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1.
三峡工程运用后坝下游河道泥沙输移变化规律   总被引:2,自引:2,他引:0  
郭小虎  渠庚  刘亚  刘心愿 《湖泊科学》2020,32(2):564-572
三峡工程蓄水后"清水"下泄,坝下游河段将会长期处于严重不饱和状态,水流含沙量沿程恢复将会引起坝下游长距离冲刷,本文根据三峡工程蓄水前、后的实测资料分析了坝下游河道泥沙输移变化规律,探索不同粒径组沙量沿程恢复对河床冲刷的影响,得到以下结论:在蓄水初期d≤0.031 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给与江湖入汇共同的影响,随着水库下泄该粒径组沙量递减,使得各站该粒径组年均输沙量均远小于蓄水前的水平,沙量恢复仍主要受河床补给与江湖入汇的影响,这是造成坝下游河道发生长距离冲刷的主要原因之一;在蓄水初期0.031 mmd≤0.125 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给的影响,但江湖入汇的影响较大,随着河床补给量逐渐减少,各站该粒径组年均输沙量均小于蓄水前的水平,沙量恢复仍主要受河床补给的影响,江湖入汇的影响逐渐减小,这也是坝下游河道发生长距离冲刷的主要原因之一; d0.125 mm沙量恢复主要受河床补给的影响,蓄水初期该粒径组沙量在宜昌监利河段沿程恢复速率较快,且在监利站达到蓄水前的水平,随着时间推移,在宜昌监利河段沿程恢复且速率仍较快,在监利站达到最大值,其数值逐渐小于蓄水前的水平,这是造成坝下游河道冲刷重点集中在宜昌监利河段的主要原因.  相似文献   
2.
The grain size distribution (GSD) of sediment in comparison with the original soil GSD is discussed under different slopes (5, 15 and 25%) and rainfall intensities (30, 60 and 90 mm h–1 with respective duration of 30, 15 and 10 min) but identical runoff (15 mm). The sediment quantification was carried out by raindrop-induced flow transport (RIFT) or/and transport by flow (FT) using a rainfall simulator and a 6 × 1 m2 erosion plot and a silt loam. The results show a high degree of enrichment for size classes of 2–4 and 4–8 μm and a high degree of depletion for size classes of >63 μm under different slopes and rainfall intensities. In addition, the results show that the experimental enrichment ratio (ER) for particle size <16 μm under different slopes and rainfall intensities was greater than 1, while the ER for particle size >32 μm was less than 1.  相似文献   
3.
运用粒度参数分析、黏土矿物含量分析、Flemming三角图示法和Gao-Collins二维的"粒度趋势分析"等方法,对采自莱州湾海域的表层沉积物样品和黏土矿物样品进行分析,了解了该研究区域的沉积环境及沉积物的运移趋势。研究区由岸向海沉积物类型大致依次为砂-粉砂质砂-砂质粉砂-粉砂-黏土质粉砂,并且研究区表层沉积物在近岸区域呈现较为明显的平行岸线的条带状特征;同时沉积物的平均粒径、分选系数、偏态、峰态等粒度参数也呈现出良好的正相关性或负相关性;研究区黏土矿物为伊利石、蒙脱石、绿泥石、高岭石,除伊利石分布大致为黄河三角洲近岸低,向研究区东北方向逐渐升高外,其余的黏土矿物都表现出了近岸高,远海低的分布特征,且主要物源为黄河物质输入。Flemming三角图研究区所有采样点大部分分布在Ⅱ区,少部分分布在Ⅲ区,说明研究区整体水动力较强;采样点在A—E区均有分布,但在C、D两区分布最多,说明研究区沉积物粒径较集中。研究区表层沉积物整体呈由岸向海输运的趋势,具体来看,黄河沉积物入海后向北、向东、向南运移,研究区内沉积物的来源是黄河输沙以及周围入海的小河流的输沙和沿岸冲刷的物质。  相似文献   
4.
大亚湾核电站温排水对其邻近海域的生态效应日益突出。文章结合现场调查和室内模拟实验, 研究了夏季和冬季大亚湾海域沿温排水温度梯度的浮游植物粒径结构特征, 探讨了营养物质的输入可能对其产生的影响, 以期深入了解浮游植物对升温以及富营养化作用的响应机制。结果表明, 适温条件对浮游植物的生长起促进作用, 在极高温(36.0℃)环境下则产生抑制作用, 在排水口邻近高温区夏季和冬季浮游植物叶绿素a含量均呈较低分布。交互模拟实验发现不同季节浮游植物对于温度和营养盐的敏感性存在差异, 夏季营养盐对浮游植物生长的促进作用比温度明显, 冬季温度的作用则更为显著。现场观测和模拟实验均显示, 水温升高和营养盐加富均可造成小粒级浮游植物 (<20μm)所占比例的增加; 因此, 升温和营养盐输入均可能导致浮游植物粒级结构呈小型化趋势, 并对食物网能量流动与物质循环、生态系统的结构稳定性以及海洋渔业的产量造成潜在影响。  相似文献   
5.
