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Studied assemblages of diverse organic-walled microfossils separated from the Arymas and Debengda formations of the Olenek Uplift include several paleobiological groups of microorganisms. Sufficiently large morphotypes of the first group are identified with remains of cyanobacteria. Morphotypes of variable spiral structure, which dwelt in association or in symbiosis with cyanobionts, are attributed to the same bacterial community. The other group includes a series of different acritarch genera whose characters suggest their affinity with green algae of the order Desmidiales. It is very likely that this group coexisted on siliciclastic shoals with large ancestral forms of the present-day brown algae. Several microfossil taxa have been known before from the Neoproterozoic deposits only. With due regard for the relatively gradual accumulation of sedimentary succession lacking large hiatuses and for the regular series of K-Ar dates characterizing three Riphean formations of the Olenek Uplift, it is possible to suggest that there was the Arymas-Debengda-Khaipakh cycle of long-lasted, almost uninterrupted sedimentation within the time span of 1250–900 Ma. It is also admissible that age ranges of some Late Precambrian microfossils are much larger than their distribution intervals postulated formerly.  相似文献   
Expounded in this work are the results of critical consideration of published and original data on biologic nature and appearance chronology of different groups of Archean and Lower Proterozoic (3.5–1.65 Ga) paleontological remains known from geological record. Conclusions are substantiated by morphological analysis of structurally preserved microfossils, their facies distribution, and by inferable genesis and principal evolutionary trends of Archean stromatolites. A special attention is paid to variations of organic and carbonate carbon isotope composition in sedimentary successions with paleontological remains and to recent information about discovered, most ancient biomarkers of large groups of organic world. As a result of this approach, a detailed model of Precambrian organic world evolution is suggested.  相似文献   
Deep-sea benthic ecosystems are sustained largely by organic matter settling from the euphotic zone. These fluxes usually have a more or less well-defined seasonal component, often with two peaks, one in spring/early summer, the other later in the year. Long time-series datasets suggest that inter-annual variability in the intensity, timing and composition of flux maxima is normal. The settling material may form a deposit of “phytodetritus” on the deep-seafloor. These deposits, which are most common in temperate and high latitude regions, particularly the North Atlantic, evoke a response by the benthic biota. Much of our knowledge of these responses comes from a few time-series programmes, which suggest that the nature of the response varies in different oceanographic settings. In particular, there are contrasts between seasonal processes in oligotrophic, central oceanic areas and those along eutrophic continental margins. In the former, it is mainly “small organisms” (bacteria and protozoans) that respond to pulsed inputs. Initial responses are biochemical (e.g. secretion of bacterial exoenzymes) and any biomass increases are time lagged. Increased metabolic activity of small organisms probably leads to seasonal fluctuations in sediment community oxygen consumption, reported mainly in the North Pacific. Metazoan meiofauna are generally less responsive than protozoans (foraminifera), although seasonal increases in abundance and body size have been reported. Measurable population responses by macrofauna and megafauna are less common and confined largely to continental