首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   6879篇
  免费   1113篇
  国内免费   1178篇
测绘学   247篇
大气科学   618篇
地球物理   847篇
地质学   3253篇
海洋学   1347篇
天文学   12篇
综合类   509篇
自然地理   2337篇
  2024年   41篇
  2023年   123篇
  2022年   350篇
  2021年   330篇
  2020年   312篇
  2019年   445篇
  2018年   328篇
  2017年   315篇
  2016年   339篇
  2015年   297篇
  2014年   407篇
  2013年   414篇
  2012年   440篇
  2011年   399篇
  2010年   371篇
  2009年   403篇
  2008年   372篇
  2007年   419篇
  2006年   426篇
  2005年   344篇
  2004年   331篇
  2003年   282篇
  2002年   281篇
  2001年   284篇
  2000年   194篇
  1999年   163篇
  1998年   162篇
  1997年   122篇
  1996年   114篇
  1995年   73篇
  1994年   63篇
  1993年   56篇
  1992年   45篇
  1991年   29篇
  1990年   19篇
  1989年   20篇
  1988年   11篇
  1987年   8篇
  1986年   6篇
  1985年   9篇
  1984年   12篇
  1983年   6篇
  1982年   4篇
  1980年   1篇
排序方式: 共有9170条查询结果,搜索用时 406 毫秒
1.
Macrophyte community diversity and composition respond to ecosystem conservation and local environmental factors. In this study, we developed a multidimensional diversity framework for macrophyte communities, including the taxonomic and functional alpha and beta diversity. We used the framework to explore the relationships among water level regimes and these diversity parameters in a case study of China's Baiyangdian Lake. Analysis of indicators of hydrologic alteration divided the water level from 1959 to 2019 into four regimes (dry, <6.42 m; low, 6.42–7.23 m; medium, 7.23–8.19 m; high, >8.19 m). Alpha and beta diversity were significantly higher in the medium regime than in the low and high regimes. Redundancy analysis indicated that the maximum water depth significantly affected taxonomic alpha diversity, and total nitrogen (TN) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration significantly affected functional alpha diversity, respectively. Mantel tests showed that TN, Secchi depth (SD), and water depth in the high water level regime significantly increased the total beta diversity and turnover components. TN was the main factor that increased total taxonomic beta diversity. Water level regime mainly influenced interspecific relationships by changing the TN and COD concentration. The water level should be maintained between the medium and high water level regimes to promote restoration of the macrophyte community and improve ecosystem stability. The biodiversity evaluation framework would provide a deeper insight into the hydrological process management for restoration of aquatic macrophyte communities in shallow lakes.  相似文献   
2.
《Sedimentology》2018,65(6):2055-2087
This study, conducted in the Catalan Coastal Ranges, north‐east Spain, describes the Upper Devonian Kellwasser event in a shallowing‐upward sequence of black shales, siltstones and quartz arenites. This sequence was deposited in a progradational and regressive coastal system where the sedimentary environment evolved from the inner shelf to a lagoonal pond located landward of the shoreline. Three anomalous succeeding steps have been identified by geochemical analysis. The first one, detected on the inner shelf, was characterized by oxygen depletion and high organic productivity. The second, detected in the nearshore, was caused by hydrothermal activity occurring under normal oxic conditions. The third and most intense step was identified in the muds of the lagoonal pond and has been linked to strong anoxic conditions, elevated clastic input derived from changes in the weathering regime at the source area and moderate hydrothermal activity. The Kellwasser event is thus defined in the study area as stepwise and multi‐causal. This is the first time that the Kellwasser event has been identified in a sedimentary environment behind the shoreline. It is also the first time that it has been reported in the Catalan Coastal Ranges.  相似文献   
3.
莱州湾南岸潍河下游地区咸水入侵灾害成因及特征   总被引:8,自引:1,他引:7  
通过对莱州湾南岸咸水入侵较严重地潍河下游地区晚更新世以来沉积特征及现代自然环境条件变化的分析,探讨了沉积相对咸水入侵产生及空间范围特征的环境机理。晚更新世以来的三次海平面升降变化造成了潍河下游地区海陆沉积环境交替,形成了巨厚的海陆交互相沉积层。海进时期,大面积的滨海平原被淹没,在近海平原洼地滞留的海水经过蒸发、浓缩变为卤水,成为咸水入侵的物源;海退后陆源碎屑在滨海地区沉积形成了巨厚的古河道砂层。20世纪70年代末期以来,随着对地下淡水的过度开采,淡咸水水头压力差减小.卤水通过古河道砂层快速南侵。通过对潍河下游地区100余个地质钻孔水化学连续监测资料分析,阐明了咸水入侵的特征,有针对性地提出了咸水入侵的防治措施。  相似文献   
4.
根据印度洋西北部鸢乌贼(Sym plectoteuthis oualaniensis)作业渔场的现场调查数据.分析了作业水深、作业时段、摄食等级和月相等因子对手钓上钩率的影响。统计表明.晚上、午夜和凌晨3个不同时段和不同作业水深对手钓上钩率均有显著性影响。3个时段中,其摄食等级呈先低后高再低的现象。午夜和凌展,上钩率的变化趋势与摄食等级的变化趋势呈显著的负相关。在月相的影响下.离朔日三四天之前,手钓产量呈上升趋势;离望日五六天之前。手钓产量呈明显的下降趋势。  相似文献   
5.