颗粒物粒径分布(Particle Size Distribution, PSD)代表了颗粒物浓度与颗粒物粒径之间的关系, 影响着海洋生态环境和水体光学特性等。文章基于2016年夏季航次调查的生物光学剖面数据, 研究了南海海盆海域PSD的分布特征。研究发现, 幂律函数可以较好地拟合南海海盆区域的PSD, 对数空间中的实测的PSD与模拟的PSD平均决定系数高达0.95。PSD斜率(ξ)的分布范围为[1.27, 7.65], 均值为3.93±0.56。南海海盆区域表层水体的ξ均值与全球大洋表层水体的ξ均值相近, 但高于海湾等表层水体的ξ均值。ξ能较好地表征颗粒物平均粒径DA的大小, 两者存在明显负相关关系, 即ξ值越高, DA越小; 反之, DA越大。通过分析T1断面的生物光学剖面数据及总体平均的PSD剖面数据, 发现PSD剖面分布特征如下: 1)表层水体的ξ值相对较高, 且DA值相对较低, 推测可能是由于微微型藻类为主导颗粒物所致; 2) ξ值极小值层出现在次表层叶绿素浓度极大值层(Subsurface Chlorophyll Maximum Layer, SCML)中, 并伴随DA极大值层的出现, 其原因可能是SCML中的大粒径浮游植物占比显著增加; 3)弱光层中的ξ值较SCML中的高, 但略低于表层的ξ值, 而DA则位于表层与SCML的DA之间, 这可能与浮游植物及其碎屑的絮凝、分解、沉降等过程相关。PSD特征影响着海水的固有光学特性, 分析发现: 由于SCML中的叶绿素浓度增加, 颗粒物散射系数(bp(532))和颗粒物后向散射系数(bbp(532))也相应呈现显著增加的趋势。弱光层中的平均bp(532)与平均bbp(532)最小。ξ与颗粒物衰减光谱斜率之间呈高分散性, Boss 等(2001b)的模型适合用于粗略估算区域性的ξ分布范围及均值。  相似文献   
6.
基于大连长兴岛的一套完整的晚更新世黄土剖面(贺家圈剖面),应用端元分析模型,对所采集的21个沉积样品的粒度数据进行分析。结论认为:从贺家圈剖面沉积物粒级组分中可以分离出3个代表不同沉积动力以及改造作用的沉积端元组分。并结合地球化学元素的对比分析,初步认为:端元1可能代表了剖面原始的粒度沉积组分,主峰为近源沉积,次峰为远源沉积;端元2可能代表了沉积物在沉积之后受到的淋溶作用和残积作用;端元3可能代表的是沉积物沉积之后受到的化学风化作用。  相似文献   
7.
To analyze the grain size and depositional environment of the foreshore sediments, a study was undertaken on wave refraction along the wide sandy beaches of central Tamil Nadu coast. The nearshore waves approach the coast at 45° during the northeast(NE) monsoon, at 135° during the southwest(SW) monsoon and at 90° during the non-monsoon or fair-weather period with a predominant wave period of 8 and 10 s. A computer based wave refraction pattern is constructed to evaluate the trajectories of shoreward propagating waves along the coast in different seasons. The convergent wave rays during NE monsoon, leads to high energy wave condition which conveys a continuous erosion at foreshore region while divergent and inept condition of rays during the SW and non-monsoon, leads to moderate and less energy waves that clearly demarcates the rebuilt beach sediments through littoral sediment transport. The role of wave refraction in foreshore deposits was understood by grain size and depositional environment analysis. The presence of fine grains with the mixed population, during the NE monsoon reveals that the high energy wave condition and sediments were derived from beach and river environment. Conversely, the presence of medium grains with uniform population, during SW and non-monsoon attested less turbulence and sediments were derived from prolong propagation of onshore-offshore wave process.These upshots are apparently correlated with the in situ beach condition. On the whole, from this study it is understood that beaches underwent erosion during the NE monsoon and restored its original condition during the SW and non-monsoon seasons that exposed the stability of the beach and nearshore condition.  相似文献   
8.