margins. In addition, seasonally synchronised reproduction and larval settlement occur in some larger animals, again mainly in continental margin settings. Although seasonal benthic responses to pulsed food inputs are apparently widespread on the ocean floor, they are not ubiquitous. Most deep-sea species are not seasonal breeders and there are probably large areas, particularly at abyssal depths, where biological process rates are fairly uniform over time. As with other aspects of deep-sea ecology, temporal processes cannot be encapsulated by a single paradigm. Further long time-series studies are needed to understand better the nature and extent of seasonality in deep-sea benthic ecosystems. This revised version was published online in August 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献   
2006年10月在黄海冷水团海域的三个站点开展了微型异养鞭毛虫、异养细菌和蓝细菌的密度和生物量调查,进行了微型异养鞭毛虫的现场摄食实验,通过荧光标记细菌法和消化系数法获得该海区微型异养鞭毛虫对异养细菌和蓝细菌的摄食率,并估算了微型异养鞭毛虫对异养细菌和蓝细菌现存量及生产力的摄食压。结果显示,微型异养鞭毛虫、异养细菌和蓝细菌的密度分别为0.36×103~1.13×103,0.39×106~1.13×106和0.04×104~3.74×104cells/cm3,温跃层以上明显高于底层。微型异养鞭毛虫对异养细菌的摄食率为5.33~14.89个/(HF·h),对蓝细菌的摄食率为0.26×102~23.10×10-2cells/(HF·h),摄食率随深度而下降。微型异养鞭毛虫每天能消耗9.27%~33.08%的异养细菌现存量和8.12%~16.09%的蓝细菌现存量。同时,微型异养鞭毛虫对异养细菌和蓝细菌的日摄食量各占它们生产力的2.66%~13.10%和8.12%~16.09%。研究表明微型异养鞭毛虫的摄食可能不是秋季黄海冷水团海域浮游细菌及其生产力的主归宿。  相似文献   
白令海夏季浮游细菌和原生动物生物量及分布特征   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
1999年7月21日至8月1日在我国首次北极科学考察期间,考察了白令海中部的浮游细菌和原生动物,分析了其丰度、分布、生物量及其生态作用,结果显示,浮游细菌表层生物量为1.5~20.2μg/dm3,平均为浮游植物生物量的30%,100m以上水柱柱总生物量(720~3123mg/m2)平均为浮游植物柱总生物量的67%,因而是白令海夏季与浮游植物处同等量级的优势类群;原生动物表层生物量为1.2~27.4μg/dm3,100m以上水柱柱总生物量为189~1698mg/m2,平均为浮游植物柱总生物量的21%,其中粒径小于5,5~20μm和大于20μm的原生动物分别占其柱总生物量的13%,47%和40%;作为主要类群的异养腰鞭毛虫占原生动物柱总生物量的39%.浮游细菌和原生动物生物量的总体分布趋势从西部向东北和东部递减、从表层向深层衰减,20~25m水层温跃层和表层海流的存在对这一分布特性可能有较大的影响.原生动物受潜在的大、中型浮游动物捕食压力的制约,维持了一个相对较低的生物量水平,在一定程度上限制了微食物环(microbial food loop)在该海域夏季生态系统营养中的作用.  相似文献   
从连云港台南盐场采集藻垫,在去除底泥等杂物的藻类层中分离出5株不同的细菌(编号为A,B,c,D和E).经VITEK-32鉴定,A和B可能是鲁氏不动杆菌(Acinetobacter lwoffii)或琼氏不动杆菌(Acinetobacter junii),C为溶血巴斯德菌(Pasteurella haemolytica),D为尿素放线杆菌(Actinobacillus ureae),E未鉴定出结果.在所试验的盐度范围内,细菌A、B和C的最适生长盐度都为25,细菌D的最适生长盐度为50~100,细菌E的最适生长盐度为25~50.细菌A,B,C,D和E细菌胞外多糖产率分别为0.628,0.362,0.177,0.269,0.719 g/g细胞干质量.细菌A,B,C,D和E胞外多糖的糖醛酸质量分数分别为5.4%,9.9%,7.4%,9.8%和23.4%,均不含蛋白质,均无乳化.絮凝及凝胶活性.实验结果显示细菌胞外多糖是构成盐田藻垫胶质的重要组成部分,但从其物化性质看,细菌胞外多糖对藻垫的胶结和黏附性没有直接的影响.  相似文献   
Peptidoglycan (PG) is a biopolymer found exclusively in the cell wall of bacteria. Recent chemical analysis of particulate organic matter suggests that a major amount of the muramic acid, an amino sugar present only in PG, could not be accounted for in terms of bacterial cells (Benner and Kaiser, 2003); however, data on particulate PG is quite sparse. In the present study, conducted in 1996, the PG was examined at 5 sampling sites in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, and in natural seawater cultures. Particulate PG, which was concentrated using a 96-well filtration plate equipped with Durapore filters (pore size, 0.22 μm), was measured by the silkworm larvae plasma (SLP) assay. The PG concentration generally decreased with depth and correlated significantly with bacterial abundance throughout the entire water column. However, the ratio of particulate PG to bacterial abundance varied with depth. The average ratio was 0.61 ± 0.53 (average ± SD, n = 40) between 50 and 2000 m, which agreed with the bacterial cellular PG content from 0.63 to 1.1 fg cell−1 obtained in seawater cultures. On the other hand, the ratios of PG to bacteria from the surface to 50 m (3.7 ± 2.6, n = 29) and below 2,000 m (2.1 ± 1.7, n = 7) were significantly higher than that between 50 and 2,000 m. These results may suggest that, in the surface and deep layers, a significant fraction of particulate PG was present in bacterial detritus, whereas this fraction was reduced in the middle layer.  相似文献   
