VLBI stations were referred to the ITRF97 reference frame, and the Eulerian vectors of different models of plate motion were used for comparative solutions. The VDR of Shanghai station is estimated to be −1.91±0.56 mm/yr, and those of Kashima and Kashima34 stations, −3.72±0.74mm/yr and −8.81±0.84mm/yr, respectively. The difference between the last two was verified by further analysis. Similar estimates were also made for the Kokee, Kauai and MK_VLBA VLBI stations in mid-Pacific.  相似文献   
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景观生态分类与制图浅议   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12  
本文在查阅分析大量文献和前人研究的基础上 ,对目前景观生态分类和景观制图作了详细的对比分析 ,认为景观分类需要结合实际区域现状 ,采用逐级分类的方法 ;同时利用 ETM遥感影像为数据源 ,以天山北麓为示范区.研制其土地利用土地覆盖变化的景观类型图。  相似文献   
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8.
平衡剖面的制作流程及其地质意义   总被引:9,自引:0,他引:9  
平衡剖面技术是地质思维和计算机技术的结晶,使对断层构造的研究提高到定量阶段,其依据是在垂直构造走向的剖面上,地层长度和面积(2D)或体积(3D)是均衡的。在此原理基础上利用数学手段对盆地的构造发育史进行正演和反演模拟,直观地再现地下构造的原始几何形态,迅速提供地震剖面的构造解释方案,并对解释结果进行检验(不平衡的剖面其解释一般有问题),为深刻认识构造发育史、分析油气运移及聚集规律提供依据,提高了工作效率。其结果也为盆地模拟、油藏模拟、定量计算构造伸缩量等地质研究打下了坚实的基础[1]。  相似文献   
9.
The kinetics of the reactions of C2H radical with ethane (k1), propane (k2), and n-butane (k3) are studied over the temperature range of T = 96-296 K with a pulsed Laval nozzle apparatus that utilizes a pulsed laser photolysis-chemiluminescence technique. The C2H decay profiles in the presence of both the alkane reactant and O2 are monitored by the CH(A2Δ) chemiluminescence tracer method. The results, together with available literature data, yield the following Arrhenius expressions: k1(T) = (0.51 ± 0.06) × 10−10 exp[(−76 ± 30)K/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-800 K), k2(T) = (0.98 ± 0.32) × 10−10exp[(−71 ± 60)K/T] cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-361 K), and k3(T) = (1.23 ± 0.26) × 10−10 cm3 molecule−1 s−1 (T = 96-297 K). At T = 296 K, k1 is measured as a function of total pressure and has little or no pressure dependence. The results from this work support a direct hydrogen abstraction mechanism for the title reactions. Implications to the atmospheric chemistry of Titan are discussed.  相似文献   
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