The size distributions of sediment delivered from hillslopes to rivers profoundly influence river morphodynamics, including river incision into bedrock and the quality of aquatic habitat. Yet little is known about the factors that influence size distributions of sediment produced by weathering on hillslopes. We present results of a field study of hillslope sediment size distributions at Inyo Creek, a steep catchment in granitic bedrock of the Sierra Nevada, USA. Particles sampled near the base of hillslopes, adjacent to the trunk stream, show a pronounced decrease in sediment size with decreasing sample elevation across all but the coarsest size classes. Measured size distributions become increasingly bimodal with decreasing elevation, exhibiting a coarse, bouldery mode that does not change with elevation and a more abundant finer mode that shifts from cobbles at the highest elevations to gravel at mid elevations and finally to sand at low elevations. We interpret these altitudinal variations in hillslope sediment size to reflect changes in physical, chemical, and biological weathering that can be explained by the catchment's strong altitudinal gradients in topography, climate, and vegetation cover. Because elevation and travel distance to the outlet are closely coupled, the altitudinal trends in sediment size produce a systematic decrease in sediment size along hillslopes parallel to the trunk stream. We refer to this phenomenon as ‘downvalley fining.’ Forward modeling shows that downvalley fining of hillslope sediment is necessary for downstream fining of the long-term average flux of coarse sediment in mountain landscapes where hillslopes and channels are coupled and long-term net sediment deposition is negligible. The model also shows that abrasion plays a secondary role in downstream fining of coarse sediment flux but plays a dominant role in partitioning between the bedload and suspended load. Patterns observed at Inyo Creek may be widespread in mountain ranges around the world. © 2020 The Authors. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.  相似文献   
9.
Researchers have associated channel-forming flows with reach-average shear stresses close to the entrainment threshold for the surface D50 . We conducted experiments using a model of a generic steep, gravel–cobble stream to test this association. Our results suggest that channel-forming flows fully mobilize the D50 , and produce shear stresses close to the entrainment threshold for the largest grains in the bed. The channel dimensions were set by flows capable of mobilizing between 85% and 90% of the bed surface, which produced a brief period of lateral instability lasting about 1 h, followed by a prolonged period of relative stability during which modest adjustments occurred, but during which the reach-average hydraulics remained about the same. The adjustments during the unstable phase of the experiments are characterized by rapid bank erosion, extensive deposits on the channel bed and a restructuring of the major morphologic elements of the stream. The adjustments during the stable phase of the experiments involved barform migration and bed surface coarsening but did not appreciably modify the physical template established by the end of the unstable phase. The behaviour we observed is not consistent with the concept of a dynamic equilibrium associated with a formative flow that is just capable of entraining the bed surface D50 . Instead, it suggests that rapid adjustments occur once a stability threshold is exceeded, which creates a template that constrains channel activity until another event drives the system across the stability threshold, and re-sets the template. While we believe that it is probably too simplistic to associate a channel-forming discharge with the entrainment threshold for a single grain size, our results suggest that the D95 is a more logical choice than the D50 © 2020 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.  相似文献   
10.
薛峤娜  胡博  谭丽菊  王江涛 《海洋学报》2018,40(10):190-199
本文对采自渤海、黄海和东海3个典型海域的沉积物进行了尿素吸附/解吸的实验室模拟研究,用Freundlich吸附模型和Henry吸附模型分析了不同沉积物对尿素吸附的热力学特性,并研究了温度、沉积物粒径、有机质含量等因素对尿素在沉积物表面吸附的影响。结果表明,沉积物对尿素的吸附/解吸过程总体呈现3个阶段:快速吸附阶段(0~5 h)—慢速吸附阶段(5~12 h)—平衡阶段(12 h之后)。当水体中的尿素浓度较低时,沉积物解吸释放尿素,随着上覆水中尿素浓度逐渐增加,沉积物对上覆水中的尿素产生吸附行为,各海区沉积物对尿素的吸附能力由强至弱依次为渤海、东海、黄海,这可能与沉积物的类型有关。Freundlich方程和Henry方程均可模拟沉积物对尿素的吸附,温度、粒径以及沉积物中有机质含量等因素均对尿素在沉积物上的吸附产生影响,随着温度升高,尿素在沉积物上的吸附量变小,沉积物粒径越小,有机质含量越高,吸附尿素的能力越强,因此,揭示尿素在沉积物表面的环境行为时,必须考虑以上因素的影响。  相似文献   
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