Sediments from a 3 ha lake (75 °34.34N, 89 °18.55W) from the coastal region of northern Devon Island, Nunavut, Canada, contain discrete laminations in the deepest part of the basin. The laminations are varves as indicated by the correspondence between counts and thickness measurements of the couplets and 210Pb dating. A 14 cm core representing 150 years of sedimentation contained laminated couplets consisting of a lighter inorganic layer with a higher percentage of calcium and magnesium, alternating with fine darker bands, typically more cohesive, and comprising higher proportions of silica and carbon. A reddish oxidation zone with higher iron and aluminum frequently separates the laminations. The dark layer represents a biogenic component deposited in summer and is made cohesive by bacterial filaments among the other particles. The light inorganic layer represents clastic deposition from allochthonous sources. Deposition rates were relatively consistent through the core with an increase in varve thickness in the 1950s. Diatom concentrations in the sediments increased by two orders of magnitude in this century, with major increases in the 1920s and 1950s. The increase in varve thickness and diatom abundance coincides with an increase in summer melt percentage in an ice core from the Devon Island Ice Cap (Koerner, 1977). The relatively high sedimentation rate (0.15 cm yr-1) coupled with the consistency of deposition makes this lake a significant indicator for recent climate changes of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.  相似文献   
The KwaZulu-Natal Bight is a shallow indentation of the eastern seaboard of South Africa, characterised by a narrow (45 km wide) extension of the continental shelf, with a shelf break at about 100 m. It has a complex hydrography: the waters of the bight are derived from the fast-flowing, southward-trending Agulhas Current, which is fed mostly by the tropical and subtropical surface waters of the South-West Indian Ocean subgyre, which are generally oligotrophic in nature, notably depleted in reduced nitrogen and phosphate except at river mouths and during periodic upwelling of deeper nutrient-rich water. Despite this, the bight is believed to be relatively productive, and it is suggested that efficient nutrient recycling by prokaryotes may sustain primary productivity efficiently, even in the absence of new nutrient inputs. Here we have measured bacterial numbers, biomass and heterotrophic productivity during summer and winter in conjunction with phytoplankton standing stock and factors that influence it. Bacterial distribution closely matched phytoplankton distribution in surface waters, and was highest close to the coast. Bacterial standing stocks were similar to those of oligotrophic systems elsewhere (0.5–5.0 × 105 cells ml–1; 1 × 10–8 to 1.25 × 10–7 g C ml–1) and increased in association with the development of phytoplankton blooms offshore and with inputs of allochthonous material by rivers at the coast. Heterotrophic productivity in summer was lowest in the far south and north of the bight (0.5 × 10–10 g C ml–1 h–1) but higher close to the shore, over shallow banks, and in association with increased phytoplankton abundance over the midshelf (1.0–3.5 × 10–9 g C ml–1 h–1). There were marked seasonal differences with lower bacterial standing stocks (5 × 104 to 2 × 105 cells ml–1; 4–5 × 10–9 to 1–2 × 10–8 g C ml–1) and very low bacterial productivity (4 × 10–11 to 1 × 10–10 g C ml–1 h–1) in winter, probably resulting from lowered rates of primary productivity and dissolved organic matter release as well as reduced riverine allochthonous inputs during the winter drought.  相似文献   
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