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1.
Land use effects on climate in China as simulated by a regional climate model   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
A regional climate model (RegCM3) nested within ERA40 re-analyzed data is used to investigate the climate effects of land use change over China. Two 15-year simulations (1987―2001), one with current land use and the other with potential vegetation cover without human intervention, are conducted for a domain encompassing China. The climate impacts of land use change are assessed from the difference between the two simulations. Results show that the current land use (modified by anthropogenic ac- tivities) influences local climate as simulated by the model through the reinforcement of the monsoon circulation in both the winter and summer seasons and through changes of the surface energy budget. In winter, land use change leads to reduced precipitation and decreased surface air temperature south of the Yangtze River, and increased precipitation north of the Yangtze River. Land use change signifi- cantly affects summer climate in southern China, yielding increased precipitation over the region, de- creased temperature along the Yangtze River and increased temperature in the South China area (south-end of China). In summer, a reduction of precipitation over northern China and a temperature rise over Northwest China are also simulated. Both daily maximum and minimum temperatures are affected in the simulations. In general, the current land use in China leads to enhanced mean annual precipitation and decreased annual temperature over south China along with decreased precipitation over North China.  相似文献
2.
Jellyfish blooms in China: Dominant species, causes and consequences   总被引:10,自引:0,他引:10  
Three jellyfish species, Aurelia aurita, Cyanea nozakii and Nemopilema nomurai, form large blooms in Chinese seas. We report on the distribution and increasing incidence of jellyfish blooms and their consequences in Chinese coastal seas and analyze their relationship to anthropogenically derived changes to the environment in order to determine the possible causes. A. aurita, C. nozakii and N. nomurai form blooms in the temperate Chinese seas including the northern East China Sea, Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea. N. nomurai forms offshore blooms while the other two species bloom mainly in inshore areas. Eutrophication, overfishing, habitat modification for aquaculture and climate change are all possible contributory factors facilitating plausible mechanisms for the proliferation of jellyfish blooms. In the absence of improvement in coastal marine ecosystem health, jellyfish blooms could be sustained and may even spread from the locations in which they now occur.  相似文献
3.
吴瑞金 《湖泊科学》1993,5(2):128-135
湖泊沉积物的磁性参数是古气候、古环境的重要代用指标。通过对青海湖QI5孔和岱海DH32孔短岩心的磁化率、频率磁化率的研究,并与地球化学参数等其它资料对比,探讨了以上两个湖区历史时期古气候变化规律;论证了用磁化率、频率磁化率作为古气候、古环境指标的可靠性和敏感性;并对其变化机制进行了初步探讨。  相似文献
4.
The projected changes in carbon exchange between China terrestrial ecosystem and the atmosphere and vegetation and soil carbon storage during the 21st century were investigated using an atmos-phere-vegetation interaction model (AVIM2). The results show that in the coming 100 a, for SRES B2 scenario and constant atmospheric CO2 concentration, the net primary productivity (NPP) of terrestrial ecosystem in China will be decreased slowly, and vegetation and soil carbon storage as well as net ecosystem productivity (NEP) will also be decreased. The carbon sink for China terrestrial ecosystem in the beginning of the 20th century will become totally a carbon source by the year of 2020, while for B2 scenario and changing atmospheric CO2 concentration, NPP for China will increase continuously from 2.94 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 20th century to 3.99 GtC·a?1 by the end of the 21st century, and vegetation and soil carbon storage will increase to 110.3 GtC. NEP in China will keep rising during the first and middle periods of the 21st century, and reach the peak around 2050s, then will decrease gradually and approach to zero by the end of the 21st century.  相似文献
5.
近40年青藏高原湖泊面积变化遥感分析   总被引:9,自引:7,他引:2       下载免费PDF全文
董斯扬  薛娴  尤全刚  彭飞 《湖泊科学》2014,26(4):535-544
以MSS、TM和ETM遥感影像作为主要信息源,综合利用RS、GIS技术,提取青藏高原1970s、1990s、2000s及2010s 4个时段的湖泊面积信息,分别从区域位置、面积规模、海拔高度3方面分析其近40年来的变化趋势及变化特征,同时结合1972-2011年间青藏高原气候变化情况,初步探讨了影响青藏高原湖泊面积变化的主要原因.研究结果表明:(1)青藏高原面积大于10 km2的湖泊有417个,这些湖泊大多是面积为10~100 km2的小型湖泊,空间上集中分布在高原西部地区,海拔上集中在4500~5000 m范围内;(2)近40年青藏高原湖泊面积的变化趋势及差异性特征在整体上表现为湖泊呈加速扩张的趋势,其中2000s-2010s时段是湖泊扩张最显著的时期;在区域位置上,北部地区的湖泊变化最为剧烈;在面积规模上,小型湖泊扩张最为显著;在海拔高度上,低海拔地区湖泊扩张剧烈;(3)近40年青藏高原气候暖湿化程度明显,气候变化对湖泊面积变化影响显著;在气象要素中,降水量的变化是青藏高原湖泊面积变化的主要驱动因子.  相似文献
6.
7.