地下水资源可持续利用的一个急待解决的重要问题,是对地下水补给和更新能力的评价.利用环境同位素技术研究地下水的补给和可更新性是当前较为新颖的方法之一.在西北干旱、半干旱的隐伏岩溶地区,地下水埋藏条件复杂,常规的地质勘探方法所能提供的水文地质信息有限,环境同位素方法在研究地下水的补给及可更新能力方面发挥了优势,可对传统方法进行补充和验证.其结果表明,研究区隐伏岩溶水形成较早,且有大量现代水的混入,平均混入量为54%.说明区内隐伏岩溶水的补给和更新能力较好.环境同位素分析结果还显示,大岔河隐伏岩溶水为一相对独立、半开放的水文地质单元,其补给来源部分为流域内大气降水、地表水的补给,部分为东南部三道沟岩溶地下水的补给;根据环境同位素EPM模型计算,地下水的滞留时间为36 a.地下水储存量为1.314×108 m3; 储水系数为7.29×10-3.这一结果与传统勘探方法的计算结果基本吻合,说明环境同位素方法的实用性.  相似文献   
6.
This paper describes the application of environmental isotopes and injected tracer techniques in estimating the contribution of storms as well as annual precipitation to groundwater recharge and its circulation, in the semi‐arid region of Bagepalli, Kolar district, Karnataka. Environmental isotopes 2H, 18O and 3H were used to study the effect of storms on the hydrological system, and an isotope balance was used to compute the contribution of a storm component to the groundwater. Some of the groundwater samples collected during the post‐storm periods were highly depleted in stable isotope content with higher deuterium excess relative to groundwater from the pre‐storm periods. Significant variation in deuterium excess in groundwater from the same area, collected in two different periods, indicates the different origin of air masses. The estimated recharge component of a storm event of 600 mm to the groundwater was found to be in the range of 117–165 mm. There was no significant variation in environmental tritium content of post‐storm and pre‐storm groundwater, indicating the fast circulation of groundwater in the system. After completion of the environmental isotope work, an injected radiotracer 3H technique was applied to estimate the direct recharge of total precipitation to the groundwater. The estimated recharge to the groundwater is 33 mm of the 550 mm annual precipitation during 1992. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
7.
Urban heat environmental quality(UHEQ) is affected by the interacting of weather condition and underlying surface framework of urban area .In the last two decades,many researchers from domestic and overseas have studied many problems at the aspect of urban heat environment such as urban heat islands ,urban air temperature and their rela-tion with urban land cover,city population,air pollution etc,In the recent years,Hangzhou,acting as a center city of Zhejiang Province in China,its urbanization quantum and quantity have both changed greatly,in particular ,representing as business affairs building,resident real property and all kins of specialty market having arisen in built-up zone,Based on Landsat TM images data in 1991 and 1999,urban underlying surface temperature value and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) were calculated using image interpreting and supervised classification technique by remote sensing software ERDAS image 8.4,The relation model between urban underlying surface temperature (UUST )and urban air temperature was setup according to the certain correlation patten .Reference to the relational standard of assessing human comfort and other meteorology data of Hangzhou City in summer,the spatial distribution characteristic and the spatial varia-tion degree of human comfort of heat environmental quality are estimated and mapped on a middle scale,that is ,in six districts of Hangzhou City .Then the paper reveals the main characteristic of spatial variation from 1991 to 1999.Lastly,the change mechanism is analyzed and discussed from the viewpoint of city planning,construction and environmental protec-tion.  相似文献   
8.
欧盟RoHS指令与中国的对策   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
对欧盟RoHS指令的主要内容进行了简述,初步介绍了与RoHS指令相似或者相关的各国的环保指令,讨论了RoHS指令等对我国电子电气行业带来的巨大冲击。简要总结我国电子信息产业部、国家质量监督检验检疫总局、商务部等各管理及技术部门为了应对RoHS指令和提高我国电子电气行业竞争力而作出的相应对策。  相似文献   
9.
徐州土壤多环芳烃的环境地球化学迁移特征   总被引:1,自引:1,他引:0  
选择江苏徐州黄棕壤进行不同深度层位多环芳烃含量的定量分析,研究并探讨了多环芳烃在土壤深度剖面中的地球化学迁移特征。研究结果显示,多环芳烃在徐州土壤剖面中主要集中在地表0~20 cm内。其中低环多环芳烃化合物的迁移能力较强,4~6环等高环化合物相对较难迁移,主要残留于地表生态系统环境中。  相似文献   
10.
鄂尔多斯盆地东缘煤储层微孔隙结构特征及其影响因素   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
张松航  汤达祯  唐书恒  许浩  林文姬  张彪 《地质学报》2008,82(10):1341-1349
在对鄂尔多斯盆地东缘58套采自不同层位不同地域煤样显微组分测试和低温液氮比表面测试的基础上,从比表面积、吸附曲线形态、阶段孔径结构分布、阶段孔径比表面积贡献、FHH分形特征几个方面刻画了煤储层微孔隙特征。同时,就“孔比表面积—孔隙结构—煤物质组成与化学结构”这一因果链,分析了鄂尔多斯盆地东缘煤微孔隙特征与煤变质程度、煤岩显微组分以及矿物组分与类型的关系。研究发现,Ro在0.60%~1.91%范围内,比表面积及FHH分形分维数先明显降低,Ro至1.3%后又略有回升,同时吸附回线“滞后环”及分形尺度对应的压力范围明显减小,孔径3~4 nm“墨水瓶”型孔明显减少乃至消失,并成为比表面积减少的主要贡献者。在相似煤级条件下,惰质组分较镜质组分有更多的比表面积贡献。粘土矿物组分含量>10%时,孔径3~4 nm“墨水瓶”型孔对比表面贡献明显,且随煤级增高影响作用相对加大。  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号