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1.
通过对美国地下空间开发利用的考察,认为有如下特点,第一,结合城市建设,构筑地下铁道,第二立足于战略,建立水下通路,第三,地下空间的开发利用平战结合.这些方法对我国的地下空间开发利用值得借鉴.  相似文献   
2.
本文采用较新的统计资料,对济南市地下水资源的开发利用现状及开采潜力,以行政区划为单元进行了分析论证.针对地下水资源开发利用中存在的环境水文地质问题,提出了开发利用规划和建议.  相似文献   
3.
Abstract Large calcite veins and pods in the Proterozoic Corella Formation of the Mount Isa Inlier provide evidence for kilometre-scale fluid transport during amphibolite facies metamorphism. These 10- to 100-m-scale podiform veins and their surrounding alteration zones have similar oxygen and carbon isotopic ratios throughout the 200 × 10-km Mary Kathleen Fold Belt, despite the isotopic heterogeneity of the surrounding wallrocks. The fluids that formed the pods and veins were not in isotopic equilibrium with the immediately adjacent rocks. The pods have δ13Ccalcite values of –2 to –7% and δ18Ocalcite values of 10.5 to 12.5%. Away from the pods, metadolerite wallrocks have δ18Owhole-rock values of 3.5 to 7%. and unaltered banded calc-silicate and marble wallrocks have δ13Ccalcite of –1.6 to –0.6%, and δ18Ocalcite of 18 to 21%. In the alteration zones adjacent to the pods, the δ18O values of both metadolerite and calc-silicate rocks approach those of the pods. Large calcite pods hosted entirely in calc-silicates show little difference in isotopic composition from pods hosted entirely in metadolerite. Thus, 100- to 500-m-scale isotopic exchange with the surrounding metadolerites and calc-silicates does not explain the observation that the δ18O values of the pods are intermediate between these two rock types. Pods hosted in felsic metavolcanics and metasiltstones are also isotopically indistinguishable from those hosted in the dominant metadolerites and calc-silicates. These data suggest the veins are the product of infiltration of isotopically homogeneous fluids that were not derived from within the Corella Formation at the presently exposed crustal level, although some of the spread in the data may be due to a relatively small contribution from devolatilization reactions in the calc-silicates, or thermal fluctuations attending deformation and metamorphism. The overall L-shaped trend of the data on plots of δ13C vs. δ18O is most consistent with mixing of large volumes of externally derived fluids with small volumes of locally derived fluid produced by devolatilization of calc-silicate rocks. Localization of the vein systems in dilatant sites around metadolerite/calc-silicate boundaries indicates a strong structural control on fluid flow, and the stable isotope data suggest fluid migration must have occurred at scales greater than at least 1 km. The ultimate source for the external fluid is uncertain, but is probably fluid released from crystallizing melts derived from the lower crust or upper mantle. Intrusion of magmas below the exposed crustal level would also explain the high geothermal gradient calculated for the regional metamorphism.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract In the Twin Lakes area, central Sierra Nevada, California, most contact metamorphosed marbles contain calcite + dolomite + forsterite ± diopside ± phlogopite ± tremolite, and most calc-silicate hornfelses contain calcite + diopside + wollastonite + quartz ± anorthite ± K-feldspar ± grossular ± titanite. Mineral-fluid equilibria involving calcite + dolomite + tremolite + diopside + forsterite in two marble samples and wollastonite + anorthite + quartz + grossular in three hornfels samples record P± 3 kbar and T± 630° C. Various isobaric univariant assemblages record CO2-H2O fluid compositions of χCO2= 0.61–0.74 in the marbles and χCO2= 0.11 in the hornfelses. Assuming a siliceous dolomitic limestone protolith consisting of dolomite + quartz ° Calcite ± K-feldspar ± muscovite ± rutile, all plausible prograde reaction pathways were deduced for marble and hornfels on isobaric T-XCO2 diagrams in the model system K2O-CaO-MgO-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O-CO2. Progress of the prograde reactions was estimated from measured modes and mass-balance calculations. Time-integrated fluxes of reactive fluid which infiltrated samples were computed for a temperature gradient of 150 °C/km along the fluid flow path, calculated fluid compositions, and estimated reaction progress using the mass-continuity equation. Marbles and hornfelses record values in the range 0.1–3.6 × 104 cm3/cm2 and 4.8–12.9 × 104 cm3/cm2, respectively. For an estimated duration of metamorphism of 105 years, average in situ metamorphic rock permeabilities, calculated from Darcy's Law, are 0.1–8 × 10?6 D in the marbles and 10–27 × 10?6 D in the hornfelses. Reactive metamorphic fluids flowed up-temperature, and were preferentially channellized in hornfelses relative to the marbles. These results appear to give a general characterization of hydrothermal activity during contact metamorphism of small pendants and screens (dimensions ± 1 km or less) associated with emplacement of the Sierra Nevada batholith.  相似文献   
5.
海拉尔盆地乌尔逊凹陷古流体动力场数值模拟   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
首先对地下水动力场进行数学描述,以水动力为主线,建立适合该地区的数学模型,选择正确的地质模型参数,主要采用数值计算和模拟等手段,在恢复出乌尔逊凹陷主要目的层在不同地质历史时期古水动力的基础上又恢复出古流体势的演化历史。整体上,在乌尔逊凹陷,各主要地质时期的油势演化特征为西部地区大于东部地区,乌南大于乌北,且低势区的发育有较好的继承性。最后,依据油气聚集理论,进行油气运移聚集系统的划分、油气运移方向的分析,从而得出有关研究区油气运移聚集条件的认识,主要从流体动力的角度考虑,指出有利聚集区,认为在乌尔逊凹陷苏4~苏18井区、苏132~苏17~铜2井区及巴1~巴2~巴4井区为有利油气运移聚集区。  相似文献   
6.