The Climate impact studies in hydrology often rely on climate change information at fine spatial resolution. However, general circulation models (GCMs), which are among the most advanced tools for estimating future climate change scenarios, operate on a coarse scale. Therefore the output from a GCM has to be downscaled to obtain the information relevant to hydrologic studies. In this paper, a support vector machine (SVM) approach is proposed for statistical downscaling of precipitation at monthly time scale. The effectiveness of this approach is illustrated through its application to meteorological sub-divisions (MSDs) in India. First, climate variables affecting spatio-temporal variation of precipitation at each MSD in India are identified. Following this, the data pertaining to the identified climate variables (predictors) at each MSD are classified using cluster analysis to form two groups, representing wet and dry seasons. For each MSD, SVM- based downscaling model (DM) is developed for season(s) with significant rainfall using principal components extracted from the predictors as input and the contemporaneous precipitation observed at the MSD as an output. The proposed DM is shown to be superior to conventional downscaling using multi-layer back-propagation artificial neural networks. Subsequently, the SVM-based DM is applied to future climate predictions from the second generation Coupled Global Climate Model (CGCM2) to obtain future projections of precipitation for the MSDs. The results are then analyzed to assess the impact of climate change on precipitation over India. It is shown that SVMs provide a promising alternative to conventional artificial neural networks for statistical downscaling, and are suitable for conducting climate impact studies.  相似文献
8.
Impacts of permafrost changes on alpine ecosystem in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
Alpine cold ecosystem with permafrost environment is quite sensitive to climatic changes and the changes in permafrost can significantly affect the alpine ecosystem. The vegetation coverage, grassland biomass and soil nutrient and texture are selected to indicate the regime of alpine cold ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The interactions between alpine ecosystem and permafrost were investigated with the depth of active layer, permafrost thickness and mean annual ground temperature (MAGTs). Based on the statistics model of GPTR for MAGTs and annual air temperatures, an analysis method was developed to analyze the impacts of permafrost changes on the alpine ecosystems. Under the climate change and human engineering activities, the permafrost change and its impacts on alpine ecosystems in the permafrost region between the Kunlun Mountains and the Tanggula Range of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau are studied in this paper. The results showed that the per- mafrost changes have a different influence on different alpine ecosystems. With the increase in the thickness of active layer, the vegetation cover and biomass of the alpine cold meadow exhibit a significant conic reduction, the soil organic matter content of the alpine cold meadow ecosystem shows an exponential decrease, and the surface soil materials become coarse and gravelly. The alpine cold steppe ecosystem, however, seems to have a relatively weak relation to the permafrost environment. Those relationships resulted in the fact that the distribution area of alpine cold meadow decreased by 7.98% and alpine cold swamp decreased by 28.11% under the permafrost environment degradation during recent 15 years. In the future 50 years the alpine cold meadow ecosystems in different geomorphologic units may have different responses to the changes of the permafrost under different climate warming conditions, among them the alpine cold meadow and swamp ecosystem located in the low mountain and plateau area will have a relatively serious degradation. Furthermore, from the angles of grassland coverage and biological production the variation characteristics of high-cold eco- systems in different representative regions and different geomorphologic units under different climatic conditions were quantitatively assessed. In the future, adopting effective measures to protect permafrost is of vital importance to maintaining the stability of permafrost engineering and alpine cold eco- systems in the plateau.  相似文献
9.
Spatial distribution of rainfall trends in Sicily (1921-2000)   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The feared global climate change could have important effects on various environmental variables including rainfall in many countries around the world. Changes in precipitation regime directly affect water resources management, agriculture, hydrology and ecosystems. For this reason it is important to investigate the changes in the spatial and temporal rainfall pattern in order to improve water management strategies.In this study a non-parametric statistical method (Mann-Kendall rank correlation method) is employed in order to verify the existence of trend in annual, seasonal and monthly rainfall and the distribution of the rainfall during the year. This test is applied to about 250 rain gauge stations in Sicily (Italy) after a series of procedures finalized to the estimation of missing records and to the verification of data consistency.In order to understand the regional pattern of precipitation in Sicily, the detected trends are spatially interpolated using spatial analysis techniques in a GIS environment.The results show the existence of a generalized negative trend for the entire region.  相似文献
10.
全球变暖对淡水湖泊浮游植物影响研究进展   总被引:7,自引:4,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
全球变暖对湖泊生态系统的影响已经成为近年来湖沼学领域的研究热点.本文首先列举了目前研究全球变暖对淡水湖泊浮游植物影响的常用方法:监测数据分析、时空转换、遥感信息提取、控制实验、模型预测和古湖沼学技术等.研究结果表明气候变暖导致的气温升高、湖泊热力分层提前破坏以及无冰期提前等因素可导致春季物候提前;在全球变暖大背景下浮游植物群落结构正朝着蓝藻占优的方向发展,但是不同地区以及不同物种对全球变暖的响应不一致.在营养盐充足的湖泊中,由于全球变暖延长了浮游植物生长季节等,从而能提高浮游植物初级生产力;但在贫营养湖泊中,浮游植物初级生产力与变暖趋势甚至可能呈负相关.由于生态系统往往是多因子的共同作用,这也使得全球变暖对浮游植物群落的影响效应复杂化,区分各因子的净影响份额是目前研究的一个难点;全球变暖引起的风场改变会促进浅水湖泊中营养盐从底泥的释放,同时也会增加水体中悬浮物的浓度而影响水下光场,因此开展气候变化对再悬浮及浮游植物群落结构的影响可能是将来研究的一个切入点.  相似文献
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