文章利用激光拉曼光谱和显微测温学方法,对湖北徐家山锑矿床成矿期的石英、重晶石和方解石中的流体包裹体进行了研究。研究表明,这些矿物中的流体包裹体主要有纯液体包裹体和液体包裹体(气相 液相)2类,其液体包裹体的气相成分为H2O±CO2±N2;石英、重晶石和方解石的均一温度分别为134~258℃、154~259℃和145~230℃,主要集中于150~200℃;流体的盐度w(NaCleq)和密度分别集中于3%~6%和0.90~0.96g/cm3。流体包裹体资料揭示出该矿床为典型的中低温热液锑矿床,其成矿流体为中低温、低盐度、中等密度热液。结合H、O、Sr、Pb同位素等研究结果,进一步推断该成矿热液主要是经深部循环演化的大气降水。  相似文献   
7.
新疆阿尔泰蒙库铁矿床的成矿流体及成矿作用   总被引:30,自引:8,他引:22  
蒙库大型铁矿床赋存于上志留统—下泥盆统康布铁堡组变质火山-沉积岩系中,容矿岩石为石榴子石矽卡岩、变粒岩、浅粒岩和大理岩。矿体总体顺层分布,空间上与矽卡岩密切相关。研究表明,矽卡岩期石榴子石以发育玻璃质熔融包裹体、流体熔融包裹体和流体包裹体为特征,晚期矽卡岩阶段矿物中发育液相包裹体,变质期矿物中主要发育液相包裹体和含子矿物包裹体。矽卡岩期熔融包裹体的均一温度为1100℃,早期矽卡岩阶段流体包裹体均一温度变化于193~499℃,在450℃、350℃和230℃出现峰值。中期矽卡岩阶段均一温度变化于236~550℃,峰值为350℃。区域变质期均一温度介于132~513℃,在350℃、230℃和190℃出现峰值。流体包裹体的盐度w(NaCleq)介于1.23%~60.31%,流体密度变化于0.60~1.16g/cm3。石榴子石、石英和方解石的δ18OSMOW变化于0.2‰~8.4‰,δ18OH2O介于-5.1‰~5.33‰,δD为-127‰~-81‰,表明矽卡岩期成矿流体主要是岩浆水,混合少量大气降水;变质期流体主要为大气降水,为混合变质水。方解石δ13CPDB变化于-6.1‰~-2.3‰,表明流体中碳来自深部或地幔。成矿时代为早泥盆世早期(略晚于404~400Ma),成矿作用与矽卡岩的退化变质作用有关。  相似文献   
8.
前河金矿区位于华北地台南缘,赋存在中元古界熊耳群安山岩和英安岩中,矿体受断裂破碎带控制。含矿热液在迁移过程中与围岩发生了广泛的流体-岩石反应而引起热液蚀变。本区石英中有4种类型的流体包裹体,均一温度范围为145~331℃,其中含CO2包裹体的完全均一温度主要分布在中-高温区。成矿流体的密度和压力变化范围分别是0.68~0.94g/cm3和(367.01~896.55)×105Pa。金大量沉淀成矿时的流体特征为:温度213~260℃、密度0.80~0.89g/cm3和压力(502.86~710.57)×105Pa。流体相为SO42->Na >Cl->K 型,CO2/H2O比值及N2、H2S、Ar、C2H6等挥发分的含量明显增高,f(CO2)、f(H2S)、f(CH4)和Eh值增大;f(O2)、f(H2O)和pH值减小。在青磐岩化安山岩的基础上发生的流体-岩石反应是造成本矿床金沉淀成矿的最主要原因。  相似文献   
9.
Investigations were carried out at three underground coal mines in India to study the response of surface structures to underground blasting and the likelihood of damage to the structures. The structures in the vicinity of the underground blasting area were single and multistoried residential houses. The amplitudes of vibration due to underground blasting were monitored simultaneously on the ground surface near the foundation of the structures and on various floors of the structures. The vibrations were also monitored near the important surface installations. It was observed that the magnitude of vibration in structures decreased with the increase in the height of the structures. The frequency of blast vibration from underground blasting was higher than the natural frequency of the structures. Little energy was transmitted into the structures, which caused reduction in the vibration level in the structures. The reduction in the vibration levels was up to 45% in the houses. It indicates that the dominant frequency of blast vibration plays an important role in persistence of vibration and its amplification or reduction characteristics in the structures. This paper deals with the effect of the vibrations on structures/houses standing above the blasting faces in underground workings and their potential to likely damage to the structures at different Indian geo-mining conditions.  相似文献   
10.
人工合成烃类包裹体研究进展   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
陈勇  葛云锦 《地质论评》2008,54(6):807-813
人工合成烃类包裹体不仅可以作为分析仪器校正的标样,还可以增进人们对烃类包裹体形成机制和水—岩作用机理的认识。人工合成包裹体的方法主要有三种:人工晶体生长法、焊封石英管法和金刚石压腔法,其中利用愈合人工石英(水晶)单晶裂隙合成流体包裹体技术已成为标准的合成技术。目前人工合成烃类包裹体主要利用晶体生长法合成,包括高温高压利用石英(或方解石)晶体生长愈合裂缝形成流体包裹体和低温下采用过饱和溶液重结晶形成流体包裹体。由于高温高压条件下烃类可能发生裂解,母液保真是成功实现人工合成烃类包裹体的重要前提条件。国外在人工合成烃类包裹体研究方面已经取得了一些重要的认识,但远不及人工合成无机体系流体包裹体研究那样系统和完善。国内关于人工合成烃类包裹体研究尚处于起步阶段,迫切需要开展这方面的研究工作。  相似文献   
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